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PDEC

INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LTD
PROCESS DESIGN ENGINEERING CELL(PDEC)

HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN
&
MANUFACTURING FEATURES
BY
M. BALA
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CONTENT PDEC

• DEFINITION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS

• TYPES OF HEAT EXCHANGERS

• CLASSIFICATION OF SHEEL AND TUBE HEAT
EXCHANGERS

• DIFFERENT TYPES OF HEAT TRANSFER
EQUIPMENTS

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CONTENT PDEC

• COMPONENTS OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT
EXCHANGERS

• NOMENCLATURE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS

• CONSTRUCTION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS

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CONTENT PDEC

• CODES/ STANDARDS

• DESIGN OF HEAT EXCHANGERS

• MATERIAL IDENTIFICATION CHART

• SELECTION OF HEAT EXCHANGERS TYPES

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CONTENT PDEC

• THERMAL DATA SHEET OF HEAT EXCHANGERS

• MECHANICAL DATA SHEET OF HEAT
EXCHANGERS

• MANUFACTURING FEATURE

• MAINTENANCE OF HEAT EXCHANGERS

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HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PDEC

DEFINITION OF HEAT EXCHANGER:
A heat exchanger is a piece of equipment built for
efficient heat transfer between a hot process
stream and a cold process stream.

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HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PDEC

TYPES OF HEAT EXCHANGERS:

• Shell & Tube heat exchanger

• Plate heat exchanger

• Plate & Shell heat exchanger

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HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PDEC

SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER

Shell & tube heat exchangers consist of a
series of tubes & cylindrical shell. One set
of these tubes contains the fluid that must
be either heated or cooled. The second
fluid runs over the tubes i.e inside the shell
that are being heated or cooled. A set of
tubes is called the tube bundle.(as shown
in Fig). 8
HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PDEC

SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER

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COMPLETE HEAT EXCHANGER PDEC

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HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PDEC

PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER

It is composed of multiple, thin, slightly
separated plates that have very large surface
areas and fluid flow passages for heat transfer.
• Much higher heat transfer co-efficient
• Lower cost, low space requirement

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PLATE HEAT EXCHANGERS PDEC

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HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PDEC

PLATE AND SHELL HEAT EXCHANGERS

• It is combines with plate heat exchanger and
shell & tube heat exchanger technologies.
• High heat transfer, high pressure, high
operating temperature
• Compact in size
• Low fouling
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HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PDEC

PLATE AND SHELL HEAT EXCHANGERS

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HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PDEC

TYPE OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS
• Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers (STHEs) are the
most widely and commonly used unfired heat
transfer equipment in the chemical process
industries.
• Shell and tube heat exchanger may be classified
By construction and
By service

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HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PDEC

HEAT EXCHANGERS NOMENCLATURE:

An STHE is divided into three parts mainly:

• The front head
• The shell and
• The rear head

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TEMA DESIGNATIONS FOR SHELL-AND-TUBE. HEAT
EXCHANGERS PDEC

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HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PDEC

HEAT EXCHANGERS NOMENCLATURE:

• There are five front head types: A, B, C, D and
N.

• There are eight rear head types: L, M, N, P, S, T,
V, and W which corresponding in practice to
only three general construction types, namely
fixed tube sheet, U-tube and floating head.

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HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PDEC

Cont:

• Rear head ‘L’ is identical to a front head ‘A’
and rear head ‘M’ is identical to a front head
‘B’ while N is the same nomenclature.

• There are seven types of shell depending on
fluid flows through a shell - E, F, G, H, J, K
and X.

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HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PDEC

• CLASSIFICATION BY CONSTRUCTION
It may be classified into three categories.

• Fixed-tube sheet heat exchanger

• U-tube heat exchanger

• Floating- head heat exchanger

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HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PDEC

FIXED-TUBE SHEET HEAT EXCHANGER

• A fixed-tube sheet heat exchanger has
straight tubes secured at both ends to tube
sheets welded to the shell.

• The construction may have removable
channel covers (e.g. AEL), bonnet –type
channel covers (e.g. BEM) or integral tube
sheets (e.g. NEN)
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HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PDEC

FIXED-TUBE SHEET HEAT EXCHANGER
Bonnet
Bonnet Stationary
Support Stationary (Stationary
(Stationary Tubesheet
Bracket Tubesheet Head)
Head)

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HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PDEC

FIXED-TUBE SHEET HEAT EXCHANGER

Advantages of this exchangers
• The main advantage of a fixed-tube sheet
construction is low cost as it has the simplest
construction.
• Permits mechanical cleaning of the inside of
the tubes as these are accessible after
removal of the channel cover or bonnet.

