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Text types

Hatim and Mason (1990; 1997) Model

• a) Instructional texts focusing on influencing future behaviour on
the part of the text receiver. This text type is subdivided into:
• 1. Instruction with option as in the case of advertising; and
• 2. Instruction without option as in contracts, treaties and so on.

• b) Expository texts where the text producers are engaged in

presenting concepts, states, events, entities, and relations in a non-
evaluative manner. They are subdivided into:
• 1. Descriptive texts “focusing on objects spatially viewed”;
• 2. Narrative texts “focusing on events temporally viewed”; and
• 3. Conceptual texts “focusing on the detached analysis of concepts
• and yielding a number of text forms” (Hatim 2001, 197)
• c) Argumentative texts focusing on the evaluation of
the relations between concepts. This text type is
subdivided into:
• 1. Counter-argumentative texts where a thesis is cited,
then opposed, i.e. stating a viewpoint to be followed
by a counter-claim along with a substantiation
outlining the grounds for the opposition; and
• 2. Through-argumentative texts where a thesis is cited,
then supported or defended, i.e. stating a viewpoint to
be argued through without any explicit reference to
opposition of the viewpoint claimed.
Reiss (1977/1989)
• Texts are classified into three types: informative, expressive and

• Informative
• reference book
• report
• play
• tourist brochure sermon
• electoral speech
• advertisement

• poem
• Expressive Operative
Informative texts
• The content is the main focus. These texts do
plain communication of facts, information,
knowledge, opinions etc.
The expressive texts
• The focus is on creative composition and
aesthetics. Both the author (the sender) and
the message are what are foregrounded.

• Creative literature exemplifies these texts.

The operative texts
• The focus is 'appellative' by which what is
meant is that the text appeals to the reader to
act in a certain way, persuading, dissuading,
requesting, and cajoling him. The form of
language is dialogic.
The audio medial text
• The focus is on visual and audio
• The audio medial parts supplement the other
three text types with visual images and music
• Reiss, K. (1981/2000) 'Type, kind and
individuality of text: decision making in
translation', translated by S. Kitron in L. Venuti
(ed) (2000), pp. 160-71.
• Vermeer, H. (1989/2000) 'Skopos and
commission in translational action', in L.
Venuti (ed.) (2000),pp. 221-32.