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Physiological Artizuela, Marisol

Aging O’Dell, Andrea

Romero, Erra Lee

Sese, Kameron Gayla

Pangilinan, Kenneth Christian


Increased skin dryness Decrease in sebaceous gland activity &

tissue fluid
Increased skin pallor Decreased vascularity
Increased skin fragility Reduced thickness and vascularity of the
dermis; loss of subcutaneous fat
Progressive wrinkling and sagging of the skin Loss of skin elasticity, increased dryness, and
decreased subcutaneous fats
Brown “age spots” on exposed body parts Clustering of melanocytes
Decreased perspiration Reduced number ad function of sweat glands
Thinning and graying of scalp, pubic and Loss of pigment cells in the hair bulb
axillary hair

Decreased ability to expel foreign or Decreased elasticity and ciliary activity

accumulated matter
Decreased lung expansion, less effective Weakened thoracic muscles; calcification of
exhalation, reduced vital capacity, and costal cartilage, making the rib cage more
increased residual volume rigid with increased anterior-posterior
diameter; dilation from inelasticity of alveoli.
Difficult, short, heavy, rapid breathing Diminished delivery and diffusion of O2 to
(dyspnea) following intensive exercise the tissue to repay the normal O2 debt
because of exertion or changes in both
respiratory and vascular tissues

Reduced cardiac output and stroke volume, Increased rigidity and thickness of heart
particularly during increased activity or valves (decreased filling/emptying abilities);
unusual demands; result in shortness of
breath on exertion and pooling of blood in
the extremities
Reduced elasticity and increased rigidity Increased calcium deposits in the muscular
arteries layer

Increase in diastolic and systolic blood Inelasticity of systemic arteries and increased
pressure peripheral resistance
Orthostatic hypertension Reduced sensitivity of the blood pressure-
regulating baroreceptors

Decreased speed and power of skeletal muscle Decreased elasticity and ciliary activity
Joint stiffness Drying and loss of elasticity in joint cartilage
Impaired balance Decreased muscle strength, reaction time and
coordination , change in center of gravity
Loss of bone mass Bone reabsorption outpaces bone reformation
Slowed reaction time Diminished conduction speed of nerve fibers and
decreased muscle tone
Loss of height (stature) Fewer cells in cerebral cortex

Loss of visual acuity Degeneration leading to lens opacity (cataracts),

thickening, and inelasticity (presbyopia)
Increased sensitivity to glare and decreased Changes in the ciliary muscles; rigid pupil size
ability to adjust to darkness
Partial or complete glossy white circle around Fatty deposits
the periphery of the cornea
Progressive loss of hearing Changes in the structures and nerve tissues in the inner
ear; thickening of the eardrum

Decreased sense of taste, especially the Decreased number of taste buds in the tongue because of
sweet sensations at the tip of the tongue the tongue atrophy
Decreased sense of smell Atrophy of the olfactory bulb at the base of the brain
Increased threshold for sensations of pain, Possible nerve conduction and neuron changes
touch and temperature

Delayed swallowing time Alterations in the swallowing mechanism
Increased tendency for indigestion Gradual decrease in digestive enzymes, reduction in
gastric acid production, and slower absorption rate
Increased tendency for constipation Decreased muscle tone of the intestines; decreased
peristalsis; decreased free body fluid

Decreased immune response; lowered resistance Less responsive T cells to antigens; B cells produce
to infections fewer antibodies
Poor response to immunization
Decreased stress response
Delayed swallowing time Alterations in the swallowing mechanism
Reduced filtering ability of the kidney and impaired Decreased number of functioning nephrons
renal function
Less effective concentration of urine Decreased tubular function
Urinary urgency and frequency Enlarged prostate gland in men; weakened muscles
supporting the bladder

Prostate enlargement in men Possible endocrine changes

Reduction in secretions in women Diminished secretion of female hormones
Decreased firmness of erection Changes in blood supply
Decreased vaginal lubrication Loss of estrogen effects
Common Biological Theories of Aging
 Wear-and-tear theory  Endocrine theory
– Proposes that humans, like automobiles, – Proposes that events occurring in the
have vital parts that run down with time, hypothalamus and pituitary are responsible
leading to aging and death. for changes in hormone production and
– Proposes that the faster an organism lives, response that result in the organism’s
the quicker it dies. decline.
– Proposes that cells wear out through  Free-radical theory
exposure to internal and external Stressors, – Proposes that unstable free radicals (group
including trauma, chemicals and buildup of of atoms) result from the oxidation of
natural wastes. organic materials, such as carbohydrates
and proteins. These radicals caused
biochemical changes in the cells, and the
cells cannot regenerate themselves.
Common Biological Theories of Aging
 Genetic Theory linkages, between proteins. These bonds
– proposes that the organism is genetically cause loss of elasticity, stiffness, and
programmed for a predetermined number eventual loss of function.
of cell divisions, after which the  Immunologic theory
cells/organisms dies. – Proposes that the immune system becomes
 Cross-linking theory less effective with age, resulting in reduced
– Proposes that the irreversible aging of resistance to infectious disease and viruses.
proteins such as collagen is responsible for – Proposes that the decrease in immune
the ultimate failure of tissues and organs. function may result in subimmune
– Proposes that as cells age, chemical responses, causing the body to produce
reactions create strong bonds, or cross- antibodies that attack itself.