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Communicating
Cerio, Laurete, Mendoza, Tocaldo

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Objectives

Functions and Forms


01 Demonstrate the use of different functions and forms of
communication

Techniques
02 Enumerate the techniques to improve communication process

Barriers
03 Identify the barriers to communication

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What is Communication?

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Communication
• The means by which information is made productive.
• The word stems from the Latin communicare which means to
impart or to make common

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“the transfer of information from the
sender to the receiver, with the
information being understood by the
receiver.”

Weihrich and Koontz


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Simple model of communication

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Why Communicate?

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Importance of Communication to the
Manager Mintzberg’s
estimates
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78 percent of their time just
in oral communication (59
percent in scheduled and
10 percent in unscheduled
Scheduled 3 meetings, 6 percent on the
telephone, and 3 percent
Unscheduled 6 “managing by walking
59 around” on tours); the
Telephone remaining 22 percent of
10 their time is deskwork,
Walking Around which consists in large
measure of reading the
Deskwork
communications of others
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and preparing written
communications.
Importance of Communication to Engineers

• Engineering may be considered as a


transformation process in which information is
received, transformed in some way, and the
results transmitted to others.
• Unless the information output is properly
communicated, the meticulous engineering
performed may be of little utility.

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Importance of Communication to Engineers
Information Input
Methodologies Statement of work

Directives

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Importance of Communication to Engineers

Engineering transformation
-involves a complex process of analysis and
synthesis that requires substantial resource, time
and skill, but which is largely hidden to the
outsider.

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Importance of Communication to Engineers
Information Output

Physical Models Technical


Reports
Specifications
Oral briefings
Drawings

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Speakers/Writers or
* Listeners/Audience

Speakers/Writers
The person who delivers the information.

Listeners/Audience
a broad term used to describe the person(s) you are
communicating with.
The receiver of the communication.

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Generalized communication factors as a
function of business maturity
Inventors 01
Entrepreneurs
1 • little business knowledge, • Variable levels of business 2
have very few resources, knowledge, but limited
are in a vulnerable resources
position and need help
02
• Adaptive and willing to
• Have idealistic approaches change
that exceed reasonable 03
practice Medium/large 4
3 Small companies 04 companies
• People need to adapt to
• In a small company people companywide systems to be
trade roles freely and effective. Procedures and
procedures tend to be roles can be very narrowly
informal defined.
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* Communications Process Model

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Forms of Communication

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3 Main Forms of Communication

(1) Verbal Communication


(2) Written Communication
(3) Nonverbal Communication
Forms of Communication
1.) Verbal Communication = the sharing/exchange of information between
individuals by using speech.
Forms of Communication
2.) Written Communication = any type of message using written words.

Text Messages
Emails
Notices
Memos
Letters
Proposals
Records
Reports

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Forms of Communication
3.) Nonverbal Communication = aspects of speech aside from words that
convey certain meanings.
According to Albert Mehrabian:
Verbal
(Words used)
Verbal
7%
Facial Vocal
55% 38%
Facial
(Expression, Eye Contact) Vocal
(Pitch, Stress, Tone, Length
and Frequency of pauses)

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Forms of Communication
Body Language (Posture, Gestures and Body Movement)

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Other Forms of Communication
Selling = formal business between two professionals looking for a
beneficial outcome. Composed of an initial assessment,
service/goods offering, value determining and agreement.

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Other Forms of Communication
Praise and Criticism = affirmation or recognition of your
contributions to the company / a more impartial source of self-
assessment.

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Other Forms of Communication
Saying yes, maybe, or no = expressing agreement, doubt or
disagreement.

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Other Forms of Communication
Answering questions = providing relevant answers to the
questions given.

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Other Forms of
Communication
Meetings = a time for
shared communications
and decisions in a group.
It must have a clearly
stated purpose which is
the basis for an agenda.

