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FLUID STATICS

The science of fluid statics :

the study of pressure and its variation throughout a fluid

statics because of the similarity of forces involved.

Since there is no motion of a fluid layer relative to an adjacent layer,

there are no shear stresses in the fluid

all free bodies in fluid statics have only normal pressure forces

acting on their surfaces

2.1 PRESSURE AT A POINT

area by the area.

Pressure at a point: the limit of the ratio of normal force to area as the

area approaches zero size at the point.

At a point: a fluid at rest has the same pressure in all directions an

element δA of very small area, free to rotate about its center when

submerged in a fluid at rest, will have a force of constant magnitude

acting on either side of it, regardless of its orientation.

To demonstrate this, a small wedge-shaped free body of unit width is

taken at the point (x, y) in a fluid at rest (Fig.2.1)

Figure 2.1 Free-body diagram of wedge-shaped particle

There can be no shear forces the only forces are the normal surface

forces and gravity the equations of motion in the x and y directions

px, py, ps are the average pressures on the three faces, γ is the unit

gravity force of the fluid, ρ is its density, and ax, ay are the accelerations

When the limit is taken as the free body is reduced to zero size by

allowing the inclined face to approach (x, y) while maintaining the same

angle θ, and using

may be neglected

When divided by δy and δx, respectively, the equations can be combined

θ is any arbitrary angle this equation proves that the pressure is the

same in all directions at a point in a static fluid

Although the proof was carried out for a two-dimensional case, it may

be demonstrated for the three-dimensional case with the equilibrium

equations for a small tetrahedron of fluid with three faces in the

coordinate planes and the fourth face inclined arbitrarily.

If the fluid is in motion (one layer moves relative lo an adjacent layer),

shear stresses occur and the normal stresses are no longer the same in all

directions at a point the pressure is defined as the average of any

three mutually perpendicular normal compressive stresses at a point,

occur at a point the pressure is the same in all directions

2.2 BASIC EQUATION OF FLUID STATICS

Force balance:

The forces acting on an element of fluid at rest (Fig. 2.2): surface forces

and body forces.

With gravity the only body force acting, and by taking the y axis

vertically upward, it is -γ δx δy δz in the y direction

With pressure p at its center (x, y, z) the approximate force exerted on

the side normal to the y axis closest to the origin and the opposite e side

are approximately

Figure 2.2

Rectangular

parallelepiped

element of fluid at

rest

Summing the forces acting on the element in the y direction

= δV, the expression becomes exact.

This is the resultant force per unit volume at a point, which must be

equated to zero for a fluid at rest.

The gradient ∇ is

-∇p is the vector field f or the surface pressure force per unit volume

For an inviscid fluid in motion, or a fluid so moving that the shear stress

is everywhere zero, Newton's second law takes the form

when gravity is the only body force acting

In component form, Eq. (2.2.4) becomes

Pascal's law; they state that two points at the same elevation in the same

continuous mass or fluid at rest have the same pressure.

Since p is a function of y only,

elevation and holds for both compressible and incompressible fluids

For fluids that may be considered homogeneous and incompressible, γ is

constant, and the above equation, when integrated, becomes

of pressure is frequently written in the form

Example 2.1 An oceanographer is to design a sea lab 5 m high to withstand

submersion to 100 m, measured from sea level to the top of the sea lab.

Find the pressure variation on a side of the container and the pressure

on the top if the relative density of salt water is 1.020.

If y is measured from the top of the sea lab downward, the pressure

variation is

#

Pressure Variation in a Compressible Fluid

between Eqs. (2.2.7) and (2.2.9),

gas

- constant temperature gradient of atmosphere

Example 2.2 Assuming isothermal conditions to prevail in the atmosphere,

compute the pressure and density at 2000 m elevation if P = 105Pa, ρ =

1.24 kg/m3 at sea level.

#

2.3 UNITS AND SCALES OF PRESSURE MEASUREMENT

absolute zero

vacuum

Gage pressure: difference between its value and the local atmospheric

pressure

Figure 2.3 Bourdon gage.

The bourdon gage (Fig. 2.3): typical of the devices used for measuring

gage pressures

pressure element is a hollow, curved, flat metallic tube closed at one

end; the other end is connected to the pressure to be measured

when the internal pressure is increased, the tube tends to straighten,

pointer to move

the dial reads zero when the inside and outside of the tube are at the

same pressure, regardless of its particular value

the gage measures pressure relative to the pressure of the medium

Figure 2.4 Units and scales for pressure measurement

Figure 2.4: the data and the relations of the common units of pressure

measurement

Standard atmospheric pressure is the mean pressure at sea level, 760

mm Hg.

A pressure expressed in terms of the length of a column of liquid is

equivalent to the force per unit area at the base of the column.