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HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PDEC

FIXED-TUBE SHEET HEAT EXCHANGER

• No leakage from the shell side fluid as there
are no flanged joint.
Disadvantages of this exchangers
• The outside of the tube can not be cleaned
mechanically as the bundle can not be
removed from the shell.
• Due to this shell side fluid should be clean

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HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PDEC

U-TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER
• As name implies, the tubes of a U-tube heat
exchanger are bent in the shape of a U. There
is only one tube sheet in a U-tube heat
exchanger.

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HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PDEC

U-TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER
Advantages of this exchangers
• It permits the tube bundle to expand or
contract according to the differential stress set
up due to free at one end.

• It permits the outside of the tubes cleaning as
the tube bundle can be removed.

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HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PDEC

U-TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER
Disadvantages of this exchangers
• The inside of the tube cannot be cleaned
effectively.

• This exchangers should not be used for
services which have dirty fluid inside the
tubes.
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HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PDEC

U-TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER

• It places a very severe limitation on U-tube
heat exchangers for refinery services, which
usually have dirty streams on both the tube
side and shell side. This is primarily the reason
why U- tube heat exchangers are not generally
used in oil refineries .

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HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PDEC

FLOATING- HEAD HEAT EXCHANGER
• A Floating-heat exchanger is one where
one tube sheet is fixed relative to the shell
and the other is free to float within the
shell.

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HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PDEC

FLOATING- HEAD HEAT EXCHANGER
•Advantages of the exchangers

This type of heat exchanger permits free
expansion of the tube bundle

It permits cleaning of both the inside and
outside of the tubes.

It is used for services where both the shell side
and tube side fluids are dirty.
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HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PDEC

FLOATING- HEAD HEAT EXCHANGER
Floating head exchanger is the most versatile
construction.

•Disadvantages of this exchangers
It is more costlier than Fixed tube & U- tube
exchangers due to:
 More components in this construction
 Shell diameter is larger than floating tube
sheet.
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HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PDEC

FLOATING- HEAD HEAT EXCHANGER

Various types of floating head construction are:

• Pull through with backing device:TEMA type S
• Pull through: TEMA type T
• Outside- packed stuffing – box: TEMA type P
• Outside-packed lantern ring: TEMA type W

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HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PDEC

• PULL THROUGH WITH BACKING DEVICE: TEMA type S

Most commonly used type in the chemical
processing industries.
The floating head cover is secured against the
floating tube sheet by bolting it to an ingenious
device called split backing ring.
The floating head closure is located beyond the
end of the shell and contained by a shell cover of
a larger diameter.
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HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PDEC

Cont.
For dismantling the heat exchanger, the shell
cover is removed first, then the split backing ring
and finally the floating head cover after which the
tube bundle can be removed from the stationary
end.

For assembling the heat exchangers, the reverse
order is followed.
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HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PDEC

PULL THROUGH WITH BACKING DEVICE: TEMA type S

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HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PDEC

Pull through: TEMA type T
• The floating head cover is bolted directly to
the floating tube sheet so that a split backing
ring is not required.
• The advantage of this type construction is
that the tube bundle may be removed from
the shell without removing either the shell
or floating head cover.

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HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PDEC

Pull through: TEMA type T

• It is generally used for kettle re-boilers
having a dirty heating medium where u-tube
cannot be used.
• The shell diameter is the largest in this type
of construction since floating head tube
sheet with cover has to be removed through
the shell. Hence, the cost is the highest in
this type of construction.
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HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PDEC

• Pull through: TEMA type T

Rear tubad end Shell Stationary
Head end
16
21
6 15

4

3
10

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HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PDEC

OUTSIDE-PACKED STUFFING–BOX:TEMA TYPE P
• In this construction, the shell side fluid is sealed
by ring of packing compressed within a stuffing-
box by a follower ring.
• This construction is prone to leakage. Due to this,
its usage is limited to shell side services, which
are:
 Non-hazardous and non-toxic services
 Moderate pressure and temperature (40
kg/cm² and 300ºc).
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HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PDEC

OUTSIDE- PACKED STUFFING – BOX: TEMA TYPE P

25

24

26 27
29

28

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HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PDEC

OUTSIDE-PACKED LANTERN RING: TEMA TYPE W

• The shell side and tube side fluids are sealed by
separate ring of packing or O-ring and separated by a
lantern ring provided with weep holes. Hence any
leakage will be the outside.

• The width of the tube sheet necessarily has to be
sufficient to accommodate the two packing rings and
the lantern ring, plus the expansion margin.