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Characteristics of Common
* Communication Methods

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Techniques for Communication

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Listening

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“Good communication
centers around highly
developed individual
awareness and
differentiation. A good
communicator is aware of
both internal processes in
themselves, and external
processes in others.”
Presentations

• Choose your main point, the kind of


presentation, and ways to involve the
audience.
• An oral presentation needs to be simpler than
a written message to the same audience.

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Presentations

In a monologue presentation, the speaker speaks


without interruption; questions are held until the
end of the presentation, where the speaker
functions as an expert. The speaker plans the
presentation in advance and delivers it without
deviation.

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Presentation

In a guided discussion, the speaker presents the


questions or issues that both speaker and audience
have agreed on in advance. Rather than functioning
as an expert with all the answers, the speaker serves
as a facilitator to help the audience tap its own
knowledge.

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Presentation

A sales presentation is a conversation, even if the


salesperson stands up in front of a group and uses
charts and overheads. The sales representative uses
questions to determine the buyer’s needs, probe
objections, and gain temporary and then final
commitment to the purchase.

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Presentation

Limit the amount of information on a visual.


Use animation schemes such as fades, zooms, and
wipes to control the information displayed in a way
that supports the main points.

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Presentation

When you give presentations in your own office,


check the equipment in advance.
When you make a presentation in another location
or for another organization, arrive early so that
you’ll have time not only to check the equipment
but also to track down a service worker if the
equipment isn’t working.
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Even the great Apple CEO Steve Jobs
encountered technology woes
during presentations. Halfway into
his presentation during the June
2010 launch of the iPhone 4, Jobs
lost his Internet connection and the
demo came to a screeching halt.

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How can I create a strong opener and
close?

The beginning and end of a presentation, like the


beginning and end of a written document, are
positions of emphasis. Use those key positions to
interest the audience and emphasize your key point.
Brainstorm several possible openers for each of the
three modes: startling statement, narration or
question, or quotation.
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Startling Statement

Twelve of our customers have canceled orders in the


past month.
We have not met our targeted production capacity.

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Question

Are you going to have enough money to do the


things you want to when you retire?
Do you want to become an instant millionaire?

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Quotation

Your opener should interest the audience and


establish a rapport. Some speakers use humor to
achieve those goals.
However, an inappropriate joke can turn the
audience against the speaker.

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Closing a presentation

For your close, you could do one or more of the


following:
Restate your main point.
Refer to your opener to create a frame for your
presentation.

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Closing a presentation

For your close, you could do one or more of the


following:
End with a vivid, positive picture.
Tell the audience exactly what to do to solve the
problem you’ve discussed.

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How should I organize a presentation?

Chronological. Start with the past, move to the


present, and end by looking ahead.
Problem-Causes-Solution. Explain the symptoms of
the problem, identify its causes, and suggest a
solution. This pattern works best when the audience
will find your solution easy to accept.

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How should I organize a presentation?

Excluding alternatives. Explain the symptoms of the


problem. Explain the obvious solutions first and
show why they won’t solve the problem. End by
discussing a solution that will work. This pattern
may be necessary when the audience will find the
solution hard to accept.

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How should I organize a presentation?

Pro-Con. Give all the reasons in favor of something,


and then those against it. This pattern works well
when you want the audience to see the weaknesses
in its position.
1-2-3. Discuss three aspects of a topic. This pattern
works well to organize short informative briefings.
“Today I’ll review our sales, production, and profits
for the last quarter.”
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What are the keys to delivering
an effective presentation?

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Transforming Fear

Feeling nervous is normal.


“You don’t need to get rid of your butterflies. All you
need to do is make them fly in formation. “
Be prepared. Analyze your audience, organize your
thoughts, prepare visual aids, practice your opener
and close, check out the arrangements.

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Transforming Fear

Use only the amount of caffeine you normally use.


More or less may make you jumpy.
Avoid alcoholic beverages.
Take several deep breaths from your diaphragm.

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Transforming Fear

Pause and look at the audience before you begin


speaking.
Concentrate on communicating well.
Use body energy in strong gestures and movement.