The relation for variation of pressure with altitude in a liquid p = γh

[Eq. (2.2.8)] (p is in pascals, γ in newtons per cubic metre, and h in

metres)

With the unit gravity force of any liquid expressed as its relative density

S times the unit gravity force of water:

Local atmospheric pressure is measured by

mercury barometer

pressure between the atmosphere and an

evacuated box or tube in a manner analogous

to the bourdon gage except that the tube is

evacuated and sealed)

Mercury barometer: glass tube closed at one end,

filled with mercury, and inverted so that the open

end is submerged in mercury.

It has a scale: the height of column R can be

determined

The space above the mercury contains mercury

vapor. If the pressure of the mercury vapor hv is

given in millimetres of mercury and R is

measured in the same units, the pressure at A may

be expressed as (mm Hg)

Figure 2.5 Mercury

barometer

Figure 2.4: a pressure may be located vertically on the chart, which

indicates its relation to absolute zero and to local atmospheric pressure.

If the point is below the local-atmospheric-pressure line and is referred

to gage datum, it is called negative, suction, or vacuum.

Example: the pressure 460 mm Hg abs, as at 1, with barometer reading

720 mm, may be expressed as -260 mm Hg, 260 mm Hg suction, or 260

mm Hg vacuum.

Note:

Pabs = pbar + pgage

Absolute pressures : P, gage pressures : p.

Example 2.3 The rate of temperature change in the atmosphere with

change in elevation is called its lapse rate. The motion of a parcel of air

depends on the density of the parcel relative to the density of the

surrounding (ambient) air. However, as the parcel ascends through the

atmosphere, the air pressure decreases, the parcel expands, and its

temperature decreases at a rate known as the dry adiabatic lapse rate. A

firm wants lo burn a large quantity of refuse. It is estimated that the

temperature of the smoke plume at 10 m above the ground will be 11oC

greater than that of the ambient air. For the following conditions

determine what will happen to the smoke.

(a) At standard atmospheric lapse rate β = -0.00651oC per meter

and t0 =20oC.

(b) At an inverted lapse rate β = 0.00365oC per meter.

By combining Eqs. (2.2.7) and (2.2.14),

The relation between pressure and temperature for a mass of gas expanding

without heat transfer (isentropic relation, Sec. 6.1) is

absolute pressure; k is the specific heat ratio, 1.4 for air and other diatomic

gases.

Eliminating P/P0 in the last two equations

Since the gas will rise until its temperature is equal to the ambient

temperature,

the last two equations may be solved for y. Let

Then

For β = -0.00651oC per metre, R = 287 m·N/(kg·K), a = 2.002, and y = 3201

m. For the atmospheric temperature inversion β = -0.00365oC per metre, a =

-0.2721, and y = 809.2 m. #

2.4 MANOMETERS

differences in pressure.

Figure 2.6a: the most elementary manometer – piezometer

It measures the pressure in a liquid when it is above zero gage

Liquid rises in the tube until equilibrium is reached

measured, expressed in units of length of the liquid in the container.

Piezometer would not work for negative gage pressures, because air

would flow into the container through the tube

Figure 2.6 Simple manometers.

Figure 2.6b: for small negative or positive gage pressures in a liquid

With this arrangement the meniscus may come to rest below A, as

shown. Since the pressure at the meniscus is zero gage and since

pressure decreases with elevation,

units of length H2O

Figure 2.6c: for greater negative or positive gage pressures (a second

liquid of greater relative density employed)

It must be immiscible in the first fluid, which may now be a gas

If the relative density of the fluid at A is S1 (based on water) and the

relative density of the manometer liquid is S2, the equation for pressure

at A

h1, h2 - in length units

A general procedure in working all manometer problems :

1. Start at one end (or any meniscus if the circuit is continuous) and

write the pressure there in an appropriate unit (say pascals) or in an

appropriate symbol if it is unknown.

2. Add to this the change in pressure, in the same unit, from one

meniscus to the next (plus if the next meniscus is lower, minus if

higher). (For pascals this is the product of the difference in elevation

in metres and the unit gravity force of the fluid in newtons per cubic

metre.)

3. Continue until the other end of the gage (or the starting meniscus) is

reached and equate the expression to the pressure at that point,

known or unknown.

The expression will contain one unknown for a simple manometer or

will give a difference in pressures for the differential manometer. In

equation form,

Figure 2.7 Differential manometers

A differential manometer (Fig. 2.7) determines the difference in

pressures at two points A and B when the actual pressure at any point

in the system cannot be determined

Application of the procedure outlined above to Fig. 2.7a produces

the above results can be written, for Fig. 2.7a,

Example 2.4 In Fig. 2.7a the liquids at A and B are water and the

manometer liquid is oil. S = 0.80; h1 = 300 mm; h2 = 200 mm; and h3 =

600 mm.

(a) Determine pA - pB, in pacals.