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HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PDEC

OUTSIDE-PACKED LANTERN RING: TEMA TYPE W
• This design is limited to 9.9 kg/cm² and 204ºc.
27
26

24

3
30

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HEAT EXCHANGERS DESIGN PDEC

CLASSIFICATION BY SERVICE
It may be classified into four categories.
• Single phase (both shell side and tube side)
• Condensing (one side condensing and other
single phase)
• Vaporizing ( one side vaporizing and the other
single phase)
• Condensing/vaporizing (one side condensing and
the other vaporizing)
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PDEC

DIFFERENT TYPES OF HEAT TRANSFER EQUIPMENTS

• Heat Exchanger: both side single phase process
streams (that is not an utility).

• Cooler: One stream a process fluid and the other
stream a cold utility, such as cooling water or air.

• .

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PDEC

Cont.
• Heater: One stream a process fluid and the other
stream a hot utility, such as stream or hot oil

• Condenser: One stream a condensing vapor and
the other stream a cold utility, such as cooling
water or air.

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PDEC

Cont.
• Chiller: One stream a process fluid being
condensed at sub-zero temperature and the other
stream a boiling refrigerant or process stream
(evidently cryogenic).
• Vaporizer: One stream a vaporizing liquid and the
other a gas or a liquid.

• Re-boiler: One stream a bottom stream from a
distillation column and other a hot utility (stream
or hot oil) or a process stream. 46
RE-BOILER PDEC

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PDEC

COMPONENT OF STHEs :

The principal components of an STHE are:

• Shell and Shell cover

• Tubes

• Channel and Channel cover
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PDEC

COMPONENT OF STHEs :

• Tube sheet

• Baffles

• Floating head cover

• Nozzles
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PDEC

COMPONENT OF STHEs :

The other components are,

• Tie-rods and spacers,

• Pass partition plates,

• Impingement plate,
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PDEC

COMPONENT OF STHEs :

• Longitudinal baffles,

• Sealing strips, sliding strips,

• Supports and foundation

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VARIOUS PARTS OF HEAT EXCHANGER PDEC

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VARIOUS PARTS OF HEAT EXCHANGER PDEC

1. Stationary Head-Channel
17. Floating Head Cover Flange
2. Stationary Head-Bonnet 18. Floating Head Backing Device
3. Stationary Head Flange-channel Or Bonnet 19. Split Shear Ring
4. Channel Cover 20. Slip-On Backing Flang
5. Stationary Head Nozzle 21. Floating Head Cover
6. Stationary Tubesheet 22. Floating Tubesheet Skirt
7. Tubes 23. Packing Box
8. Shell 24. Packing

9. Shell Cover 25. Packing Gland
26. Lantern Ring
10. Shell Flange-Stationary Head End
27. Tierods and Spacers
11. Shell Flange-Rear Head End
12. Shell Nozzle
28. Transverse baffles or Support Plates
13. Shell Cover Flange
29. Impingement Plate
14. Expansion Joint 30. Longitudinal Baffle
15. Floating Tubesheet 31. Pass Partition
16. Floating Head Cover 32. Vent Connection

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PDEC

SHELL AND SHELL COVER:
• The shell is cylinder in which tubes are contained
and serves to contain the shell side flowing stream
and forms the outer casing of the tube bundle.
TUBE BUNDLE:
• The tube bundle is the heart of the shell and tube
unit and comprises tubes, tube sheets, baffles,
floating head cover, split ring. Tie rods,
impingement plate, baffle, longitudinal baffle and
sealing/sliding strips.
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PDEC

TUBES:

• Tubes are most vital component of the heat
exchangers.

• Tubes are two types, namely a) plain or bare
and b) finned – external or internal

• Plain tubes are most common ones which are
generally used in refineries
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PDEC

Cont.
• Tubes are usually defined by outer dia (OD)
and wall thickness (or BWG- Birmingham Wire
Gauge).

• Wall thickness can be either minimum wall
(when there is no under-tolerance, but only
over tolerance), or average wall thickness
(when there is both under tolerance and over
tolerance).
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PDEC

Cont.
• The usual practice is to order tubes with
minimum wall thickness for carbon steel and
low alloy steel tubes and with average wall
thickness for non-ferrous and high-alloy steel
tubes.
• Material of construction of tubes are- carbon
steel, low and high alloy steels, special
stainless steels, Admiralty brass and bronze,
alloys of copper and nickel, Hastealloys and
Tantalum. 57
PDEC

TUBE SHEETS:
• The ends of the tubes fit into a common sheet
and are expanded against or welded to the shell
to form a pressure tight seal which separates
fluid in the shell and that in the tubes.