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Using Eye Contact

In one study, speakers who looked more at the audience


during a seven-minute informative speech were judged
to be better informed, more experienced, more honest,
and friendlier than speakers who delivered the same
information with less eye contact. Concentrate on
communicating well.
Use body energy in strong gestures and movement.

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Using Eye Contact

The point in making eye contact is to establish one-


on-one contact with the individual members of your
audience. People want to feel that you’re talking to
them. Looking directly at individuals also enables
you to be more conscious of feedback from the
audience so you can modify your approach if
necessary.

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Using Notes and Visuals

The more you know about the subject, the greater


the temptation to add relevant points that occur to
you as you talk. Adding an occasional point can help
to clarify something for the audience, but adding
too many points will destroy your outline and put
you over the time limit.
Look at your notes infrequently.

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Emails

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Be concise, simple, and direct.

“If I had more time, I’d write a shorter letter.” – Pascal


A grammatically and logically correct
three-word message is useless if the recipient can’t
figure out what the hell it means.
What details would be needed? Omitted? What concepts
can you assume he knows? What metaphors can you
use?

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Prioritize

Is it necessary to send that email?


How many of the things you’re mentioning are
important? If you have 10 issues to discuss, break
them into two groups and focus on the most
important group.

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Don’t assume people read anything (especially if it’s
important to you).
The more important the issue is to you, the more
energy you have to expend to make sure people are
actively doing something about it.

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The telephone is your friend.
Interactive communication is always better at
resolving confusion and conflict than email. A 30-
second phone conversation is often equivalent to a
long series of time-consuming email exchanges.

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Listening

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What do good listeners do?

Pay Attention
Good listening requires energy. You have to resist
distractions and tune out noise, whether the rumble
of a truck going by or your own worry about
whether your parking meter is expiring.
Some listening errors happen because the hearer
wasn’t paying enough attention to a key point.
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Focus on the Other Speaker(s) in a
Generous Way

Some people listen looking for flaws. They may


focus on factors other than the substance of the
talk: “There’s a typo in that slide.”
Good listeners, in contrast, are more generous. They
realize that people who are not polished speakers
may nevertheless have something to say.

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Avoid Making Assumptions

Don’t ignore instructions you think are unnecessary.


Consider the other person’s background and
experiences.

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Listen for Feelings as Well as Facts

Consciously listen for feelings.


Pay attention to tone of voice, facial expression, and
body language.
Don’t assume that silence means consent. Invite the
other person to speak.

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Barriers to Communication
Dark, no photo… Wowwww!

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Learning Objectives

Understand different ways that the communication


process can be sidetracked.

Understand the problem of poor listening and how to


promote active listening.

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Barriers to Effective
Communication

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1. Filtering
The deliberate manipulation of information to
make it appear more favourable to the receiever.

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2. Emotional disconnects

happen when the Sender or the Receiver is


upset, whether about the subject at hand or
about some unrelated incident that may have
happened earlier.

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3. Language

is a system that consists of the


development, acquisition, maintenance and
use of complex systems of communication.

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4. Semantics
the study of meaning in communication.

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Overcoming Barriers to Efective
Communication

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*use feedback
*simply language
*listen actively
*constrain emotions

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As living beings, we need to
express and understand the
expressions of others. Like it or
not, human society thrives on
communication.
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THANK YOU !