(b) If pB = 50kPa and the barometer reading is 730 mm Hg, find the

pressure at A, in meters of water absolute.

(a)

(b)

(a)

Micromanometers

large pressure differences precisely – several types of manometers

One type very accurately measures the differences in elevation of two

menisci of a manometer.

By means of small telescopes with horizontal cross hairs mounted

along the tubes on a rack which is raised and lowered by a pinion and

slow motion screw so that the cross hairs can be set accurately, the

difference in elevation of menisci (the gage difference) can be read with

verniers.

Figure 2.8 Micromanometer using two gage liquids

Fig. 2.8: two gage liquids, immiscible in each other and in the fluid to

be measured a large gage difference R can be produced for a small

pressure difference.

The heavier gage liquid fills the lower U tube up to 0-0; then the lighter

gage liquid is added to both sides, filling the larger reservoirs up to 1-1.

The gas or liquid in the system fills the space above 1-1. When the

pressure at C is slightly greater than at D, the menisci move as

indicated in Fig. 2.8.

The volume of liquid displaced in each reservoir equals the

displacement in the U tube

Manometer equation

Example 2.5 In the micromanometer of Fig 2.8 the pressure difference is

wanted, in pascals, when air is in the system, S2 = 1.0, S3 = 1.10, a/A =

0.01, R = 5 mm, t = 20oC, and the barometer reads 760 mm Hg.

The term γ1(a/A) may be neglected. Substituting into Eq. (2.4.1) gives

#

Figure 2.9

Inclined

manometer

differences in gas pressures.

Adjusted to read zero, by moving the inclined scale, when A and B are

open. Since the inclined tube requires a greater displacement of the

meniscus for given pressure difference than a vertical tube, it affords

greater accuracy in reading the scale.

Surface tension causes a capillary rise in small tubes. If a U tube is

used with a meniscus in each leg, the surface-tension effects cancel.

2.5 FORCES ON PLANE AREAS

have been considered.

The distributed forces resulting from the action of fluid on a finite area

may be conveniently replaced by a resultant force, insofar as external

reactions to the force system are concerned.

In this section the magnitude of resultant force and its line of action

(pressure center) are determined by integration, by formula, and by

use of the concept of the pressure prism.

Horizontal Surfaces

A plane surface in a horizontal position in a fluid at rest is subjected to

a constant pressure.

The magnitude of the force acting on one side of the surface is

The elemental forces pdA acting on A are all parallel and in the same

sense a scalar summation of all such elements yields the magnitude

of the resultant force. Its direction is normal to the surface and toward

the surface if p is positive.

Fig. 2.10: arbitrary xy axes - to find the line of action of the resultant,

i.e., the point in the area where the moment of the distributed force

about any axis through the point is zero,

Then, since the moment of the resultant must equal the moment of the

distributed force system about any axis, say the y axis,

Figure 2.10 Notation for determining the line

of action of a force

Momentum

(1) First moment

Centroidal axis

Volume center

Figure A.1 Notation for first and second moments

(2) Second moment

The second moment of an area A (the moment of inertia of the area)

The product of inertia Ixy of an area

Inclined Surfaces

from the horizontal. x axis: intersection of the plane of the area and the

free surface. y axis: taken in the plane of the area, with origin O in the

free surface. The xy plane portrays the arbitrary inclined area. The

magnitude, direction, and line of action of the resultant force due to the

liquid, acting on one side of the area, are sought.

For δA:

Since all such elemental forces are parallel, the integral over the area

yields the magnitude of force F, acting on one side of the area,

liquid is the product of the area and the pressure at its centroid

The presence of a free surface is unnecessary

Figure 2.11 Notation for force of liquid on one side of a plane inclined area.

Center of Pressure

Fig. 2.11: the line of action of the resultant force has its piercing point

in the surface at a point called the pressure center, with coordinates (xp,

yp). Center of pressure of an inclined surface is not at the centroid. To

find the pressure center, the moments of the resultant xpF, ypF are

equated to the moment of the distributed forces about the y axis and x

axis, respectively

simple areas they may be transformed into general formulas:

When either of the centroidal axes is an axis of symmetry for the

surface, I xy vanishes and the pressure center lies on x = x- . Since

I xy may be either positive or negative, the pressure center may lie on

either side of the line x = x-. To determine yp by formula, with Eqs.

(2.5.2) and (2.5.6)

centroidal axis. If IG is eliminated from Eq. (2.5.9)

Example 2.6 The triangular gate CDE (Fig. 2.12) is hinged along CD and is

opened by a normal force P applied at E. It holds oil, relative density 0.80,

above it and is open to the atmosphere on its lower side Neglecting the

weight of the gate, find (a) the magnitude of force exerted on the gate by

integration and by Eq. (2.5.2); (b) the location of pressure center; (c) the

force P needed to open the gate.