Tube sheet are two types

• Fixed/stationary tube sheet – A tube sheet fixed
or welded to the shell.
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PDEC

Welded tube to tube sheet joints are
usuallyemployed for severe condition such as
high pressure (say, in excess of 80 kg/cm²) or
when handling toxic or inflammable fluids
where leakage is not permitted.

Floating tube sheet:
• A tube sheet which can move to allow for
expansion or contraction of the tubes relative
to the shell.
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PDEC

• Tube sheet thickness can vary from 25 mm for
low-pressure low shell dia. to 300 mm for high
pressure & large shell
• Depending on the severity of the situation, tubes
are either expanded into grooves in the tube sheet
or welded to theme to tube sheet
Baffles:
• It serve to support the tubes as well as to impart a
sufficiently shell side velocity to yield a satisfactory
heat transfer co-efficient.
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PDEC

• Baffles are held securely in place by a
combination of tie rods and spacers.

• The length of spacers is equal to the baffle
spacing.

• The outside diameter of the baffle has to be
less than the inside diameter of the shell to
permit insertion of the tube bundle into the
shell and removal of the bundle from the shell.
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LONGITUDINAL BAFFLES:

• A plate which is placed transversely along the
centre line of the shell and is employed to
divide the shell into two or more
compartments is called longitudinal baffle.

• A single longitudinal baffle from one tube
sheet to just sort of the other tube sheet
produce on ‘F’ shell i.e. a shell with two shell
passes.
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SLIDING AND SEALING STRIPS:

• A pair of sliding strips is provided at the bottom
of floating head tube bundles for their
insertion and removal to and from the shell.

• A sufficient number of sealing strips is required
to be inserted in the gap between the shell and
outer most tubes in floating head tube bundles
to minimize leakage of the shell
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PDEC

IMPINGEMENT PLATE:
• The inlet nozzle is provided with a plate
which is used to protect the uppermost
tubes located just below the shell side inlet
nozzle against direct impingement by the
shell side fluid is called an impingement
plate.
CHANNEL, CHANNEL COVER & PASS
PARTITION PLATES:
• Channel is the inlet and outlet chambers for
the fluids flowing through the tubes. 64
PDEC

• A channel may either be of a bonnet const.
where a dished end is welded to channel barrel
or a flanged channel cover.
• Pass partition plates are the plate in the
channel which make the fluid in the tubes flow
through one set of tubes and back through
another set. They fit tightly into grooves in the
tube sheet and channel cover in order to
eliminate the possibility of leakage of the tube
side fluid from one pass to the next.
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PASS PARTITION ARRANGEMENT FOR TUBE PASSES PDEC

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PDEC

CODES/STANDARDS:
• API 660 - Shell & tube heat exchangers for
general refinery services.

• ASME Section VIII – Pressure Vessels for
Shell thickness cal., Welding & Testing
requirements.

• TEMA(Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers
Association) for design of STHEs
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PDEC

TEMA:
There are three classes of TEMA;
• Class-R Refinery Service
• Class-B Chemical Process service
• Class-C General service
LIMITATION OF TEMA:
• Inside diameter of shell is 2540 mm
• A design pressure of 211 kg/cm2
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BASIC FORMULA:

The basic formula for heat transfer is,
Q = A* U*△T
Where,
Q = Total heat to be transferred, Kcal/hr
A = Required effective heat exchanger surface,
based on the tube O.D , m2
U= Overall heat transfer co-efficient,Kcal/hr-m2-c
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Cont.
△T = effective mean temperature difference, OC

For exchangers where the flow of the hot and cold
fluids is true counter or concurrent, △T is equal to
the log mean temperature difference (LMTD)
In most commercial exchangers, the use of shell
baffles and multiple tube passes causes the flow to
be partially counter current and
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Cont.

Where, LMTD =
Ln (


partially concurrent flow. For this mixed flow △T
is obtained by applying a correction factor (F) to
the calculated LMTD for a counter current flow
arrangement i.e.
△T (effective) = LMTD * F ( F= < 1.0)

h -
h /
c

c )
PDEC

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Cont.
Where,
△Th = T1 - t2
△Tc = T2 - t1

T1 = Inlet temp. of hot fluid
T2 = Outlet temp. of hot fluid
t 1 = Inlet temp. of cold fluid
t 2 = Outlet temp. of cold fluid
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Cont.
The value of correction factor “F” is obtained from
TEMA chart. “F” is plotted as a function of “P” and
“R” . Where” and “R”
P = Temp. effectiveness or efficiency of exch.
= (△t of cold fluid) / (△t of hot & cold fluid inlet
temp.)
t2 - t1
P=
T1 - t1
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PDEC

