Program Peningkatan Profesionalisme Guru-Guru Sekolah Berprestasi Tinggi 2010 20 – 22 April 2010

Creative Teaching in Science and Mathematics Tan Juat Ngoh, PhD IPG Kampus Pendidikan Teknik

Content Overview
• Creativity in science and mathematics education • Creative thinking • Creative teaching and learning resources • Creative teaching and learning strategies

Activity
• Sign your name as creatively as possible • Walk around and look at your friend’s signature. • In what ways is it different from your signature. • What words do you associate with the word “creativity”?

Edward de Bono
Edward de Bono sees creativity as being about new ideas and new ways of looking at things. It involves going beyond the obvious. However, he notes that that ‘creativity’ is a vague term. He invented the term lateral thinking to characterize what he describes as modes of thoughts that involve pattern switching.

Anna Craft
Anna Craft draws on the work of Howard Gardner to remind us that creativity is the ability to solve problems, fashion products or raise new questions. It is about possibility thinking. Furthermore, creativity is not a single entity but a multiple process that involves looking into ourselves as well as looking outwards.

All Our Futures

Creativity always involves • thinking and behaving  imaginatively • purposeful activity that is  directed towards an objective • processes that generate  something that is original • outcomes that are of value.

• •

Imaginative activity fashioned so as to produce outcomes that are both original and of value

4 features of creativity
 Imagination Imaginative activity is generating something original that is alternative to what might be expected.  Pursuing purposes Creativity is aimed at meeting an overall objective or problem-solving  Being original This could be original in relation to the individual and previous work, or original in relation to their peer group, or historically original, that is, unique in terms of human endeavour  Judging value Value could be in terms of, for example, effectiveness, usefulness or whether the output is enjoyable (Definition of creativity given by the National Advisory Committee on Creativity and Cultural Education (NACCCE), Government in England

Creative teaching for tomorrow: A research study
Professor Teresa Cremin Jonathan Barnes, Dr Stephen Scoffham

Research aims
•To explore the features which characterise creative teaching and effective practice. • •To provide insights that might support future work in this area. •

The creative teacher

gy go da Pe

se itil au ql an osr eP

Creative Practice

School ethos

Personal qualities

The most creative teachers show an openness and willingness to learn

She has a happy face all the time

Commitment and

He looks at work from the child’s view

Relating to children

“She made connections to her own life throughout the lesson”

“I try to show children there are no boundaries to their imagination”

“It’s all about letting them take risks with their own learning”

Flexibility

Mutual respect and trust

I treat all children as equals. They ARE equals There was a real sense of love in the classroom, no other word would describe the atmosphere

Sound Subject knowledge

“The teacher was confident of her subject knowledge and interested in the topic”

Pedagogy

Diverse teaching methods

“The most creative teachers I see are constantly questioning their practice”

“I use role-play, not because that is my learning style but because children enjoy it so much”

Working with Creative Partnerships has Autumn Term made me reconsider the nature of learning

Clear learning focus

We took our map of London out on the field. We lit the fire in the Bakery in Pudding Lane and watched our houses burn.

“Pupils are given the opportunity to contribute to the planning of the lesson”

Secure learning environment

I love this school

“Creative teachers have the ability to ask questions that make them seem slightly vulnerable”

Access to resources Access to appropriate resources

Watching videos is fascinating and helps to explain what is going on.

School ethos

“Everything here is so creatively based… we are actively encouraged to think of the bigger picture”

Values

“Pupils are given the opportunity to contribute to the planning of the lesson”

Common Characteristic s
 

• Curiosity and questioning • Connection making • Originality • Autonomy and ownership

A new model of creative practice
school ethos personal pedag Creat qualities ive ogy
practi ce

The creative state of mind : Connection making

Autonomy/ownership

Originality

Creative practice

Curiosity/questioning

Watch the video on active engagement of pupils

Characteristics of the creative child in science
• What do you think are the characteristics of the creative child in science? • What would you be looking for in how children were thinking and working? • Make notes about your ideas.