(a) By integration with reference to Fig. 2.12,

y; thus

Solving for a and b gives

By Eq. (2.5.2)

(b) With the axes as shown,

In Eq. (2.5.8)

I-xyis zero owing to symmetry about the centroidal axis parallel to the x

axis; hence

In Eq. (2.5.11),

i.e., the pressure center is 0.16 m below the centroid, measured in the

plane of the area.

(c) When moments about CD are taken and the action of the oil is

replaced by the resultant,

The Pressure Prism

Pressure prism: another approach to determine the resultant force and

line of action of the force on a plane surface - prismatic volume with its

base the given surface area and with altitude at any point of the base

given by p = γh. h is the vertical distance to the free surface, Fig. 2.13.

(An imaginary free surface may be used to define h if no real free

surface exists.) (in the figure, γh may be laid off to any convenient scale

such that its trace is OM)

The force acting on an elemental area δA is

(2.5.12)

- an element of volume of the pressure prism. After integrating, F = ϑ

From Eqs. (2.5.5) and (2.5.6),

(2.5.13)

xp, yp are distances to the centroid of the pressure prism the line

of action of the resultant passes through the centroid of the pressure

prism

Figure 2.13 Pressure prism

Effects of Atmospheric Pressure on Forces on Plane Areas

mentioned : p = γh the datum taken was gage pressure zero, or the

local atmospheric pressure

When the opposite side of the surface is open to the atmosphere, a

force is exerted on it by the atmosphere equal to the product of the

atmospheric pressure P0 and the area, or P0A , based on absolute zero

as datum. On the liquid side the force is

The effect P0A of the atmosphere acts equally on both sides and in no

way contributes to the resultant force or its location

So long as the same pressure datum is selected for all sides of a free

body, the resultant and moment can be determined by constructing a

free surface at pressure zero on this datum and using the above

methods

Example 2.8 An application of pressure forces on plane areas is given in the

design of a gravity dam. The maximum and minimum compressive

stresses in the base of the dam are computed from the forces which act

on the dam. Figure 2.15 shows a cross section through a concrete dam

where the unit gravity force of concrete has been taken as 2.5γ and γ is

the unit gravity force of water. A 1 m section of dam is considered as a

free body; the forces are due to the concrete, the water, the foundation

pressure, and the hydrostatic uplift. Determining amount of hydrostatic

uplift is beyond the scope of this treatment. but it will be assumed to be

one-half the hydrostatic head at the upstream edge, decreasing linearly

to zero at the downstream edge of the dam. Enough friction or shear

stress must be developed at the base of the dam to balance the thrust

due to the water that is Rx = 5000γ. The resultant upward force on the

base equals the gravity force of the dam less the hydrostatic uplift Ry =

6750γ + 2625γ - 1750γ = 7625γ N. The position of Ry is such that the free

body is in equilibrium. For moments around O,

Figure 2.15

Concrete gravity

dam

It is customary to assume that the foundation pressure varies linearly

over the base of the dam, i.e., that the pressure prism is a trapezoid

with a volume equal to Ry; thus

stresses in pascals. The centroid of the pressure prism is at the point

where x = 44.8 m. By taking moments about 0 to express the position of

the centroid in terms of σmax and σmin,

Simplifying gives

When the resultant falls within the middle third of the base of the dam,

σmin will always be a compressive stress. Owing to the poor tensile

properties of concrete, good design requires the resultant to fall within

the middle third of the base.

2.6 FORCE COMPONENTS ON CURVED SURFACES

curved surface, they must be added as vector quantities

their components in three mutually perpendicular directions are

vectorially.

With two horizontal components at right angles and with the vertical

component - all easily computed for a curved surface - the resultant

can be determined.

The lines of action of the components also are readily determined.

Horizontal Component of Force on a Curved Surface

to the pressure force exerted on a projection of the curved surface. The

vertical plane of projection is normal to the direction of the component.

Fig. 2.16: the surface represents any three-dimensional surface, and δA

an element of its area, its normal making the angle θ with the negative

x direction. Then

projecting the curved surface as a whole onto the vertical plane

force acting on this projection of the curved surface is the horizontal

component of force exerted on the curved surface in the direction

normal to the plane of projection.

To find the horizontal component at right angles to the x direction, the

curved surface is projected onto a vertical plane parallel to x and the

force on the projection is determined.

Figure 2.16 Horizontal

component of force on a

curved surface

area elements on opposite

sides of a body

When looking for the horizontal component of pressure force on a

closed body, the projection of the curved surface on a vertical plane is

always zero, since on opposite sides of the body the area-element

projections have opposite signs (Fig. 2.17).

Let a small cylinder of cross section δA with axis parallel to x intersect

the closed body at B and C. If the element of area of the body cut by

the prism at B is δAB and at C is δAC, then

To find the line of action of a horizontal component of force on a

curved surface, the resultant of the parallel force system composed of

the force components from each area element is required. This is

exactly the resultant of the force on the projected area, since the two

force systems have an identical distribution of elemental horizontal

force components. Hence, the pressure center is located on the

projected area by the methods of Sec. 2.5.

