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hydl

© All Rights Reserved

- Fluid Mechanics Solutions
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Inlet gate

Air inlet

Surge shaft

Penstock

Tunnel

Sand trap

Trash rack

Self closing valve

Tail water

Main valve

Turbine

Draft tube

Draft tube gate

The principle the water conduits of

a traditional high head power plant

Ulla- Førre

gate hoist

Intake gate

Tunnel Inlet

trashrack Penstock inlet

Valve

Desilting basin

Headrace tunnel

Anchor block

Anchor block

Shaddle

Power house

Exp. joint

DT end gate

IV G

Tailrace

SC

IV -inlet valve

R -turbine runner

SC -spiral case R

DT

G -generator

Arrangement of a small

hydropower plant

Ligga Power Plant, Norrbotten, Sweden

H = 39 m

Q = 513 m3/s

P = 182 MW

Drunner=7,5 m

Borcha Power Plant, Turkey

H = 87,5 m

P = 150 MW

Drunner=5,5 m

Water intake

• Dam

• Coarse trash rack

• Intake gate

• Sediment settling basement

Dams

• Rockfill dams

• Pilar og platedammer

• Hvelvdammer

Rock-fill dams

2. Filter zone Sandy gravel

3. Transition zone Fine blasted rock

4. Supporting shell Blasted rock

Slab concrete dam

Arc dam

Gates in Hydro Power Plants

Types of Gates

• Radial Gates

• Wheel Gates

• Slide Gates

• Flap Gates

• Rubber Gates

Radial Gates at Älvkarleby, Sweden

Radial Gate

The forces acting

on the arc will be

transferred to the

bearing

Slide Gate

Flap Gate

Rubber gate

Reinforced rubber Flow disturbance

Open position

Reinforced rubber

Bracket Closed position

Air inlet

Circular gate

End cover

Hinge

Ribs Manhole

Pipe

Bolt Ladder

Fastening element

Seal Frame

Circular gate

Trash Racks

Theun Hinboun Power Plant

Laos

Gravfoss

Power Plant

Norway

Width: 12 meter

Height: 13 meter

Stainless Steel

CompRack

Trash Rack delivered

by VA-Tech

Cleaning the trash rack

Pipes

• Materials

• Calculation of the change of length due to the

change of the temperature

• Calculation of the head loss

• Calculation of maximum pressure

– Static pressure

– Water hammer

• Calculation of the pipe thickness

• Calculation of the economical correct diameter

• Calculation of the forces acting on the anchors

Materials

• Steel

• Polyethylene, PE

• Glass-fibre reinforced Unsaturated

Polyesterplastic , GUP

• Wood

• Concrete

Materials

Material Max. Max. Max.

Diameter Pressure Stresses

[m] [m] [MPa]

Steel, St.37 150

Steel, St.42 190

Steel, St.52 206

PE ~ 1,0 160 5

GUP 2,4 320

Max. p = 160 m. Max. D: 1,4 m.

Wood ~5 80

Concrete ~5 ~ 400

Steel pipes in penstock

Nore Power Plant, Norway

GUP-Pipe

Raubergfossen Power Plant, Norway

Wood Pipes

Calculation of the change of length

due to the change of the temperature

L T L

Where:

L = Change of length [m]

L = Length [m]

= Coefficient of thermal expansion [m/oC m]

T = Change of temperature [oC]

Calculation of the head loss

2

L c

hf f

D 2g

Where:

hf = Head loss [m]

f = Friction factor [-]

L = Length of pipe [m]

D = Diameter of the pipe [m]

c = Water velocity [m/s]

g = Gravity [m/s2]

Example

Calculation of the head loss

Power Plant data:

H = 100 m Head 2

L c

Q = 10 m3/s Flow Rate

hf f

D 2g

L = 1000 m Length of pipe

D = 2,0 m Diameter of the pipe

The pipe material is steel

cD

Re

Where:

c = 3,2 m/s Water velocity

n = 1,308·10-6 m2/s Kinetic viscosity

Re = 4,9 ·106 Reynolds number

Where:

Re = 4,9 ·106 Reynolds number

e = 0,045 mm Roughness

D = 2,0 m Diameter of the pipe

e/D = 2,25 ·10-5 Relative roughness

f = 0,013 Friction factor

The pipe material is steel

0,013

Example

Calculation of the head loss

Power Plant data:

H = 100 m Head

Q = 10 m3/s Flow Rate

L = 1000 m Length of pipe

D = 2,0 m Diameter of the pipe

The pipe material is steel

2 2

L c 1000 3,2

hf f 0,013 3,4 m

D 2g 2 2 9,82

Where:

f = 0,013 Friction factor

c = 3,2 m/s Water velocity

g = 9,82 m/s2 Gravity

Calculation of maximum pressure

• Static head, Hgr (Gross Head)

• Water hammer, hwh

• Deflection between pipe supports

• Friction in the axial direction

Hgr

Maximum pressure rise due to the

Water Hammer

a c max 2L

h wh IF TC Jowkowsky

g a

hwh = Pressure rise due to water hammer [mWC]

a = Speed of sound in the penstock [m/s]

cmax = maximum velocity [m/s]

g = gravity [m/s2]

Example

Jowkowsky

a = 1000 [m/s]

cmax = 10 [m/s]

g = 9,81 [m/s2]

2L

TC

a a c max

h wh 1020 m

g

Maximum pressure rise due to the

Water Hammer

2L

a c max a c max 2 L 2L

h wh IF TC

g TC g TC a

Where:

hwh = Pressure rise due to water hammer [mWC]

a = Speed of sound in the penstock [m/s]

cmax = maximum velocity [m/s]

g = gravity [m/s2]

L = Length [m]