Characteristics of the creative child in science
Characteristics of the creative child in science Questioning/inquisitive/curious Uses previous knowledge Independent/lateral thinker Interested/enthusiastic Participates/gets involved Verbal/communicates ideas Originality Perseverance Determination % responses by teachers 21.8 18.2 15.5 12.7 10.9 10.9 4.5 3.6 1.8

Use strategies to develop the creative child
         P.O.E. (Predict, Observe, Explain) Investigation Brainstorming Project Simulation Inquiry Singing Experiment Origami

A creative classroom ent that inspires, encourages, and

Teachers need to create an environment where

Pupils feel safe to try things out, to take risks and to value novel ideas

Teachers are open-minded, flexible and prepared to take a few risks

The Right Learning environment
Teachers and learners relax and enjoy their learning, are curious and questioning, encourage and support effort, are intrinsically motivated, persistent and spurred on by challenge

Indicators of a creative classroom
 When pupils are thinking and behaving creatively in the classrooms, you are likely to see them: Questioning and challenging Making connections and seeing relationships Envisaging what might be Exploring ideas, keeping options open Reflecting critically on ideas, actions and outcomes (Qualifications and Curriculum Authority,

Developing the creative classroom
• The physical environment • The social and emotional environment • The thinking environment (National Advisory Committee on Creativity and Cultural Education (NACCCE), Government in England)

 Furniture – type and arrangement  Lighting  Music  Visuals – posters, pictures, bulletin board  Placement of supplies  Temperature  Plants  Comfort  General mood/children’s needs DePorter (1992)

Create an optimal environment, both physically and emotionally

The physical environmentsafety factors
 Be sure all low window areas are safe  Beware of and remove toxic, lead-based paints and poisonous plants  Be sure that commercial or teachermade materials are safe for children  Make sure that adequate exits are provided in the event of a fire  Check to see that fire exits, fire alarms and fire extinguishers are in working order and placed appropriately in the classroom

 According to children’s age and developmental levels  Easy supervision of that space  Flexibility of the space so that it can be adjusted as the child develops  Space should be free as possible to allow the traffic to low  Personal space- plan space in such a way that each child has a space of his/her own.

The physical environmentarrangement of space and equipment

Positive statements hung on the walls

Visual stimuli

• Quotes and snappy slogans • Certificates and awards earned by the students • Trophies • Photographs of competitions, challenges

Goethe • Whatever you can do, or dream you can do, begin it. • Boldness has genius, power and

The physical environment
 Use of science displays that support thinking and working creatively would: -Contain children’s ideas -include materials to challenge ideas -offer questions and problems to think about -contain relevant scientific terminology -encourage children to try activities out, handle materials and make observations - Allow children to register their response and ideas - Be fluid to change accordingly to children responses - Change to provide different areas of interest and challenge

Bulletin Board Calendars

Classroom window clings

Classroom education chart

Cut out decorations

Use Music
 Using specific music allows pupils to do strenuous mental work while remaining relaxed and focused.  Relaxation induced by specific music leaves the mind alert and able to concentrate  Music most conducive to this state is baroque music like Bach and Handel.  Most baroque music is timed at sixty beats per minute, which is the same as an average heart rate.

Strenuous Work Without With appropriate music music • Pulse and • Pulse and blood blood pressure pressure rise decrease • Brain waves • Brain waves speed up slow down

The Social and Emotional Environment
       Listen to each other Respect each other’s ideas Be independent Support and help each other Take risks Learn from mistakes Feel that they can inspire others and can be inspired by their peers

The Thinking Environment
• The creative environment is a thinking environment where the expectation is to:

THINK FOR YOURSELF

JOIN IN THINKING

LISTEN TO THE IDEAS (THINKING) OF OTHERS

Be prepared to think differently

TAKE RISKS IN THINKING

ACTIVITY/INTEREST CENTRES
• One approach to fostering creative activities and use of materials is to provide as part of the environment

activity or interest
centres and to identify activities
and materials for each, based on the group of children in the class.

ACTIVITY/INTEREST CENTRE
• Is a defined space where materials are organised in such a way that children learn without the teacher’s constant presence and direction. • It is a place where children interact with materials and other children to develop certain skills and knowledge.

Encourage creative thinking
Thinking relates to creativity • generate ideas • exploring • make connections • apply imagination • evaluate outcomes •

LE FT BRAI N -l g ica l o
ra ti n a o

RI HT G BRAI N
-emotive -artistic

8 in 1 lesson
Multiple Intelligences Activities Verbal-Linguistic Visual-Spatial Defining key vocabulary words Design posters and brochures, create pictures, make flowcharts Create role-play, dancing Creating a jingle, exploring rhythmic and beat factors Writing reflective journals or diaries, doing thinking logs Doing think-pair-share, collaborativeteam work, doing a group Making collages, dyes, paper from natural investigation/experiment elements, recording environmental sounds on a audiocassette

Logical-Mathematical Reporting statistics, compare and contrast Bodily-Kinesthetic Musical Intrapersonal Interpersonal Naturalist

EDWARD DE BONO

Lateral Thinking
• • • • Is Is Is Is a general attitude of the mind a method of using information concerned with changing patterns directly related to the information handling behaviour of mind