Example 2.9 The equation of an ellipsoid of revolution submerged in

water is x2/4 + y2/4 + z2/9 = 1. The center of the body is located 2 m

below the free surface. Find the horizontal force components acting on

the curved surface that is located in the first octant. Consider the xz

plane to be horizontal and y to be positive upward.

Projection of the surface on the yz plane has an area of

Its centroid is located m below the free surface

Vertical Component of Force on a Curved Surface

to the weight surface and extending up to the free surface

Can be determined by summing up the vertical components of

pressure force on elemental areas δA of the surface

In Fig.2.18 an area element is shown with the force p δA acting normal

to it. Let θ be the angle the normal to the area element makes with the

vertical. Then the vertical component of force acting on the area

element is p cos θ δA, and the vertical component of force on the

curved surface is given by

(2.6.2)

p replaced by its equivalent γh; cos θ δA is the projection of δA on a

horizontal plane Eq. (2.6.2):

(2.5.3-4)

in which δϑ is the volume of the prism of height h and base cos θ δA,

or the volume of liquid vertically above the area element

Figure 2.18 Vertical

component of force on a

curved surface

equivalent free surface

Fig. 2.19: the liquid is below the curved surface and the pressure

magnitude is known at some point (e.g., O), an imaginary or equivalent

free surface s-s can be constructed p/γ above O, so that the product of

unit gravity force and vertical distance to any point in the tank is the

pressure at the point.

The weight of the imaginary volume of liquid vertically above the

curved surface is then the vertical component of pressure force on the

curved surface.

In constructing an imaginary free surface, the imaginary liquid must

be of the same unit gravity force as the liquid in contact with the

curved surface; otherwise, the pressure distribution over the surface

will not be correctly represented.

With an imaginary liquid above a surface, the pressure at a point on

the curved surface is equal on both sides, but the elemental force

components in the vertical direction are opposite in sign the

direction of the vertical force component is reversed when an

imaginary fluid is above the surface.

In some cases a confined liquid may be above the curved surface, and

an imaginary liquid must be added (or subtracted) to determine the

free surface.

The line of action of the vertical component is determined by equating

moments of the elemental vertical components about a convenient axis

with the moment of the resultant force. With the axis at O (Fig.2.18),

Since Fv = γϑ

the line of action of the vertical force passes through the centroid of

the volume, real or imaginary, that extends above the curved surface

up to the real or imaginary free surface

Example 2.10 A cylindrical barrier (Fig. 2.20) holds water as shown. The

contact between cylinder and wall is smooth. Considering a 1-m length of

cylinder, determine (a) its gravity force and (b) the force exerted against

the wall.

(a) For equilibrium the weight of the cylinder must equal the vertical

component of force exerted on it by the water. (The imaginary free

surface for CD is at elevation A.) The vertical force on BCD is

(b) The force exerted against the wall is the horizontal force on ABC minus

the horizontal force on CD. The horizontal components of force on BC

and CD cancel; the projection of BCD on a vertical plane is zero ,

since the projected area is 2 m2 and the pressure at the centroid of the

projected area is 9806 Pa.

Figure 2.20 Semifloating body

Tensile Stress in a Pipe and Spherical Shell

Fig. 2.21: a circular pipe under the action of an internal pressure is in

tension around its periphery; assuming that no longitudinal stress

occurs, the walls are in tension

Consider a section of pipe of unit length (the ring between two planes

normal to the axis and unit length apart). If one-half of this ring is

taken as a free body, the tensions per unit length at top and bottom are

respectively T1 and T2

The horizontal component of force acts through the pressure center of

the projected area and is 2pr, in which p is the pressure at the

centerline and r is the internal pipe radius.

For high pressures the pressure center may be taken at the pipe center;

then T1 = T2, and

T is the tensile force per unit length. For wall thickness e, the tensile

stress in the pipe wall is

Figure 2.21 Tensile stress in pipe

Example 2.11 A 100 mm-ID steel pipe has a 6 mm wall thickness. For an

allowable tensile stress of 70 MPa, what is the maximum pressure?

