Finishing, Adhesion, and Assembly

MFG 355

Material removal
• Traditional
– Cutting, Drilling, Milling – Surface finishing

• Issues
– Heat transfer
• • • • Peck drilling Skip-tooth saws Increased cutting speed Slower cutting advance

– – – –

Hole size (shrinkage) Cutting fluids Brittle/soft Composites

Traditional Machining
• Used to make minor shaping corrections • Used to trim excess material
– Used often in thermoforming and blowmolding

• Sometimes parts are molded oversized so that they can be machined to exacting tolerances

Material removal – water jet
• Typically used with the more difficult materials (composites, very hard plastics) • Water-jet can cut most materials, even composites effectively

Material removal – lasers
• Laser cutting burns the material away • In clear materials, holes can be cut between surfaces without affecting the surface • Focus adjustment can reduce kerf, heat distortion and depth of cut

Material removal – hot wire
• Traditionally used for foams • Can cut any thermoplastic • Material may flow back together

Joining
• Adhesive joining Definitions:
– Adherends/substrates – pieces to be joined – Adhesive – glues – Applicator – the device used to put on the adhesive

Adhesive Joining (Adherends)
• Surface preparation
– Cleaning – Chemical etching – Flame treatment – Corona treatment – Plasma treatment – Coupling agents – Mechanical abrasion

• Especially important for some materials Chemical Etch Bath (PE)

Adhesive Joining (Adhesives)
• Liquids, pastes or solid films
– In all cases the adhesive goes through a liquid phase – Chemical change

• • • • •

Structural Hot melt Pressure sensitive Water based Radiation cured

Non-Traditional Joining
• Fusion
– Heat materials and force them together

• Ultrasonic
– Vibrate the materials to soften them and force them together

• RF (radio frequency)
– Similar to Ultrasonic at a different frequency

• Spin/Friction stir
– Material is not raised in temp to the Tm – Some of the strongest joints

Non-Traditional Joining
• Induction
– Electromagnetic heating – Requires some metallic filling in the plastic to be joined

Mechanical Joining and Assembly

Finishing
• Runner and Sprue Removal
– By hand with wire cutters – Done by operator between part cycles – Proper gate design can reduce problems with waste removal

• Flash Removal
– Colder is better
• Cryogenic flash removal

– Traditional cutting methods

Coating and Decorating
• Painting (liquid or powder)
– Sometimes requires surface treatments – Environmental and safety issues – Powder coating replacing liquids (solvents)

Coating and Decorating
• Electrostatic coating of any material • Metallizing
– Can be done as a barrier coat

Coating and Decorating
• Printing
– Similar to painting except that it is usually not the entire surface – Screen printing (UV ink cure)

Coating and Decorating
• Hot stamping
– Appliqués

• In-mold decorating
– Decals

Coating and Decorating
• Laminating
– Joining layers together by pressing

Coating and Decorating
• Embossing/Texturizing
– Giving shape to a layer using an embossing roll or stamp

Thank You

Joining
• Adhesive Bonding
– Materials – Processes – Designs

• Non-adhesive Bonding
– – – – – – Fusion Ultrasonic RF Spin Induction Friction stir

• Mechanical Joining and Assembly

Finishing
• Runner System Trimming and Flash Removal • Coating and Decorating
– Painting – Printing – Metallizing – Laminating – Texturing

• Post Mold Forming