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P A M E L A G.

R E E D
She was born in Detroit, Michigan on June 13,1952.
Received her Bachelor of Science degree in Wayne
State University in 1974.
She earned her Master’s in psychiatric nursing and in
nursing education in 1976.
She got her Ph.D. in 1982 with a concentration in
nursing theory and research.
She worked in many administrative positions and also
as a teacher.
 Her Self-transcendence Theory was a second major
scholarly focus from her nursing theory and research.
Reed is a professor at the University of Arizona College
of Nursing in Tucson.
She developed two widely research instruments:
Spiritual Perspective Scale and Self-Transcendence
Scale.
Reed and her co-author Shearer published Nursing
Knowledge and Theory Innovation: Advancing the
Science of Nursing Practice and Perspectives on
Nursing Theory
SELF-TRANSCENDENCE THEORY
(Assumptions)
• Self-transcendence theory is based on Rogers’
conceptualization of human beings as an open
system, integral with their environment. Human
being is pandimensional.

• An assumption underlying Reed’s STT is that


humans impose conceptual boundaries upon
themselves.
SELF-TRANSCENDENCE THEORY
(Assumptions)
• Self-transcendence is a developmental
imperative. This assumption is congruent with
Frankl’s and Maslow’s conceptualization.
Major Concepts
1. VULNERABILITY
• It is defined as one’s awareness of personal
mortality or some risk to well-being that arises.

• The concept of vulnerability include awareness


about life crisis such as disability, chronic illness,
childbirth and parenting.
Major Concepts
2. SELF-TRANSCENDENCE
• It refers to a fluctuation of a perceived
boundaries that extends the person beyond the
immediate and constructed views of self and the
world.

• Fluctuations are multidimensional: outward,


inward, temporal and transpersonal.
Major Concepts
Intrapersonal (inward Interpersonal ( outward
expansion of personal expansion of personal
boundaries towards greater boundaries towards other
awareness of beliefs) and the environment)
Self-
transcendence

Temporal ( toward Transpersonal (to connect


integration of past and with dimension beyond the
future in the present) typical discernible world)
Major Concepts
3. WELL-BEING
• It is defined as “the sense of feeling whole and
healthy, in accord with one’s own criteria for
wholeness and well-being”.

• Well-being can be described in terms of 2 kinds of


change:
a)Changes in complexity in a life
b)Changes in integration
Additional…
4. MODERATING-MEDIATING FACTORS

• These are the personal and contextual


variables, their interactions influence the
process of self-transcendence. Examples:
cognitive ability, age, gender, life experiences,
social environment
Additional…
5. Two (2) POINTS OF INTERVENTION

1. The nursing actions focus directly on the


person’s inner resource for self-
transcendence.

2. The nursing actions focus on some of the


personal and contextual factors
• Nursing • Environment
• Person • Model
• Health
NURSING

• The role of nursing activity was to assist people


through interpersonal and therapeutic
management of their environment to promote
health and well-being.
PERSON

• Persons are viewed as human beings who


develop over their life-span in interaction with
other persons and with in an environment of
changing complexity that could both
positively and negatively contribute
to health and well-being.
H EALTH

• Defined as a life process of both positive and


negative experiences from which individuals
create unique values and environments that
promote well-being.
ENVIRONMENT
• Family, social networks, physical surroundings
and community resources were environments
that significantly contributed to health
process.
MODEL OF SELF-TRANSCENDENCE
MODEL OF SELF-TRANSCENDENCE
Major Propositions
1. Self-transcendence is greater in persons
facing end-of-own life issues than in persons
not facing such issues.

2. Self-transcendence is related to well-being.


Fluctuations in conceptual boundaries may
influence positively or negatively across the
life span
Major Propositions
3. Self-transcendence also may function as
moderators or mediators of the relationship
between vulnerability, self-transcendence and
well-being.

