Designing with Plastics

MFG 355

Design Methodology
• • • • • Inspiration Concept Prototype Development Final product

Layout or Drawing
• • • • Sketch Drawing CAD Advantages and disadvantages to each
– Detail – Complexity – Time – Communication of idea – Visualization of problems

Constraints
• • • • • • Appearance Mechanical Environmental Safety, Codes and Standards Manufacturing Method/Design Rules Economics

Material Choice
• Database – IDES (like in lab) or others Multiple grades
– Multiple additives – Multiple blends – Improvements

Material Choice
• Selection methodology
– Define the criteria for material selection – Determine the advantages and disadvantages of each polymer type – Select polymers for special properties – Rank the resins and make a preliminary selection

• Computer-aided selection

ABS-acrylonitrile butadiene styrene FP-fluoropolymers HDPE-high density polyethylene LCP-liquid crystal polymers LDPE-low density polyethylene PA 4,6-polyamide 4,6 PA 6/6,6-polyamide 6/6,6 PAI-polyamide imide PAR-polyarylate PBT-polybutylene terephthalate PC-polycarbonate PE UHMW-ultrahigh mol. weight PE PEEK-polyetheretherketone PEI-polyether imide PES-polyethersulfome PET-polyethylene terephthalate PI-polyimide PMMA-polymethyl methacrylate POM-polyoxymethylene PP-polypropylene PPA-polyphtalamide PPC-polyphthalate carbonate PPO-polyphenylene oxide PPS-polyphenylene sulfide PPSU-polyphenylsulfone PS-polystyrene PSF-polysulfone PVC-polyvinyl chloride PVDF-polyvinylidene fluoride SAN styrene acrylonitrile SMA-styrene maleic anhydride TPI-thermoplastic polyimide

Material Choice
PI PAI PEEK TPI FP PPSU PVDF LCP PEI PPS PES PPA PSF PAR PA-4,6 PPC PC PPO PP HDPE PET PBT POM PE-UHMW PA-6/6,6

High Performance Polymers

st/P erfo r

ma

nce

Mid-Range Polymers

Co

SMA ABS PMMA PS SAN

PVC

LDPE

Common Polymers

Amorphous

Semi-crystalline

Material Selection Matrix
Properties Property 1: WF= Resins Value/ Rank Score Value/ Rank Property 2: WF= Score Value/ Rank Property 3: WF= Score Value/ Rank Property 4: WF= Score Total Score

Material Selection
• Choosing material for a snow sled

Material Selection Matrix
• Choosing material for a snow sled
Properties Property 1: WF= Resins HDPE LDPE ABS PC PS Value/ Rank Score Value/ Rank Property 2: WF= Score Value/ Rank Property 3: WF= Score Value/ Rank Property 4: WF= Score Total Score

Possible resins

PP

Material Selection Matrix
• Choosing material for a snow sled
Properties Property 1:Toughness WF= Resins HDPE LDPE ABS PC PS Value/ Rank Score Value/ Rank Property 2: Abrasion Resist WF= Score Value/ Rank Property 3: Surface Finish WF= Score Value/ Rank Property 4: Cost WF= Score Total Score

Desired properties

PP

Material Selection Matrix
• Choosing material for a snow sled
Properties Property 1:Toughness WF= 5 Resins HDPE LDPE ABS PC PS Value/ Rank Score Value/ Rank Property 2: Abrasion Resist WF= 5 Score Value/ Rank Property 3: Surface Finish WF= 3 Score Value/ Rank Property 4: Cost WF= 4 Score Total Score

Weighting factor (Higher is more Important)

PP

Material Selection
Impact Toughness Guide
Resin Polyurethane (x-link) Polycarbonate SMC ABS Izod (ft-lb) 25 16 7 6 3 2 2 1 1 1 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 Reasoning High elongation and strength High strength Reinforced and toughened Toughened with rubber High elongation, flexible Can be toughened Can be toughened Can be alloyed Some crystallinity Low strength Pendent group Short link, large pendent group Crosslinked Crosslinked Crosslinked

