You are on page 1of 53



Learning Outcomes:
At the end of the class, students will be able to:

1. Identify determine stress in members caused by bending

2. Discuss how to establish shear and moment diagrams for a beam or
3. Evaluate the largest shear and moment in a member, and specify
where they occur
As shown, failure of this table occurred at the brace support on its right
side. The bending moment diagram for the table loading would indicate
this to be the point of maximum internal moment
2.1 Introduction
• Beams - structural members that are slender and support loadings at various
points along the member
• Transverse loadings of beams are classified as concentrated loads or
distributed loads

• Concentrated Load – Loads given to a point of the beam

• Moment couple – concentrated moment given to a point of the
• Distributed Load – Measured by its intensity which is expressed in
force per unit distance e.g. kN/m.
• Applied loads result in internal forces
consisting of a shear force (from the
shear stress distribution) and a bending
couple (from the normal stress
• In order to design a beam, it is necessary
to determine the maximum shear and
moment in the beam which is express V
and M as functions of arbitrary position x
along axis.
• These functions can be represented by
graphs called shear and moment
• Engineers need to know the variation of
shear and moment along the beam to
know where to reinforce it
2.1 Type of Beams and Supports
2.2 Shear force and bending moment
• Shear force – is the algebraic sum of the vertical forces acting to the left or
right of the cut section
• Bending moment – is the algebraic sum of the moment of the forces to the
left or to the right of the section taken about the section
2.3 Procedure for determining shear force and bending
1. Determine the reactions using the
equilibrium conditions of the overall
2. Cut the beam at the cross section at which
shear force and bending moment are to be
determine. Draw a free-body diagram.

3. Set up equilibrium equations of the FBD to

determine shear force and bending moment at
the cross section.

4. Repeat steps 2 through 4 for as many cross

sections as needed. Draw the shear force and
bending moment diagrams.
Important Note!!
2.4 Shear and Moment Diagrams
• When a beam is loaded by forces or couples,
stresses and strains are created throughout
the interior of the beam.
• Determination of maximum normal and
shearing stresses requires identification of
maximum internal shear force and bending
• To determine these stresses and strains, the
internal forces and internal couples that act
on the cross sections of the beam must be
• Shear force and bending couple at a point are
determined by passing a section through the
beam and applying an equilibrium analysis on
the beam portions on either side of the
Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam shown below
Example 2 : Determine V and M
Example 2.1
Example 3: Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam shown below
Example 4
Example 5
Example 6
Example 6.1
Example 7
Example 8
Example 9
Example 9 -1
Example 10
Example 11
Example 12
Example 13
Example 14
Example 15
Practice 1

For the timber beam and loading shown, draw the shear and bending-
moment diagrams.
Practice 2

A simply supported steel beam is to carry the distributed and concentrated loads
shown. Determine
a) the reactions at A and D.
b Develop the shear diagram for the beam and load distribution. From
the diagram, determine the maximum bending moment.