TC = Time to close the main valve or guide vanes [s]

Example

L = 300 [m]

TC = 10 [s]

cmax = 10 [m/s]

g = 9,81 [m/s2] c max 2 L

h wh 61 m

g TC

Calculation of the pipe thickness

L D i p Cs 2 t L t • Based on:

– Material properties

p ri Cs – Pressure from:

t • Water hammer

t

• Static head

p g H gr h wh

Where: t t

L = Length of the pipe [m] p

Di = Inner diameter of the pipe [m]

p = Pressure inside the pipe [Pa]

t = Stresses in the pipe material [Pa]

t = Thickness of the pipe [m]

Cs = Coefficient of safety [-]

= Density of the water [kg/m3]

Hgr = Gross Head [m]

hwh = Pressure rise due to water hammer [m]

Example

Calculation of the pipe thickness

L D i p Cs 2 t L t

• Based on:

– Material properties

p ri Cs

t 0,009 m – Pressure from:

t • Water hammer

• Static head

p g H gr h wh 1,57 MPa

t t

Where: p

L = 0,001 m Length of the pipe

Di = 2,0 m Inner diameter of the pipe

t = 206 MPa Stresses in the pipe material

= 1000 kg/m3 Density of the water

Cs = 1,2 Coefficient of safety

Hgr = 100 m Gross Head

hwh = 61 m Pressure rise due to water hammer

Calculation of the economical

correct diameter of the pipe

dK tot dK f K t

0

dD dD

Cost [$]

Diameter [m]

Example

Calculation of the economical correct diameter of the pipe

Hydraulic Losses

Power Plant data:

H = 100 m Head

Q = 10 m3/s Flow Rate

hplant = 85 % Plant efficiency

L = 1000 m Length of pipe

2

L Q C2

PLoss g Q h f g Q f 5

2r 2g r

2 4

r

Where:

PLoss = Loss of power due to the head loss [W]

= Density of the water [kg/m3]

g = gravity [m/s2]

Q = Flow rate [m3/s]

hf = Head loss [m]

f = Friction factor [-]

L = Length of pipe [m]

r = Radius of the pipe [m]

C2 = Calculation coefficient

Example

Calculation of the economical correct diameter of the pipe

Cost of the Hydraulic Losses per year

C2

K f PLoss T kWh price 5 T kWh price

r

Where:

Kf = Cost for the hydraulic losses [€]

PLoss = Loss of power due to the head loss [W]

T = Energy production time [h/year]

kWhprice = Energy price [€/kWh]

r = Radius of the pipe [m]

C2 = Calculation coefficient

Example

Calculation of the economical correct diameter of the pipe

Present value of the Hydraulic Losses per year

C2

K f 5 T kWh price

Where: r

Kf = Cost for the hydraulic losses [€]

T = Energy production time [h/year]

kWhprice = Energy price [€/kWh]

r = Radius of the pipe [m]

C2 = Calculation coefficient

n

Kf

K f pv

i 1 1 I

i

Where:

Kf pv = Present value of the hydraulic losses [€]

n = Lifetime, (Number of year ) [-]

I = Interest rate [-]

Example

Calculation of the economical correct diameter of the pipe

Cost for the Pipe Material

pr

m m V m 2 r t L m 2 r L C1 r 2

K t M m M C1 r 2

Where:

m = Mass of the pipe [kg]

NB:

m = Density of the material [kg/m3]

This is a simplification

V = Volume of material [m3]

because no other

r = Radius of pipe [m]

component then the pipe

L = Length of pipe [m]

is calculated

p = Pressure in the pipe [MPa]

= Maximum stress [MPa]

C1 = Calculation coefficient

Kt = Installation costs [€]

M = Cost for the material [€/kg]

Example

Calculation of the economical correct diameter of the pipe

• Installation Costs:

– Pipes

– Maintenance

– Interests

– Etc.

Example

Calculation of the economical correct diameter of the pipe

C2

T kWh price

K t M C1 r

n

r

5 2

K f pv

i 1 1 I i

2MCr 6 0

dr r i 1 1 Ii

Where:

Kf = Cost for the hydraulic losses [€]

Kt = Installation costs [€]

T = Energy production time [h/year]

kWhprice = Energy price [€/kWh]

r = Radius of the pipe [m]

C1 = Calculation coefficient

C2 = Calculation coefficient

M = Cost for the material [€/kg]

n = Lifetime, (Number of year ) [-]

I = Interest rate [-]

Example

Calculation of the economical correct diameter of the pipe

2MCr 6 0

dr r i 1 1 Ii

5 n C 2 T kWh price

r 7

2 i 1 M C 1 I i

Calculation of the forces acting on

the anchors

Calculation of the forces acting on

the anchors

F5

F1 F

F2 F3 F4

F2 = Force due to the water pressure [N]

F3 = Friction force due to the pillars upstream the anchor [N]

F4 = Friction force due to the expansion joint upstream the anchor [N]

F5 = Friction force due to the expansion joint downstream the anchor [N]

Calculation of the forces acting on

the anchors

F

R

G

Valves

Principle drawings of valves

Open position

Closed position

Spherical valve

Bypass system

Butterfly valve

Butterfly

valve

Butterfly valve

disk types

Hollow-jet Valve

Pelton turbines

• Large heads (from

100 meter to 1800

meter)

• Relatively small flow

rate

• Maximum of 6

nozzles

• Good efficiency over

a vide range

Jostedal, Norway

Kværner

Francis turbines

• Heads between 15

and 700 meter

• Medium Flow Rates

• Good efficiency

h=0.96 for modern

machines

SVARTISEN

Kaplan turbines

meter and down to 5

meter)

• Large flow rates

• The runner vanes can

be governed

• Good efficiency over

a vide range

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