Increasing Toughness

HDPE Acetal Nylon 6/6 PET PP LDPE Polystyrene Acrylic Phenolic, w/fiberglass Epoxy, unreinforced Crosslinked polyester

Material Selection Matrix
• Choosing material for a snow sled
Properties Property 1:Toughness WF= 5 Resins HDPE LDPE ABS PC PS Value/ Rank 4 2 5 6 1 3 Score Value/ Rank 3 6 4 2 1 5 Property 2: Abrasion Resist WF= 5 Score Value/ Rank 1 1 1 1 1 1 Property 3: Surface Finish WF= 3 Score Value/ Rank 5 6 2 1 3 4 Property 4: Cost WF= 4 Score Total Score

Values rank from properties (Higher is better)

PP

Material Selection Matrix
• Choosing material for a snow sled
Properties Property 1:Toughness WF= 5 Resins HDPE LDPE ABS PC Value/ Rank 4 2 5 6 1 3 Score 20 10 25 30 5 15 Value/ Rank 2 6 4 3 1 5 Property 2: Abrasion Resist WF= 5 Score 10 30 20 15 5 25 Value/ Rank 1 1 1 1 1 1 Property 3: Surface Finish WF= 3 Score 3 3 3 3 3 3 Value/ Rank 5 6 2 1 3 4 Property 4: Cost WF= 4 Score 20 24 8 4 12 16 Total Score

Score = value x WF

PS PP

Material Selection Matrix
• Choosing material for a snow sled
Properties Property 1:Toughness WF= 5 Resins HDPE LDPE ABS PC Value/ Rank 4 2 5 6 1 3 Score 20 10 25 30 5 15 Value/ Rank 2 6 4 3 1 5 Property 2: Abrasion Resist WF= 5 Score 10 30 20 15 5 25 Value/ Rank 1 1 1 1 1 1 Property 3: Surface Finish WF= 3 Score 3 3 3 3 3 3 Value/ Rank 5 6 2 1 3 4 Property 4: Cost WF= 4 Score 20 24 8 4 12 16 Total Score 53 67 56 52 25 59

Total Score

PS PP

Material Selection Matrix
• Choosing material for a snow sled
Properties Property 1:Toughness WF= 5 Resins HDPE LDPE ABS PC PS Value/ Rank 4 5 2 1 6 3 Score 20 25 10 5 30 15 Value/ Rank 2 6 4 3 1 5 Property 2: Abrasion Resist WF= 5 Score 10 30 20 15 5 25 Value/ Rank 1 1 1 1 1 1 Property 3: Surface Finish WF= 3 Score 3 3 3 3 3 3 Value/ Rank 5 6 2 1 3 4 Property 4: Cost WF= 4 Score 20 24 8 4 12 16 Total Score 53

67 
56 52 25 59

Selecting the best

PP

Prototyping
• Traditional

Prototyping
• Rapid prototyping
– 3D printing

Prototyping
• Rapid prototyping
– Stereolithography

Prototyping
• Rapid prototyping
– Laminated object manufacturing (LOM)

Prototyping
• Rapid prototyping
– Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)

Prototyping
• Rapid prototyping
– Fused deposition modeling (FDM)

Prototyping
• Rapid prototyping
– Fused deposition modeling (FDM)

Process Selection
• Some parts are more suited for a particular process • Most parts can be modified and processed through most of the different methods • Some processes are incapable of producing certain features
– Injection molding—hollow features – Roto-molding—deep ribs

• We will be discussing all of the major processes with their advantages, disadvantages and molding requirements

Process Selection Matrix
Features Feature 1: WF= Processes Value/ Rank Score Value/ Rank Feature 2: WF= Score Value/ Rank Feature 3: WF= Score Value/ Rank Feature 4: WF= Score Total Score

