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Learning Outcomes:

At the end of the class, students will be able to:

2. Discuss how to establish shear and moment diagrams for a beam or

shaft

3. Evaluate the largest shear and moment in a member, and specify

where they occur

As shown, failure of this table occurred at the brace support on its right

side. The bending moment diagram for the table loading would indicate

this to be the point of maximum internal moment

2.1 Introduction

• Beams - structural members that are slender and support loadings at various

points along the member

• Transverse loadings of beams are classified as concentrated loads or

distributed loads

• Moment couple – concentrated moment given to a point of the

beam

• Distributed Load – Measured by its intensity which is expressed in

force per unit distance e.g. kN/m.

• Applied loads result in internal forces

consisting of a shear force (from the

shear stress distribution) and a bending

couple (from the normal stress

distribution)

• In order to design a beam, it is necessary

to determine the maximum shear and

moment in the beam which is express V

and M as functions of arbitrary position x

along axis.

• These functions can be represented by

graphs called shear and moment

diagrams

• Engineers need to know the variation of

shear and moment along the beam to

know where to reinforce it

2.1 Type of Beams and Supports

2.2 Shear force and bending moment

• Shear force – is the algebraic sum of the vertical forces acting to the left or

right of the cut section

• Bending moment – is the algebraic sum of the moment of the forces to the

left or to the right of the section taken about the section

2.3 Procedure for determining shear force and bending

moment

1. Determine the reactions using the

equilibrium conditions of the overall

structure.

2. Cut the beam at the cross section at which

shear force and bending moment are to be

determine. Draw a free-body diagram.

determine shear force and bending moment at

the cross section.

sections as needed. Draw the shear force and

bending moment diagrams.

Important Note!!

2.4 Shear and Moment Diagrams

• When a beam is loaded by forces or couples,

stresses and strains are created throughout

the interior of the beam.

• Determination of maximum normal and

shearing stresses requires identification of

maximum internal shear force and bending

couple.

• To determine these stresses and strains, the

internal forces and internal couples that act

on the cross sections of the beam must be

found.

• Shear force and bending couple at a point are

determined by passing a section through the

beam and applying an equilibrium analysis on

the beam portions on either side of the

section.

Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam shown below

Example 2 : Determine V and M

Example 2.1

Example 3: Draw the shear and moment diagrams for the beam shown below

Example 4

Example 5

Example 6

Example 6.1

Example 7

Example 8

Example 9

Example 9 -1

Example 10

Example 11

Example 12

Example 13

Example 14

Example 15

Practice 1

For the timber beam and loading shown, draw the shear and bending-

moment diagrams.

Practice 2

A simply supported steel beam is to carry the distributed and concentrated loads

shown. Determine

a) the reactions at A and D.

b Develop the shear diagram for the beam and load distribution. From

the diagram, determine the maximum bending moment.

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