Cont.
Where,
R = Heat capacity rate ratio.
= wc / Wc

T1 - T2
R =
t2 - t1

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BASIS OF DESIGN PRESSURE:
• Maximum pump shut of pressure, or
• 25 psi or 10% greater than the maximum
operating pressure in PSIG

BASIS OF DESIGN TEMPERATURE:

• The minimum design temp is normally set a
25oC above the maximum operating temp at the
exchanger
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DESIGN OF STHEs:

The design of shell and tube heat exchangers
comprises two distinct activities
are:
• Thermal design and

• Mechanical design

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Thermal design:

• In thermal design, the heat exchangers is sized,
which means that all the principal construction
parameters such as shell type and diameter,
number of tubes, tube OD and thickness, tube
length, tube pitch, number of tube passes,
baffle spacing & cut and nozzles sizes are
determined.

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Basic aims of a thermal designer are:
1.Produce a thermal design that has a low overall
cost.
• Overall cost = initial cost + operating cost
• Initial cost is evidently the fixed cost or first
cost of the heat exchangers
• Operating cost = pumping cost + maintenance
cost + down time cost

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PDEC

Cont.:
• Maintenance cost= periodically cleaning cost +
anti - foulant cost + any repair or replace. Cost.
2. Utilize allowable pressure drop as fully as
possible.
• Higher the velocity of the fluid higher will be
the heat transfer co-efficient.
• Higher heat transfer co-efficient will be higher
pressure drop.
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Cont.:
• Higher heat transfer co-efficient will tend to
reduce first cost of the exchangers.
• Higher pressure drop will tend to increase the
operating cost of the exchangers
• Thus a very important goal for a good thermal
design is the best utilization of the allowable
pressure drop

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PDEC

REQUIRED DATA FOR THERMAL DESIGN :

Process dept. have to furnish the following data for
thermal design of heat exchangers:

• Name of the fluids
• Flow rate of the fluids
• Inlet & outlet temperature of the fluids
• Operating pressure of the fluids
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PDEC

Cont.
• Allowable pressure drop
Generally 0.5 to 0.7 kg/cm2 per shell for liquid
0.05 to 0.02 kg/cm2 per shell for gases
• Fouling refers- accumulation and deposition of
living organisms and certain non-living materials
on the surface
• Properties of fluids like – Specific gravity/ density,
thermal conductivity, viscosity and specific heat.
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Cont.
• Heat release profile for two phase flow – it is a
plot of heat duty and weight fraction vapor versus
temperature and is an essential part of the
process data sheet.
• Heat exchanged i.e. heat duty

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Cont.
• Selection of heat exchanger type i.e Fixed tube, U-
tube or Floating head tube exchangers (i.e AES,
BEM )etc.

• Placement of Fluids
 Generally low flow rate fluid is placed on the
shell side .This facilitates provision of adequate
turbulence by increasing number of baffles
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Cont.
Cooling water which is likely to deposit scales is
generally placed on tube side for facilitating
mechanical cleaning of tubes from inside
 In general highly befouling fluids that need
frequent mechanical cleaning of heat exchangers
are usually placed on tube side
 Highly corrosive fluids are preferably placed on
tube side
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Cont.
 Fluids with very high operating pressure are
preferably placed on tube side
• Line sizes: Generally line size match with nozzle
sizes
• Preferred tube size:
OD: Commonly used OD 19.05/ 25.4 mm
Tube thick.: Commonly used thk.2 / 2.5 mm
Length: Commonly used length 6000 / 9000 mm
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Cont.

• Maximum shell diameter
As per TEMA ID is 2540 mm
As per engineering practice,
For floating & U-tube exchangers: Shell ID 1400-
1500 mm
For fixed tube heat exchanger: No limitation

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PDEC

Cont.

• Corrosion allowance

Tube: As per TEMA no corrosion allowance is
applied in tube
Shell: Depends on services and materials of
construction. Generally 1.5 to 3 mm is used
depending on materials.
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PDEC

Cont.

• Velocity –In-general very high velocity lead to
erosion.
 For liquid- minimum recommended velocity in s
tube side is 0.9 m/s while maximum is 2.4 m/s.
Shell side velocity is from 0.6 t0 1.5 m/s
For gases – maximum tube side velocity is 35 m/s

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Cont.

• Type of shell
As per TEMA, there are seven types of shells like
E, F, G, H, J, K & X.

• Tube lay out pattern
There are 4 types of tube lay out pattern.