From Eq. (2.6.6)

2.7 BUOYANT FORCE

which it is submerged or floating

Always acts vertically upward (there can be no horizontal

body or submerged portion of the floating body on a vertical plane

is always zero)

The buoyant force on a submerged body is the difference between the

vertical component of pressure force on its underside and the vertical

component of pressure force on its upper side

Figure 2.22

Figure 2.22 Buoyant force on floating and submerged bodies

Fig. 2.22: the upward force on the bottom is equal to the gravity force

of liquid, real or imaginary, which is vertically above the surface ABC,

indicated by the gravity force of liquid within ABCEFA. The

downward force on the upper surface equals the gravity force of liquid

ADCEFA. The difference between the two forces is a force, vertically

upward, due to the gravity force of fluid ABCD that is displaced by the

solid. In equation form

gravity force of fluid

The same formula holds for floating bodies when V is taken as the

volume of liquid displaced

Fig.2.23: the vertical force exerted on an element of the body in the

form of a vertical prism of cross section δA is

δV is the volume of the prism. Integrating over the complete body gives

To find the line of action of the buoyant force, moments are taken

about a convenient axis O and are equated to the moment of the

resultant, thus,

This equation yields the distance to the centroid of the volume; the

buoyant force acts through the centroid of the displaced volume of

fluid; this holds for both submerged and floating bodies.

The centroid of the displaced volume of fluid is called the center of

buoyancy.

Figure 2.23 Vertical force components on element of body

Determining gravity force on an odd-shaped object suspended in two

different fluids yields sufficient data to determine its gravity force,

volume, unit gravity force, and relative density.

Figure 2.24: two free-body diagrams for the same object suspended

and gravity force determined in two fluids, F1 and F2; γ1 and γ2 are the

unit gravity forces of the fluids. W and V, the gravity force and volume

of the object, are to be found.

The equations of equilibrium are written and solved:

Figure 2.24 Free body diagrams for body suspended in a fluid

A hydrometer uses the principle of buoyant force to determine relative

densities of liquids

Figure 2.25: a hydrometer in two liquids with a stem of prismatic

cross section a

Considering the liquid on the left to be distilled water (unit relative

density S = 1.00), the hydrometer floats in equilibrium when

is the gravity force of hydrometer

The position of the liquid surface is marked 1.00 on the stem to

indicate unit relative density S. When the hydrometer is floated in

another 1iquid, the equation of equilibrium becomes

Figure 2.25 Hydrometer in water and in liquid of relative density

Example 2.12 A piece of ore having a gravity force of 1.5 N in air is found to

have a gravity force 1.1 N when submerged in water. What is its volume,

in cubic centimetres, and what is its relative density?

The buoyant force due to air may be neglected. From Fig. 2.24

2.8 STABILITY OF FLOATING AND SUBMERGED BODIES

A small upward displacement decreases the volume of liquid displaced

an unbalanced downward force which tends to return the body to

its original position.

Similarly, a small downward displacement results in a greater buoyant

force, which causes an unbalanced upward force.

direction sets up restoring forces tending to return it to its original

position.

A body has rotational stability when a restoring couple is set up by any

small angular displacement.

Methods for determining rotational stability are developed in the

following discussion

A body may float in

stable equilibrium

unstable equilibrium (any small angular displacement sets up a

couple that tends to increase the angular displacement)

neutral equilibrium (any small angular displacement sets up no

couple whatever)

Figure 2.26: three cases of equilibrium

a. a light piece of wood with a metal mass at its bottom is stable

b. when the metal mass is at the top, the body is in equilibrium but

any slight angular displacement causes it to assume the position in

a

c. a homogeneous sphere or right-circular cylinder is in equilibrium

for any angular rotation; i.e., no couple results from an angular

displacement

Figure 2.26 Examples of stable, unstable, and neutral equilibrium

A completely submerged object is rotationally stable only when its

center of gravity is below the center of buoyancy (Fig. 2.27a)

When the object is rotated counterclockwise, the buoyant force and

gravity force produce a couple in the clockwise direction (Fig. 2.27b)

Normally, when a body is too heavy to float, it submerges and goes

down until it rests on the bottom.

Although the unit gravity force of a liquid increases slightly with depth,

the higher pressure tends to cause the liquid to compress the body or

to penetrate into pores of solid substances and thus decrease the

buoyancy of the body

Example: a ship is sure to go to the bottom once it is completely

submerged, owing to compression of air trapped in its various parts

Determination of Rotational Stability of Floating Objects

Any floating object with center of gravity below its center of buoyancy

(centroid of displaced volume) floats in stable equilibrium (Fig. 2.26a).

Certain floating objects, however, are in stable equilibrium when their

center of gravity is above the center of buoyancy.

Figure 2.28a: a cross section of a body with all other parallel cross

sections identical. The center of buoyancy is always at the centroid of

the displaced volume, which is at the centroid of the cross-sectional

area below liquid surface in this case.

Figure 2.28 Stability of a prismatic body

when the body is tipped (Fig. 2.28b), the center of buoyancy is at the

centroid B' of the trapezoid ABCD, the buoyant force acts upward

through B', and the gravity force acts downward through G, the center

of gravity of the body

When the vertical through B' intersects the original centerline above C,

as at M, a restoring couple is produced and the body is in stable

equilibrium

The intersection of the buoyant force and the centerline is called the

metacenter (M)

When M is above G, the body is stable; when below G, it is unstable;

and when at G, it is in neutral equilibrium

The distance MG is called the metacentric height and is a direct

measure of the stability of the body. The restoring couple is

body

Example 2.13 In Fig. 2.28 a scow 6 m wide and 20 m long has a gross

mass of 200 Mg. Its center of gravity is 30 cm above the water surface.