Lateral Thinking Techniques
• The generation of alternatives/points of view • Challenging assumptions • Brainstorming • Suspended judgement • The reversal method • Using analogies • Innovation • Design

Link up the nine dots using only 4 straight lines which must follow on without raising the pencil from the paper

OUT OF THE BOX THINKING--Break loose from established thinking patterns

PARALLEL THINKING SIX THINKING HATS

Parallel Thinking
• Parallel thinking guides thought processes in one direction at a time so we can effectively analyze issues, generate new ideas, and make better decisions. • Each thinker puts forward his/her thoughts in parallel with the thoughts of others – not

Six Thinking Hats
• White hat thinking focuses on the information available and needed. • Black hat thinking examines the difficulties and problems associated with a topic. • Yellow hat thinking focuses on benefits and values. • Red hat thinking looks at a topic from the point of view of emotions, feelings and hunches. • Green hat thinking requires imaginative, creative and lateral thinking about a topic. • Blue hat thinking focuses on reflection, metacognition (thinking about the thinking that is required), and the need to

MIND-MAPS

Mind Maps
• It is a visual tool that enables teachers to help students to assemble ideas, make and represent connection between ideas, concepts and information aided by colours, symbols, numbers, lines and arrows in a very creative and interesting way. • Mind maps are tools that help us think and remember better,

Characteristics of mind maps
• According to Buzan (2000:55-56) mind maps have 4 essential characteristics: • (1)The subject of attention is crystallised in a central image • (2)The main themes of the subject radiate from the central image as branches • (3) Branches comprise a key image or key word printed on an associated line. • (4) Topics of lesser importance are also represented as branches attached to higher-level branches. The branches form a connected nodal structure.

Advantages of mind maps
• Mind maps help students to see gaps in their thinking in terms of ideas that is connected ideas for the development of writing. They allow students to see how they can associate and expand ideas. • Mind maps encourage creativity and flexibility. They help to avoid thinking linearly. They naturally hook into your right brain, where creativity and intuition can help you.

How to do a mind map
• Using an unlined piece of paper, start with the central idea in the middle. Write it down in the middle. • Then think up new ideas, action points and strategies that relate to it. Let these radiate out from the central idea. Focus on the key ideas, using your own words and then look for branches. • Use lines, colours, arrows or branches to complete the idea. • Turn your piece of paper landscape style. This gives you the maximum amount of room to work with. Leave lots of space so you can go back and add to them. You may want to highlight something, add information or questions later on. • Work quickly without pausing, judging or editing. If you pause, judge or edit, you’re encouraging linear thinking and analysis and the idea that things are to be prefect before you can begin.

Teaching with multimedia and internet

Teaching with basic software tools

Teaching with instructional courseware

Web Quests

• A web quest is a discovery project that requires the use of internet resources • To make a web quest go to http://www.kn.pacbell.com/wired/fil/ • To explore some web quests • http://www.kn.pacbell.com.wired/China/ • http://www.koshland-science-museum.or •

VERSUS

Creative Learning
Creativity is a mode of learning driven by the need to find or construct something new

Thoughtful playfulness

Generative thought needs to be free from im

Willingness to challenge assumptions in order to learn new Consolidated thought needs to be subject to critica things

Innovation and new learning/ discovery
After NACCCE (1999)

Creativity involves pupils in
• Questioning and challenging • Making connections, seeing relationships • Envisaging what might be • Exploring ideas, keeping options open • Reflecting critically on ideas, outcomes (Qualifications and Curriculum Authority, England, 2005)

Always tell, rather than read stories, for maximum effect.

Stories will help create a setting for both open and closed questionsplace d
CL I M AX
  

n r a e act r Cha PROPS

SOLUTION

Encourage and accept student’s effort and autonomy Encourage student’s inquiry Researches on How students learn

Learning Process is as important as the product Promotes cooperative learning

Characteris tics Of Constructivi st learning

Belief and attitudes Of students

Encourage student’s questions and interactions Using student’s question or idea to plan instruction

Students construct their knowledge through active participation in real life situation

Teaching models
Needham’s five phases Interactive model (Faire & Cosgrove) Generative model (Osborne) Five E- engage, explore, explain, elaborate, evaluate • Seven E • • • •

Needham’s five phases
Orientation Generation of ideas Restructuring of ideas

Application of ideas

Reflection

Needham’s Five Phases
PHASE Orientation Eliciting of ideas PURPOSE To attract students attention and interest. To be aware of the student’s prior knowledge. METHODS Experiment, video and film show, demonstration, problem solving. Experiment, small group discussion, concept mapping and presentation.