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Triangular- Not Used when mechanically cleaning is required.
Rotated Triangular- Not Used when mechanically cleaning is required

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Square- When mechanically cleaning is required
Rotated square- When mechanically cleaning is
required

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• Tube Pitch; center to center distance between
two adjacent tubes.
For triangular & rotated triangular pattern
tube pitch is 1.25 times the tube OD

For square or rotated square pattern
tube pitch is generally (OD+6mm)

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SELECTION OF HEAT EXC.TYPE BASIS ON SERVICES PDEC

Final decision on exchanger type depends on
many factors but the table given below is only
for guide line
Shell side fluid Tube side fluid Type of exchanger
Clean Dirty Clean Dirty

Yes - Yes - Fixed tube sheet or U-tube with triangular pitch

Yes - - Yes Fixed tube sheet or floating head with triangular
pitch

- Yes Yes - U-tube or floating head with square pitch

- Yes - Yes Floating head with square pitch

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THERMAL DESIGN OF HEAT EXCHANGERS IS DONE
BY

• HTRI (Heat Transfer Research Institute) Soft ware,
USA

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THERMAL DATA SHEET OF HEAT
EXCHANGER:
• Heat exchanger thermal specification
sheet is divided into three parts,
General information of exchangers
Performance of exchangers
Construction of exchangers

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• MECHANICAL DESIGN:

Detailed calculations are carried out to
determine the dimensions of various
components such as tube sheets,girth flanges,
shell , shell barrel, channel, channel barrel,Baffle
plate, floating head dish, etc and a complete bill
of materials and engineering drawings such as
bundles assembly and setting plan drawings are
generated.
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Baffles: PDEC

Generally there are two types of baffles
• Plate type - Single segmental
- Double segmental
- Triple segmental

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PLATE TYPE BAFFLES: PDEC

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ROD TYPE BAFFLE-
Entire heat transfer area is effective
Tube bundle is vibration free
No stagnation of flow, uniform flow
Pressure drop minimum

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ROD TYPE BAFFLE: PDEC

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BAFFLE SPACING:

• Center to center line distance between
adjacent baffles is called baffle spacing

• Minimum spacing as per TEMA is one fifth
of the shell ID or 51 mm whichever is
greater.

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BAFFLE SPACING:

• For example if shell inside diameter = 1000
m Then 1/5th = 1000/5 = 200 mm

• So spacing should be 200 mm

• Maximum spacing is usually the shell ID

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BAFFLE CUT:
• It is the segment opening heights
expressed as a percentage of the shell
inside diameter . Baffle cuts are :
• Horizontal- This is used for single pass
shell for minimizing the accumulation of
deposit at the bottom.

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PDEC

BAFFLE CUT:
• Vertical - This is used for two pass shell
for ease of fabrication and bundle
assembly, as well as for condenser.

• Recommended baffle cut is from 20% to
35% 105
BAFFLE PLATE THICKNESS : PDEC

Baffle or support plate thickness should be
as per below table (R-4.41 of TEMA)
Shell ID Plate thickness
Unsupported tube length between central baffles
610 mm & Over 610 - Over 914 - Over 1219 Over
under 914 mm 1219 mm - 1524mm 1525mm

152 – 356 3.2 4.8 6.4 9.5 9.5

381 - 711 4.8 6.4 9.5 9.5 12.7

735 - 965 6.4 7.5 9.5 12.7 15.9

991 - 1524 6.4 9.5 12.7 15.9 15.9

1549 - 2540 9.5 12.7 15.9 19.1 19.1

106
TIE ROD AND SPACERS: PDEC

Tie rod and spacers shall be provided to retain
all baffles and tube support plates securely in
position.
Number and size of the tie rods will be as per
below table (R-4.71 of TEMA)
Nominal shell diameter Tie rod diameter in mm Minimum number of tie
in mm rod
152 - 381 9.5 4
406 – 686 9.5 6
711 – 838 12.7 6
864 – 1219 12.7 8
1245 – 1524 12.7 10
1549 - 2540 15.9 12
107
Material Identification chart: PDEC

Description of
Carbon steel Alloy steel Stainless Steel
parts
Shell SA516Gr60/70 SA387GR5CL2 SA240Gr316

Shell cover barrel SA516Gr60/70 SA387GR5CL2 SA240Gr316

Shell cover bonnet SA516Gr60/70 SA387GR5CL2 SA240Gr316

Channel SA516Gr60/70 SA387GR5CL2 SA240Gr316

Channel cover SA105 SA182GrF5 SA182Gr316

Tubes SA179 SA213GrT5 SA213Gr316

Tubes sheet SA266Gr.2 SA336GrF5 SA240Gr316

Baffles SA516Gr60/70 SA387 Gr5CL2 SA240Gr316

Floating Head Dish SA266Gr.2 SA336GrF5 SA336Gr316

Girth Flanges SA266Gr.2 SA336GrF5 SA336Gr316

108
Material Identification chart: PDEC

Description of
Carbon steel Alloy steel Stainless Steel
parts
Nozzles Neck SA106GrB SA335GrP5 SA312Gr316

