Polymeric Materials Molecular View

MFG 355

Fundamentals of Matter
• Periodic Table
– Arranged by number of Protons – Metals (lose electrons) – Non-metals (gain electrons)
Metals Non-Metals

Fundamentals of Matter
• Electrons
– Shells (n=1,2,3,4,5)= rows on periodic table – Orbitals (s,p,d,f) = columns on periodic table

Bonding (attractions)
• Function of distance • Ionic – Metal w/ Nonmetal • Metallic – Metal w/ Metal • Covalent – Non-metal w/ Non-metal
– Polar – Hydrogen – Induced dipole
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Basic Organic Chemistry
• Contains Carbon • Carbon atom bonding
– σ bonds – π bonds

• Valence bonds – C=4, N=3, O=2, Cl=1

Functional groups

Solids, Liquids Gases
• Why Polymers don’t evaporate

• Monomers—Polymers • Carbon based & silicon based • Polarity in polymers

Monomer Polymer

Addition Polymerization
• Mechanism
– – – – – – – – Monomer in vessels (temperature and pressure) Initiator—free radicals Attack C=C (π bond) Bond & make new free radical New π bond reaction New free radical created Continuation Termination

Addition Polymerization

Addition Polymerization
Chain Termination—Unreacted end, another chain

Addition Polymerization
Chain Termination—Unreacted Peroxide

Addition Polymerization
Chain Termination—Ozone Quench

Addition Polymerization
• Copolymers from Addition Polymerization
– Block Copolymer – Random Copolymer – Regular Copolymer – Graft Copolymer

Condensation Polymerization
• Mechanism
– Monomers (2)
• Each has two reactive sites

– Monomer ends react – Condensation
• Removal of condensate

– Chain termination ends reaction

Condensation Polymerization
• Monomers/Polymers

Condensation Polymerization
Chain termination

Addition vs. Condensation
Addition polymerization
Polymer Growth Mechanism Dependence on previous step Initiator needed Type of monomer Number of active sites (functional groups) per monomer Number of different types of monomers needed to form polymer By-product formed Basic (polymer repeat unit) representation Polymer chain characteristics Branching Chain reaction Yes—dependent sequential events Yes Contains carbon-carbon double bond 1 1

Condensation polymerization
Step-by-step reactions No—independent events No Has reacting bifunctional groups on the ends 2 2 (usually)

No Monomer without the double bond and with bonds on either side A few, long chains Possible

Yes (usually) Two monomers joined together Many not very long chains Unlikely

Thermoplastics & Thermosets
• Melting vs. decomposition



Thermoplastics & Thermosets
• Non-bonded interactions (H-bonds)

Thermoplastics & Thermosets
• Crosslinking
– During polymerization – Between polymers

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