Restructuring of ideas

To realize the existence of alternative Small group discussion and ideas , ideas needs to be improved, to presentation. be developed or to be replaced with Discussion, reading, and teacher’s scientific ideas. input. Explanation and exchanging ideas- Experiment, project and demonstration. To determine the alternative ideas and critically assess the present ideas. Exposure to conflict ideas- To test the validity of the present ideas. Development of new ideas- To improvise, develop or to replace with new ideas. Evaluation-To test the validity of the new ideas.

Application of ideas Reflection

To apply the new ideas to a different situation. Compare between the thinking at the start of the lesson and thinking at the end. .

Problem-solving, project work, uses in daily life Writing of reflective journals, selfreflection , group discussion of outcomes of lesson .

5E
Stimulate learner’s curiosity ENGAGE EXPLORE To satisfy curiosity EXPLAIN The concept and define the terms Extend the concept into other content area Examine the learner’s understanding

ELABORATE

EVALUATE

Salient Behaviors of Inquiry -The teacher:
• encourages thinking, questioning, and discussing • engenders debate and discussion • provides a variety of levels and paths of investigation • works as a fellow investigator • promotes an active interest in student and promotes an active quest for new information and ideas • avoids appeals to authority • maintains an atmosphere conducive to inquiry • places emphasis on “How do I known the material of this course?” rather than “What must I know in this course?”

Salient Behaviors of Inquiry -The students:
• make observations and collect and interpret data • formulate hypotheses and create and conduct experiments to test • work out relationships of cause and effect • relate independent and dependent variables • use reasoning ability • draw conclusions on the basis of data

OUTDOOR LEARNING

O u td o o r l a rn i g ce n tre e n

Activities- treasure hunt, science trail, nature discovery walks, games, environmental activities

INDIVIDUALISED LEARNING

Individualised Learning
• Learning styles –visual, auditory, kinesthetic • Study skills – doing, reflecting, linking, planning • Time management skills • Reading skills • Note taking skills • Gathering information skills • Writing reports/essays/assignments • Examination skills

Project-Based Learning
• Is an in-depth investigation of a realworld topic worthy of children’s attention and effort • Sample activities include field-trips, experiments, model building, posters and the creation of multimedia presentation

Project-Based Learning
• • • • • •
 

G R A S P E

- Goal - Role - Audience - Set of tasks - Product - Evaluation

Project- Based Learning

PBL:What
• A learning/teaching methodology based on the principle of using problems as a starting point for the acquisition of new knowledge • A learning/teaching methodology designed to create learning through experience and the reinforcement of existing knowledge •

Problem Based Learning
• • • • • •
 

G R A S P E

- Goal - Role - Audience - Situation/set of tasks - Product/solution - Evaluation

Present the solution
 Students present the solution to an audience.  The form of presentation may be a written report, an oral presentation or a group paper  In the presentation, the solution is made public and the reasoning behind the solution is made apparent in order to support the selection of this particular solution.  The presentation may be assessed by the students, peers or by the teacher.  Student self-evaluations are also

Debrief the experience • The final step is to evaluate the solution and its effect on the problem. • The debriefing is in two stages:

Problem-solving in science Instruction comes before problem-presentation Problems in the form of an exercise or in the form of experiments which illustrate a scientific principle

Problem-based learning in science Students are presented with a problem before any instruction on the focus area is given

The problem is meant to engage the student as an active participant in the learning process. The problem serves as a focal point for knowledge acquisition and application and drives the instruction There is usually a “right” answer The problems have more than one for such problems correct answer Students are evaluated on the accuracy of their responses, that is, how well their responses match an expert’s answers Students are not judged on how well their answers match an expert, but on the viability of the solution

Some thoughts…
• Creativity in science and mathematics is an important element and the teacher should plan creative and imaginative experiences for children • If there is to be a creative future for science and mathematics, then teachers must not rein in their creative approach to teaching and learning and

Learning highlights and action plan
• What have you learned from this session? • Jot down 4 key learning points and action plans that will help you apply this learning

What I learnt

How can I apply it

References
• • • • • • • • • http://www.cre8ng.com http://www.creativitypool.com http://www.creax,net http://www.enchantedmind.com http://www.odysseyofthemind.org http://www.pbli.org http://www.udel.edu/pbl/ http://www.imsa.edu/ Kain,D.L. (2003). Problem-based learning for teachers, grades 6 – 12. Boston: Pearson Education.

Bunga Kayu, Daun Selasih
Thank You, Terima Kasih