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Ayalneh Wondimu, B.A.Sc.,

M.Eng. (Geotech)
Oct. 02 – 13, 2017
Presentation outline:
 2.1 Piles

 2.1.1 Soil Mechanics

 2.1.2 Structural Components

 2.2 Retaining Systems

 2.2.1 Soil Mechanics

 2.2.2 Structural Components

Scope of Theoretical
• Lessons to be learned about piles and
– the mechanics of piles and tie back anchors
– Know their structural components
• Soil Design Parameters for pile and anchors
– How do we obtain
– Design considerations
– Standard practice
2.1 Piles -
• transfer the loads from superstructures;

• friction or end-bearing type depending on the

predominant mode of resistance;

• bored cast in-situ piles

– mechanically augured or cored piles
– cast-in-situ means that the piles are cast with
concrete on site
2.1.1 Mechanics of Piles -
• the loads from superstructures are the action: Q
• the shaft friction and end bearing resistance are the
reaction : ts + qb;

• Friction Resistance depends on soil cohesion

and friction values
• Drained strength parameters – c’ and f’
• Identified for each layer and degree of
consolidation within each layer
Mechanics of Piles – (cont…)
• the pile design to construction steps
– Preliminary site investigation (exploratory)
– Structural design of superstructure (Reactions) –
preliminary designs adequate
– Geotechnical engineer recommends an
investigation program (detailed)
– Preliminary pile design based on GI report
– Pile Load test recommended before works –
PRELIMINARY Pile load test - or-
– Piling starts and Working Piles are tested
Mechanics of Piles – (cont…)
• the pile design to construction
– Piling starts and Working Piles are tested
» Confidence in soil parameters
» Previous pile tested nearby
– Load tests either confirm design assumptions or
provide insight
– Design REVISION (if required)
2.1.2 Structural components of Piles –
• Bored cast-in-situ piles
– Casings (permanent)
• Off shore piles (serves as shuttering – formwork)
• When expansive soils encountered in upper strata
• To minimize Negative skin friction

– Reinforcement Steel
• Where significant Bending and Lateral loads encountered
• Longitudinal and helical (shear) type
• Grades 40 to 60 – design to specify both AREA of steel
required, the sizes, the arrangement
• Tensile tests performed to verify – strength parameters
Structural components of Piles –
• Bored cast-in-situ piles (cont…)
– Concrete
• Primary compression element
• Class of concrete specified in design – fc’
• Type of cement may be specified depending on
ground conditions
• Usually OPC cement used (for workability and strength
• Trial Mix design followed by Trial batch with sampling
for Compressive strength tests.
Structural components of Piles –
(cont…) – Typical Pile Design Drawing
2.2 Retaining Systems with Anchors
• support of an excavation pit
• anchored pile wall is the most common in
the local market
• If ground water present secant pile wall
systems are the preferred choice
• grouted anchor is identified as one of the
key components providing lateral support
2.2.1 Mechanics of Wall with
• anchored pile wall system acts as a supported
beam in the vertical direction
• pile is the beam anchors the supports
• actions on the wall are active soil pressure
• ground water pressure
• surcharge pressure due to surface loads
2.2.1 Mechanics - (cont…)

Figure 17: Anchored Pile wall – Schematics

2.2.1 Mechanics - (cont…)
• wall itself consists of a reinforced concrete
pile designed accordingly
• piles are loaded laterally and are subjected to
significant shear and bending moments
• analysis of the same requires special
consideration (modelling) of soil-structure
2.2.1 Mechanics - (cont…)
• Anchor schematics
2.2.1 Mechanics - (cont…)
• Anchors
– provide primary lateral support for the wall
– usually provide active support – they are pre-
tensioned at the design load
– resistance acts at the so called grouted length
– tendons are exposed to the grout at grouted
– cement slurry grout is bonding to the soil contact
2.2.1 Mechanics - (cont…)
• Anchors (cont…)
– soil at this contact provides resistance in the form of
friction (similar to pile shaft resistance)
– cohesive soils, anchors are usually post grouted at
• an enlarged bonded-length as compared to the original
installed borehole
• end bearing resistance at the start of the bonded length
– Pullout resistance of anchors needs to be checked
– The geotechnical design specifies the grouted length
with allowance for post grouting
2.2.2 Structural Details – Anchors-
• Anchors (cont…)
– internal integrity of the grouted anchor has to be ensured as
– steel in anchors are usually high tensile strength 1780 – 1880
– Usually bundled wires (7 nos.) called tendons
– Typical Per anchor 3 to 4 strands
– Cement type and Grade needs to be specified along with the
maximum w:c ratio
– Design of anchors specifies the free length (only elastic
extension of strands permitted)
– All anchors are usually proof tested before stressing and
Chapter 2 : Theory (LEVEL I)

Thank You