Find the metacentric height and restoring couple when Δy = 30 cm.

The depth of submergence h in the water is

and BC,

G is 1.97 m from the bottom; hence

#

Nonprismatic Cross Sections

For a floating object of variable cross section (e.g., a ship) (Fig. 2.39a),

a convenient formula can be developed for determination of

metacentric height for very small angles of rotation θ

The horizontal shift in center of buoyancy r (Fig. 2.29b) is determined

by the change in buoyant forces due to the wedge being submerged,

which causes an upward force on the left, and by the other wedge

decreasing the buoyant force by an equal amount ΔFB on the right.

The force system, consisting of the original buoyant force at B and the

couple ΔFB x s due to the wedges, must have as resultant the equal

buoyant force at B'. With moments about B to determine the shirt r,

Figure 2.29

Stability

relations in a

body of variable

cross section

The amount of the couple can be determined with moments about O, the

centerline of the body at the liquid surface

For an element of area δA on the horizontal section through the body at

the liquid surface, an element of volume of the wedge is xθ δA. The

buoyant force due to this element is γxθ δA, and its moment about O is

γx2θ δA, in which θ is the small angle of tip in radians.

By integrating over the complete original horizontal area at the liquid

surface, the couple is determined to be

I is the moment of inertia of the area about the axis y-y (Fig.2.29a)

Substitution into the above equation produces

Since θ is very small

and

Example 2.14 A barge displacing 1 Gg has the horizontal cross section at

the waterline shown in Fig. 2.30. Its center of buoyancy is 2.0 m below

the water surface, and its center of gravity is 0.5 m below the water

surface. Determine its metacentric height for rolling (about y-y axis)

and for pitching (about x-x axis).

GB = 2 – 0.5 = 1.5 m

For rolling

For pitching

#

Figure 2.30 Horizontal

cross section of a ship at

the waterline

2.9 RELATIVE EQUILIBRIUM

compute

For fluid motion such that no layer moves relative to an adjacent layer,

the shear stress is also zero throughout the fluid

A fluid with a translation at uniform velocity still follows the laws of

static variation of pressure.

When a fluid is being accelerated so that no layer moves relative to an

adjacent one (when the fluid moves as if it were a solid), no shear

stresses occur and variation in pressure can be determined by writing

the equation of motion for an appropriate free body

Two cases are of interest, a uniform linear acceleration and a uniform

rotation about a vertical axis

When moving thus, the fluid is said to be in relative equilibrium

Uniform Linear Acceleration

acceleration a

After some time the liquid adjusts to the acceleration so that it moves

as a solid, i.e., the distance between any two fluid particles remains

fixed no shear stresses occur

By selecting a cartesian coordinate system with y vertical and x such

that the acceleration vector a is in the xy plane (Fig. 2.31a), the z axis is

normal to a and there is no acceleration component in that direction

Fig. 2.31b: the pressure gradient ∇p is then the vector sum of -ρa and -

jγ

Since ∇p is in the direction of maximum change in p (the gradient), at

right angles to ∇p there is no change in p. Surfaces of constant pressure,

including the free surface, must therefore be normal to ∇p

Figure 2.31 Acceleration with free surface

To obtain a convenient algebraic expression for variation of p with x, y,

and z, that is, p = p(x, y, z), Eq. (2.2.5) is written in component form :

To evaluate the constant of integration c: let x = 0, y = 0, p = p0; then c

= p0 and

When the accelerated incompressible fluid has a free surface, its equation

is given by setting p = 0 in the above eq. Solving it for y gives

and are parallel to the free surface. The y intercept of the free surface is

Example 2.15 The tank in Fig. 2.32 is filled with oil, relative density 0.8,

and accelerated as shown. There is a small opening in the rank at A.

Determine the pressure at B and C; and the acceleration ax required to

make the pressure at B zero.

By selecting point A as origin and by applying Eq. (2.9.2) for ay = 0

1.35 m, and p = 11.18 kPa. For zero pressure at B, from Eq. (2.9.2) with

origin at A,

Figure 2.32 Tank completely filled with liquid

Example 2.16 A closed box with horizontal base 6 by 6 units and a height

of 2 units is half-filled with liquid (Fig. 2.33). It is given a constant

linear acceleration ax = g/2, ay = -g/4. Develop an equation for variation

of pressure along its base.

