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PPLive —A Practical P2P Live System with Huge Amount of Users

Gale Huang P2P Software Architect Shanghai Synacast Media-Tech Corp. Sept. 2007

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What is PPLive?
– An online video broadcasting and advertising network – An efficient P2P technique platform and test bench in the world

Common & Special characters Continuous self-adjustment procedure Key points PPLive most concerns for

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1. What is PPLive?

Introduction of PPLive
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What is PPLive?
– An online video broadcasting and advertising network Provides an online viewing experience comparable to that of traditional TV broadcasting 75 million global installed base and 20 million monthly active users 600+ channels on PPLive with content ranging from news, music, sports, movies, games, live video and other interactive services to a global audience – An efficient P2P technique platform and test bench

History of PPLive: Bill’s story – Inventor of PPLive core technology – Dropped out of post-graduate program to start PPLive in dorm and grew the user significantly in the first two years.

Estimated global installed base Monthly active users* Daily active users Peak concurrent users Monthly average concurrent users Weekly average usage time

75 million 20 million 3.5 million 2.2 million 1.5 million 11 hours

Industry Trends
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PPLive is well positioned to exploit the next explosive growth

Advanced Applications

Video Streaming


VOIP Downloading BitTorrent File Sharing Basic Applications Napster






Introduction of PPLive ——Focus on P2P Streaming
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Encoding & Decoding
MPEG-4 H.264

Streaming technology

P2P file share
Napster/ Kazza eMule/ Poco

P2P Download Accelerator Bit Torrent/ Thunder Dudu Accelerate

P2P Streaming PPLive

P2P-Voip Skype Headcall

P2P-Magzine xPlus/ ZCom/ Poco MagBox

P2P technology

Digital Rights
DRM Digital Watermark

Introduction of PPLive——distribution view
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PPLive is a P2P Live System
– – – – – Media Publish System P2P content delivery network End users’ PPLive player Multi-media formats Supported DRM Supported


Online Show



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Common and Different Characters

Common characters
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Common points
– what topology of p2p architecture to be chosen Tree based (multi-tree based) Mesh based Unstructured Other DHT based… – How to organize peer nodes? – How to make peer nodes know and communicate with each other ? Find the partners Make use of the partners – How to manage the resource? – Most concern about the metric of the P2P System

Different points
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Most different points – Viewing experiences is the most important metric – Much more practical – Feedback from the PPLive test bench itself 75m end users Consider their viewing experience Take responsibility of all users Part of users have updated version which is under control , before spreading to all of users

Ideas Theory

PPLive test bench



Feedback network—— Test network Feedback ( Global)
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PPLive software Architecture
Private & Confidential Source Server Adapter Server
Classical C/S or P2P Network

Acess Server


One Channel, One P2P Group
SN SN SN SN Overlay Network SN SN

One P2P Group, One P2P Strategy

SNList PeerList SSN

Smart routing Algorithm

SNCandadite Resourse List SNList PeerList



Global Distribution

PPLive has centralized servers taking charge of registering, providing the source and bridging with other applications DHT based Super Node consists of stable SN and virtual SN Each SN takes charge some Channels in Live system ; while in VOD system, each SN takes charge of a certain area In each P2P group , we can assign a special p2p algorithm different with other groups

Peer node architecture
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Live Streaming Media Service


File Sharing

File Storage

Storage Service Resource Management


File Management

P2P Route Management Data Transmission


Disk Driver

TCP/UDP/Control IP
PPLive Peer node architecture


Peer node
– – – – Key point of the whole P2P System Implementer of the smart routing algorithm Hierarchical design A unified interface provided to the high level applications

PPLive Software Architecture
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C C Public Network SN SN C SN C C C C C SN C C


Peer Peer Peer Peer Peer Peer Peer Peer Peer Peer Peer Peer Peer

Network layer view

Peer Peer Peer Peer Peer Peer Peer Peer Peer Peer Peer Peer Peer Peer

P2P layer view

Global view

PPLive Common Overlay
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A Common overlay network contains
– Query queue(P2P orders)
Application related – Real streaming – VOD – File sharing

Live Streaming Media Service


File Sharing

File Storage

Storage Service Resource Management

File Management

P2P Route Management Data Transmission

– Download from the query queue (How to execute the orders)
Application independent Ability of uploading and downloading

Disk Driver

TCP/UDP/Control IP

Query Queue R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 ...

Ping-pong layer PP1 ** PP2 **** PP3 *** PP4* ... R1:QueryQueue PP1*:pingpong layer(*represents capacity) R4 R1 R2 R7 R10 R3 R5 R6 R8 ... ... ... ...

R9 R16

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Continuous self-adjustment procedure

Continuous self-adjustment 1st Misunderstanding
– For most P2P System, it is commonly thought: The more users look simultaneously the better view experience the users will have.
Unit: Thousands 2500 2000 1100 1500 650 450 500 70 0 Jun 2005 Dec 2005 Mar 2006 Jun 2006 Sep 2006 Dec 2006 150 250

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2200 1800

– For most p2p system, especially for streaming applications (bandwidth wasted and real time requested application ), it is not necessarily the truth. – User scale greatly influences the architecture;
•Initial PPLive core with Single Global Index


Mar 2007 Jun 2007

• Chord based DHT is used for all Index Servers

• Smart SN introduced to corporate with peers • Unified p2p platform proposed to support multi-applications

• Distributed Index Server supported

• Gossip based Peer communication mingled with DHT

Nov. 2004

May 2005

Oct. 2006

Dec. 2006

May. 2007

Jun. 2007

2nd Misunderstanding
– Theoretical model can lead to the real performance evaluation

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– Modeling the system has a big help to design and optimize the P2P application – P2P System’s capacity can just be proved by the fact of real operation Over 250K peak simultaneous users to watch the “Super Girl” Live, China, Q3 , 2005

• 1 PC server • 10Mb distribution bandwidth • 500kbps video • 250,000 audiences • 50,000 audiences from abroad
Source: PPLive database

A NBA play-off game with Huston Rocket, Live, China, Q2,2007

• 1 PC server • 10Mb distribution bandwidth • 400kbps video • 1,480,000 audiences
Source: PPLive database

3rd Misunderstanding Conclusion

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– Experimental environment can represent the real network environment. – PPLive was also born from the CERNET, which is specially for educational use and very idealistic for P2P experiment – PPLive encountered many difficulties while walking out from CERNET
Heterogeneous network Unpredictable user pattern Asymmetric network Poor network condition, half of them are 512kbps bandwidth, while we run 400kbps video on it

– Stronger and smarter algorithm should be used

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Key points PPLive most concerns for

PPLive Platform Strategy
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Content Provider Advertiser

Services Provider

End Users

Live System VOD System

Distributed Storage

File Sharing


P2P Content Deliver Network

Broadband Network Infrastructure

Continuous self-adjustment (cont)
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Deeply improve the users’ viewing experience – Based on the P2P streaming technology – Adapting for Chinese complicated network environment Integrate the multi high level applications into this platform Open the part of the platform interface to public – Let others join in this platform

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PPLive—P2P changes our lives
Thank you! Question Time