Nozzles Flanges SA105 SA182GrF5 SA182Gr316

PAD SA516Gr60/70 SA387GR5CL2 SA240Gr316

Backing Ring SA105 SA336GrF5 SA336Gr316

Tie Rods SA516Gr60/70 SA387GR5CL2 SA240Gr316

Partition Plate SA516Gr60/70 SA387GR5CL2 SA240Gr316

Impingement plate SA516Gr60/70 SA387GR5CL2 SA240Gr316

Sealing strips SA516Gr60/70 SA387GR5CL2 SA240Gr316

Spacers SA179 SA213GrT5 SA213Gr316

Saddle plate SA516Gr60/70 SA387GR5CL2 SA240Gr311

109
PDEC

MECHANICAL DATA SHEET OF EXCHANGER:
• This is required for procurement of heat
exchangers.

110
PDEC

• DESIGN SOFTWARE:

• PV ELITE and Microprotol software are being
used worldwide

• Microprotol By EU Research, France

• PV- Elite by COADE taken over by Intergraph,
USA

111
MANUFACTURING FEATURES PDEC

DRAWINGS AND ASME CODE DATA REPORT:
• Drawings for approval and change
The manufacturer shall submit for purchaser’s
approval three(3) prints of an outline drawing
showing nozzle sizes and locations, overall
dimensions, support and weight.
 It is anticipated that a reasonable number of
minor drawing changes may be required at that
time.
112
MANUFACTURING FEATURES PDEC

Cont.
Any changes may cause additional expense
chargeable to the purchaser.
Purchaser’s approval of drawings does not relieve
the manufacturer of resposibility for compliance
with the standard and applicable ASME code
requirements.
The manufacturer shall not make any changes on
the approved drawings without express agreement
of the purchaser.
113
MANUFACTURING FEATURES PDEC

Cont.
Any changes may cause additional expense
chargeable to the purchaser.
Purchaser’s approval of drawings does not relieve
the manufacturer of responsibility for compliance
with the standard and applicable ASME code
requirements.
The manufacturer shall not make any changes on
the approved drawings without express agreement
of the purchaser.
114
MANUFACTURING FEATURES PDEC

Cont.
Shop detail drawings are for internal use by the
fabricator, it may be furnished to the purchaser
upon request.

• Drawings for record
After approval of drawings manufacturer furnished
3 set of drawings along with all documents to the
purchaser
115
MANUFACTURING FEATURES PDEC

• Proprietary rights to drawings
The drawings and the design indicated by the
manufacturer are to be considered the property of
the manufacturer and are not to be used or
reproduced without his permission, except by the
purchaser for his own internal use.
• ASME code data reports
After completion of fabrication and inspection of
ASME code stamped exchangers, the manufa. shall
furnish 3 set of ASME data report.
116
MANUFACTURING FEATURES PDEC

INSPECTION:
There are two yepes of inspection:
• Manufacturer’s Inspection
• Purchaser’s Inspection

• Manufacturer’s Inspection
Inspection and testing of units will be provided by
the manufacturer unless otherwise specified.

117
MANUFACTURING FEATURES PDEC

The manufacturer shall carry out the inspection
required by the ASME code and also inspection by
state and local codes .

• Purchaser’s Inspection
The purchaser shall have the right to make
inspection during fabrication and to witness any
test.
Inspection by the purshaser shall not relieve the
manufacturer of his responsibilities. 118
MANUFACTURING FEATURES PDEC

PREPARATION FOR SHIPMENT:
• Cleaning
Internal and external surfaces are to be free from
loose scale and other foreign material that is readily
removable by hand or power brushing

• Draining
Water, oil or other liquids used for cleaning or
hydro-static testing are to be drained from all units
before shipment. 119
MANUFACTURING FEATURES PDEC

• Flange protection
All exposed machined contact surfaces shall be
coated with a removable rust preventative.
All threaded connections are to be suitably plugged.

• Damage protection
The exchangers and any spare parts are to be
suitably protected to prevent damage during
shipment.
120
MANUFACTURING FEATURES PDEC

GUARANTEES:
It may be given on the basis of
• Performance and
• Defective parts
• Performance Guarantee
The manufacturer shall guarantee thermal
performance and mechanical design of a heat
exchanger, when operated at the design conditions
specified by the purchaser in his order.
121
MANUFACTURING FEATURES PDEC

Cont.