Made with by
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Brief History of Managerial


Communication

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Era Characteristics Communication
Ancient and Medieval Initial efforts to organize Written records
commerce
Scientific Management Clearly defined job duties, time One-way communication, heavy
specifications for completing reliance on written job
the task, and adherence to instruction and rules.
rules.
Administrative management Emphasis on authority and Similar to scientific
discipline management: one-way
communication
Human relations Relationship among managers Listening and two-way
and workers is important communication
Behavioral Complexity of organizational Difficult to apply theories
behavior and communication
recognized
Empowerment Distribution of power to Two-way communication;
everyone in the organization participation of employees
Contingency Interdependence of jobs, Communication strategy must
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Levels of Managerial Communication
1. Intrapersonal
2. Interpersonal
3. Group
4. Organizational
5. Intercultural

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Guide Questions in understanding the
audiences
• What do the listeners say they want? • How will your work fit into the listener’s
systems?
• What do the listeners really want?
• What is the budget?
• Why can’t the listener do the task?
• What is the schedule?
• Why is the listener interested in you?
• What has happened before in this, or a
• How do the listeners expect to use your similar, project?
work?
• What existing resources or previous
• Which of the following methods of work can be used?
operation are preferred?
• Firefighting versus working ahead

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Effective Tools in presenting knowledge

Analogies Concrete
Taking a difficult concept Using exact descriptions
and describing it with an
analogy can help
understanding and recall

Examples Active voice


An example of techniques Active voice is better for
and application can be listeners and readers
useful for understanding

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Effective Tools in presenting knowledge

Action Visualize
When possible describe Pictures, hand gestures, casual
sketches can help commmunicate with
what actions are required a concrete and visual audience
to lead to a result

Entertain Abstract
Limited diversions, such as Some listeners prefer abstract
concepts over details.
jokes, can increase
audience interest and
empathy

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Effective Tools in presenting knowledge

Engage
Develop a way for the audience to
actively apply the knowledge you have
presented

Echo
As a listener it is a good idea to repeat
what the presenter has said. Likewise,
you should expect your audience to
echo your words.

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Critical listening and reading as an audience

REPEAT THE CRITICAL ASK IF YOU’VE HEARD


INFORMATION EVERYTHING CORRECTLY
1 3 5

2 4
ABSORB, PROCESS, ASSESS RESTATE WHAT WAS WAIT FOR THE
VERIFY SAID RESPONSE

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Factors affecting
communication
contingencies

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1.) DIVERSITY

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a.) Gender Diversity
b.) Cultural Diversity
c.) Age Diversity
d.) Education Diversity

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Gender Diversity

- different perception for men and


women

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Cultural Diversity

- the shapes our identity and


influences our behavior

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Age Diversity

-the different generation


of people

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Education Diversity

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2.) COMPETITION AND THE DRIVE
FOR QUALITY
- The effort of two or more parties
acting independently

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3.) Ethics
- moral principles that govern a
person's behavior or the conducting
of an activity.

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Planning,
Conducting and
Recording Meetings

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Meetings can be
highly engaging and
productive—or
they can make
people wish they
were somewhere
else.
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• Employees globally are in meetings 5.6 hours a week.
• However, 69% of those employees think meetings are
a waste of time.
• Effectively planning and conducting meetings requires
more than simply scheduling them and showing up.

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Are there more efficient ways to communicate? Would
an e-mail message suffice?

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Types of Meetings
• Regular staff meetings are held to announce new
policies and products, answer questions, share ideas,
and motivate workers.
• Team meetings bring together team members to
brainstorm, solve problems, and create documents.
Meetings may be called on short notice when a
problem arises that needs input from several people

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Types of Meetings
• One-on-one meetings are not always thought of as
meetings, but they are perhaps the most common
meetings of all.
• One person walks into another’s office or cubicle to
ask a question.
• A supervisor stops by a line worker to see how things
are going and to “manage by walking around.”

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What planning should precede a meeting?
Meetings can have at least six purposes:

• To share information. • To make decisions.


• To brainstorm ideas • To create a document.
• To evaluate ideas. • To motivate members.

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If possible, give participants a chance to comment
and revise the agenda in response to those
comments. A good agenda indicates

• The time and place of the meeting.


• Whether each item is presented for information, for
discussion, or for a decision.
• Who is sponsoring or introducing each item.
• How much time is allotted for each item.
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• If you’re planning a long meeting, for example, a
training session or a conference, recognize that
networking is part of the value of the meeting.
• Allow short breaks at least every two hours and
generous breaks twice a day so participants can talk
informally to each other.
• If they will have different interests or different levels
of knowledge, plan concurrent sessions on different
topics or for people with different levels of expertise.