4. Personal and Contextual factors may influence


the relationship between vulnerability and self-
transcendence and between self-transcendence
and well being
• Practice
• Education
• Research
PRACTI C E
• Applicable in the field of education and
psychiatric nursing practice.
• Self-transcendence may be integral to
healing in many life situations
• Nurse activities that promote the perspectives
of self-reflection, hope, altruism and faith in
vulnerable persons are associated with
increased sense of well-being
E D U CAT I O N
• Roger’s Theory, Newman’s Theory, Watson’s
Theory and Parse’s Theory share a common
view in identifying self-transcendence as an
appropriate philosophical foundation for the
education.

• The theory informs students about a substantive


focus of nursing, that of facilitating well-being
through resources.
E D U CAT I O N
• STT also provides an opportunity to learn about
the process of theory development and
refinement.

• Education about self-transcendence theory is


relevant in supporting students who, as future
nurses, will be confronted with difficult situations.
R E SEAR C H
• So many studies were conducted using this theory
( to demonstrate the relationship between quality of
life and self-transcendence in person with AIDS,
elderly men with prostate cancer, liver transplant
recipients).

• Research results from the studies provide


additional empirical support for the theory
• Simplicity
• Generality
• Empirical Precision
• Derivable Consequences
SIMPLICITY
• It is strong on simplicity as it involves only 3
major concepts (Vulnerability, Self-
transcendence, Well-being) and 2 other
concepts(personal & environmental
factors and point of intervention)
G E N E RALITY
• This theory can be applied to a wide variety
of human health situations since it is a
middle-range theory. It can be applied to
various life events ranging from child birth to
life threatening illness and dying.
E M PI R I CAL PR E C I S I O N

• Self-transcendence can be measured by


using self-transcendence scale and well-
being can be measured by using variety of
empirical indicators.
D E R I VAB LE C O N S E Q U E N S E S
• The theory tested in different researches has
led to new knowledge that can be useful in
nursing practice.

• The theory provides insight in to


developmental nature of humans
Mr. Jones is a 65-year-old man whose
wife died 6 months ago after a long illness. The
couple had been married 45 years and they
were devoted to each other. They had 3
children who are now in their 30s. Two of their
children live several hundred miles away, but
one son lives with his wife and two preschool
children less than 1 mile from Mr. Jone’s home.
Mr. Jones provided much of the care for his
wife during her illness. Although her care was
time-consuming and fatiguing and kept him at
home much of the time, he was grateful that he
could care for her. He now is alone in their home,
is very lonely and uninterested in preparing
meals or eating and lacks energy to return to his
former community and social activities or even to
interact with his son and family.
The hospice nurse contacted Mr. Jones for follow-
up bereavement counseling. She told him that
although he had “passed” a routine physical
examination the week before, she was concerned
about his continuing sadness and lack of energy. The
nurse reassured him that it was not uncommon to
grieve for many months after a major loss. She asked
him if he thought his wife would have had a similar
experience if he had been the first to die. His
response was that his wife would have had an even
more difficult time adjusting.
The nurse and Mr. Jones then spent some time
reflecting on his loss and feelings, and talking
about his response. The nurse’s initial question
and Mr. Jone’s resulting insight that his grief was
not a bad as his wife’s would have been helped
him transcend his immediate experience of loss
and find some meaning in his grief.
Bentley, Natasha (2016). Pamela Reed’s Theory of Self-transcendence. Retrieved from
https://prezi.com/j90qjcprzpns/pamela-reeds-theory-of-self-transcendence/

Lucas, Shiela (Unknown). Pamela Reed’s Theory of Self Transcendence. Retrieved from
https://professionallearningportfolio.weebly.com/uploads/1/4/2/9/14295870/pamela_reed
%E2%80%99s_theory_of_self_transcendence.pdf

Kaimal, Rave Raveesh (2012). Self –Transcendence Theory in Nursing. Retrieved from
https://www.scribd.com/doc/104617729/Self-Transcendence-theory-in-nursing

Espana, Ernesto Jr. (2016). Self Transcendence Theory Presentation by UPOU Group D N207
Students. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G23VpkI6e5A&t=1883s