This guarantee shall extend for a period of twelve
months after shipping date.

The thermal guarantee shall not be applicable to
exchangers where the thermal perfomance rating
was made by the purhaser.

122
MANUFACTURING FEATURES PDEC

• Defective parts Guarantee

The manufacturer shall repair or replace any parts
proven defective within the guarantee period.
Finished materials and accessories purchased from
other manufacturers, including tubes are warranted
only to the extent of the original manufacturer’s
warranty to the heat exchanger.

123
PDEC

MANUFACTURES OF HEAT EXCHANGER:

• M/s Aero-therm Products

• M/s Hindustan Radiators

• M/s Unique Chemo-plant Equipments

• M/s Larsen & Toubro
124
PDEC

MANUFACTURES OF HEAT EXCHANGER:

• M/s Hindustan Dorr Oliver Ltd

• M/s Godrej

• M/s Precision Engineering.

• M/s Universal Heat Exchangers
125
PDEC

MAINT. OF HEAT EXCHANGERS

126
ROUTINE MAINTENANCE PDEC

OPERATIONAL PROBLEMS
• Decline in heat transfer efficiency / high
pressure drop
• Scaling, fouling, choking, etc.,
• Internal Leak
Causing contamination between shell
and tube fluids

127
ROUTINE MAINTENANCE PDEC

OPERATIONAL PROBLEMS
• Gasket Leaks
Due to thermal shock during start-
up, shutdowns & Upsets
• Tube Leaks
Tube failure due to fatigue, ageing
& corrosion
BLINDING THE EQUIPMENTS

128
PASSIVATION PDEC

• Why ?
(During a shutdown, in the presence of
air and liquid water, often dew point
water, the sulfides convert to polythionic
acid which causes inter-granular Stress
Corrosion Cracking to Austenitic steels)
• Materials prone for SCC
(Austenitic SS tube bundles - SS 304,
SS310, SS316, SS321, SS347)

129
PASSIVATION PDEC

• When ?
Before Opening of the equipments

• Solution
Soaked with a solution of DM Water, Sodium
Carbonate (2%) and Sodium Nitrate (0.5%) for
about 8 hours.

130
PDEC

• Opening the covers of heat exchangers
• Removing of bundle
Bundle Extractor or Puller

131
EXCHANGER CLEANING PDEC

• Chemical Cleaning
 Shell - Fixed Tube Sheet Bundle
 Vacuum Condensers, Ejector Condensers,
Reboilers
 0.5% concentration HCl with inhibitor
circulation for 8 hours
 Hot water wash
 Branded chemicals
 Online by wash water circulation

132
PDEC

• Kero -bath soaking
Crude vacuum, Asphalt services
• Hydroblasting (For Tube exteriors)
Water jet at a pressure of 300 - 600 Kg/Sq.cm
(Up to 35000 psi / 2500 bar)

133
Hydro-blasting (For Tube exteriors) PDEC

Before Cleaning After Cleaning

134
Hydro-lancing (For Tube interiors) PDEC

Manual Operation Power Lancing
135
Hydro-lancing (For Tube interiors) PDEC

Before Cleaning After cleaning
136
PDEC

• Gasket Replacement
A gasket is a compressible material, or
combination of materials, which when
clamped between two stationary members
prevents the passage of the media across
those members.
• Gasket Selection
Tem. of the media to be contained,
Corrosive nature of the application and
Criticality of the application
137
PDEC

• GASKET CLASSIFICATION
CAF (Compressed asbestos fiber)
250 deg. C, 30 bar,
Water, steam and for non-critical applications

138
PDEC

• GASKET CLASSIFICATION
IJA (Iron Jacketed Asbestos)
High Temperature applications
Sheet Metal - SS, Brass, Monel , Al, In-conel
Filler - Asbestos, PTEF, Grafoil

139
PDEC

• GASKET CLASSIFICATION
Spiral Wound Gasket (SPWD)
(SPWD) with Asbestos filled & Inner Ring (13mm)
& Outer Nose (4 mm width) 260 – 650 C
Winding - SS 410, 304, 316, Monel, Inconel
Filler - CAF(360oC), PTFE(260oC),
Graphite(550oC), Ceramic(650oC)

140
PDEC

TUBE BUNDLE RETUBING
• More number of tubes plugged
• Not possible to clear the tubes
• Scaling & poor heat transfer
• After average life of the bundle
• Frequent failures

141
PDEC

TUBE BUNDLE RETUBING
• Full or Partial
• Where
At Bundle Shop or at Position

142
PDEC

THANK YOU

143