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What decision-making strategies work well in
meetings?
• Voting is quick but may leave people in the minority
unhappy with and uncommitted to the majority’s
plan. Coming to consensus takes time but results in
speedier implementation of ideas.

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The standard agenda
1. Understand what the group has to deliver, in what
form, by what due date. Identify available
resources.
2. Identify the problem. What exactly is wrong? What
question(s) is the group trying to answer?
3. Gather information, share it with all group
members, and examine it critically.

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5. Generate alternate solutions. Brainstorm and record
ideas for the next step.
6. Measure the alternatives against the criteria.
7. Choose the best solution.

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Dot planning offers a way for large groups to choose
priorities quickly.
1. First, the group brainstorms ideas, recording each
on pages that are put on the wall.
2. Then each individual gets two strips of three to five
adhesive dots in different colors. One color
represents high priority, the other lower priority.
3. People then walk up to the pages and affix dots by
the points they care most about.
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Roger Mostvick and Robert Nelson found that the most
influential people in a meeting are those who say
something in the first five minutes of the meeting (even
just to ask a question), who talk most often, and who
talk at greatest length.

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When people do not take you seriously
• Show that you’ve done your homework. Laura Sloate, who
is blind, establishes authority by making sure her first
question is highly technical: “In footnote three of the 10K,
you indicate. . . .”
• Link your comment to the comment of a powerful person.
Even if logic suffers a bit, present your comment as an
addition, not a challenge. For example, say, “John is saying
that we should focus on excellence, AND I think we can
become stronger by encouraging diversity.
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When people do not take you seriously
• Find an ally in the organization and agree ahead of
time to acknowledge each other’s contributions to the
meeting, whether you agree or disagree with the
point being made.
• Explicit disagreement signals that the comment is
worth taking seriously: “Duane has pointed out . . .,
but I think that. . . .”

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What should go in meeting minutes?
• Decisions reached.
• Action items, where someone needs to implement or
follow up on something.
• Open issues—issues raised but not resolved.
• Minutes of formal meetings indicate who was present
and absent and the wording of motions and
amendments as well as the vote.

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Virtual Meetings
• While they can be productive, electronic meetings can
lack the informal interactions that create bonds and
give people the chance to work out small issues. Be
aware of limitations of channels, such as losing tone
of voice and body language with e-mail.

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Nonverbal Commuication

“What you do speaks so loudly that I cannot


hear what you say.”

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7

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Speaker's Appearance, posture and expression


Vocal Aspects
Actual Words
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Functions of Non-verbal Behavior
• Nonverbal signals that complement the verbal
message repeat it. Typically, these signals accompany
what is being said.
• Those nonverbal signals that accentcall our attention
to a matter under discussion. A common example is a
person pounding on a desk as she makes an important
point.

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Functions of Non-verbal Behavior
• The nonverbal signals that contradict are less obvious.
These are usually sent unintentionally by the
subconscious to say nonverbally the opposite of what
is being said verbally
• Repeating occurs when we have already sent a
message using one form of communication and wish
to emphasize the point being made. For example, a
demonstration following a verbal description of a
tool’s use is a nonverbal repetition.
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Functions of Non-verbal Behavior
• Regulating occurs during conversations to signal to
our partner to “slow,” “stop,” and even “wait your
turn” and let the other person know when we are
ready to listen or to speak.
• Substituting is a less common nonverbal signal than
the others. When we cannot send a message by
verbal cues, we might choose to use nonverbal ones

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Personal Appearance
• Daniel Hamermesh, a University of Texas economist
who has studied the beauty benefit for twenty years,
determined that above-average-looking men earn 17
percent more than below-average-looking men, and
above-average-looking women earn 12 percent more
than below-average-looking women.

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