The free surface has the slope:

hence, the free surface is located s shown in the figure. When the origin

is taken at 0, Eq. (2.9.2) becomes

Figure 2.33 Uniform linear acceleration of container

Uniform Rotation about a Vertical Axis

axis

Every particle of fluid has the same angular velocity

as the distance from the center

A liquid in a container, when rotated about a vertical axis at constant

angular velocity, moves like a solid alter some time interval.

No shear stresses exist in the liquid, and the only acceleration that occurs

is directed radially inward toward the axis of rotation.

By selecting a coordinate system (Fig. 2.34a) with the unit vector i in the

r direction and j in the vertical upward direction with y the axis of

rotation, the following equation may be applied to determine pressure

variation throughout the fluid:

(2.2.5)

Figure 2.34 Rotation of a fluid about a vertical axis

For constant angular velocity w, any particle of fluid P has an

acceleration w2r directed radially inward (a = -iw2r)

Vector addition of -jγ and -ρa (Fig. 2.34b) yields ∇p, the pressure

gradient. The pressure does not vary normal to this line at a point if P

is taken at the surface, the free surface is normal to ∇p

Expanding Eq. (2.2.5)

k is the unit vector along the z axis (or tangential direction). Then

If the value of pressure at the origin (r = 0, y = 0) is p0, then c = p0 and

and the above eq. is divided by γ,

: the head, or vertical depth, varies as the square of the radius. The

surfaces of equal pressure are paraboloids of revolution.

When a free surface occurs in a container that is being rotated, the fluid

volume underneath the paraboloid of revolution is the original fluid

volume

The shape of the paraboloid depends only upon the angular velocity with

respect to the axis (Fig. 2.35). The rise of liquid from its vertex to the wall

of the cylinder is w2r02/rg (Eq. (2.9.6)), for a circular cylinder rotating

about its axis.

Since a paraboloid of revolution has a volume equal to one-half its

circumscribing cylinder, the volume of the liquid above the horizontal

plane through the vertex is

When the liquid is at rest, this liquid is also above the plane through the

vertex to a uniform depth of

Hence, the liquid rises along the walls the same amount as the center

drops, thereby permitting the vertex to be located when w, r0, and depth

before rotation are given

Figure 2.35

Rotation of circular cylinder

about its axis

Example 2.17 A liquid, relative density 1.2, is rotated at 200 rpm about a

vertical axis. At one point A in the fluid 1 m from the axis, the pressure

is 70 kPa. What is the pressure at a point B which is 2 m higher than A

and 1.5 m from the axis?

1 m, and rB = 1.5 m.

When the second equation is subtracted from the first and the values

are substituted,

Hence

Example 2.18 A straight tube 2 m long, closed at the bottom and filled

with water, is inclined 30o with the vertical and rotated about a vortical

axis through its midpoint 6.73 rad/s. Draw the paraboloid of zero

pressure, and determine the pressure at the bottom and midpoint of

the tube. In Fig. 2.36, the zero-pressure paraboloid passes through

point A. If the origin is taken at the vertex, that is, p0 = 0, Eq. (2.9.6)

becomes

bottom of the tube is or

Figure 2.36

Rotation of inclined

tube of liquid about a

vertical axis

Fluid Pressure Forces in Relative Equilibrium

The magnitude of the force acting on a plane area in contact with a liquid

accelerating as a rigid body can be obtained by integrating over the

surface

The nature of the acceleration and orientation of the surface governs the

particular variation of p over the surface

When the pressure varies linearly over the plane surface (linear

pressure at the centroid and area, since the volume of the pressure

prism is given by pGA

For nonlinear distributions the magnitude and line of action can be

found by integration.

과제물

스캐닝된 파일을 텍스트 파일로 만들 것. (2,3,4,5 장, 자습서)

교과서의 모든 예제는 반드시 제출하여야 함.

정지유체의 한점에 작용하는 압력은 모든 방향에 대해서 같음을 증명하라.

힘의 평형으로부터 오일러 방정식과 압력의 식을 유도하라.

기체에 대하여 온도가 변하지 않는 경우와 변하는 경우에 대하여 압력의 식을

유도하라.

액주계에 있어서 일반적으로 압력을 계산하는 절차를 설명하라. (단순 액주계

와 차분 액주계의 예를 포함하여).

면적이 다른 경우와 경사진 경우의 미차액주계에서 압력을 계산하는 식을 유

도하라.

1차 2차 모멘트에 대하여 설명하라. 부록에 나와있는 도형에 대하여 도심축과

x축에 대한 2차모멘트에 대한 식을 유도하라.

부록 B의 수치해석 기법을 설명하라. 프로그램밍 포함. (교과서와 다른 책의 내

용 참조).

예제 2.7의 문제를 Bisection과 Newton-Raphson Method를 사용하여 컴퓨터 프

로그램을 작성하여 풀어라.

과제물

Runge-Kutta Method를 설명하고 수치해석 책에 나와있는 문제를 풀어라(프로

그램밍 포함 : C 및 Fortran).

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