Process Selection Matrix
• Process selection for a plastic pallet

Process Selection Matrix
• Process selection for a plastic pallet
Features Feature 1: WF= Processes Injection molding Thermoforming Rotomolding Value/ Rank Score Value/R ank Feature 2: WF= Score Value/ Rank Feature 3: WF= Score Value/ Rank Feature 4: WF= Score Total Score

Possible processes

Casting/ Foaming Extrusion

Process Selection Matrix
• Process selection for a plastic pallet
Features Feature 1: Ribs WF= Processes Injection molding Thermoforming Rotomolding Casting/ Foaming Extrusion Value/ Rank Score Value /Rank Feature 2: Net shape/no assembly WF= Score Value/ Rank Feature 3: Short Cycle Time WF= Score Value/ Rank Feature 4: Size WF= Score Total Score

Features

Process Selection Matrix
• Process selection for a plastic pallet
Features Feature 1: Ribs WF= 4 Processes Injection molding Thermoforming Rotomolding Casting/ Foaming Value/ Rank Score Value/ Rank Feature 2: Net shape/no assembly WF= 3 Score Value/ Rank Feature 3: Short Cycle Time WF= 5 Score Value/ Rank Feature 4: Size WF= 6 Score Total Score

Weighting Factor (higher is more Important)

Extrusion

Process Selection Matrix
• Process selection for a plastic pallet
Features Feature 1: Ribs WF= 4 Processes Injection molding Thermoforming Rotomolding Casting/ Foaming Extrusion Value/ Rank 5 1 2 4 3 Score 20 4 8 16 12 Value/ Rank 3 2 5 4 1 Feature 2: Net shape/no assembly WF= 3 Score 9 6 15 12 3 Value/ Rank 5 2 1 3 4 Feature 3: Short Cycle Time WF= 5 Score 25 10 5 15 20 Value/ Rank 2 4 5 3 1 Feature 4: Size WF= 6 Score 12 24 30 18 6 Total Score

Score–assessment (higher is better)

Process Selection Matrix
• Process selection for a plastic pallet
Features Feature 1: Ribs WF= 4 Processes Injection molding Thermoforming Rotomolding Casting/ Foaming Extrusion Value/ Rank 5 1 2 4 3 Score 20 4 8 16 12 Value/ Rank 3 2 5 4 1 Feature 2: Net shape/no assembly WF= 3 Score 9 6 15 12 3 Value/ Rank 5 2 1 3 4 Feature 3: Short Cycle Time WF= 5 Score 25 10 5 15 20 Value/ Rank 2 4 5 3 1 Feature 4: Size WF= 6 Score 12 24 30 18 6 Total Score 66 44 58 61 41

Total score (higher is better)

Process Selection Matrix
• Process selection for a plastic pallet
Features Feature 1: Ribs WF= 4 Processes Injection molding Thermoforming Rotomolding Casting/ Foaming Extrusion Value/ Rank 5 1 2 4 3 Score 20 4 8 16 12 Value/ Rank 3 2 5 4 1 Feature 2: Net shape/no assembly WF= 3 Score 9 6 15 12 3 Value/ Rank 5 2 1 3 4 Feature 3: Short Cycle Time WF= 5 Score 25 10 5 15 20 Value/ Rank 2 4 5 3 1 Feature 4: Size WF= 6 Score 12 24 30 18 6 Total Score

66
44 58 61 41

The best

3M Comply Product
Covered with adhesive Plastic Sheet (PE) Embossed Sheet (ribs connecting to edges) Graphic film applied

Depressions filled with glass spheres

Separated graphic product Multiply embossed sheet creating ridges and lands

Separated plastic sheet

Avery-Dennison EZ Film
Adhesive added Plastic Sheet (PE) Polyurethane printed cured forms (array) Graphic film applied

Polyurethane forms pressed into the PE sheet (thereby forming depressions and embossing the sheet) Separated graphic product PE sheet embossed with ridges and lands

Separated embossed PE sheet

Thank You