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Arithmetic Seq and Series Power Point. Mathematics HL IBDP

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Arithmetic Sequences

and Series

An infinite sequence is a function whose domain

is the set of positive integers.

a1, a2, a3, a4, . . . , an, . . .

terms

a1 = 4(1) – 7 = – 3

a2 = 4(2) – 7 = 1 finite sequence

a3 = 4(3) – 7 = 5.

A sequence is arithmetic if the differences

between consecutive terms are the same.

arithmetic sequence

9–4=5

14 – 9 = 5

The common difference, d, is 5.

19 – 14 = 5

24 – 19 = 5

Example: Find the first five terms of the sequence

and determine if it is arithmetic.

an = 1 + (n – 1)4

a1 = 1 + (1 – 1)4 = 1 + 0 = 1

a2 = 1 + (2 – 1)4 = 1 + 4 = 5

a3 = 1 + (3 – 1)4 = 1 + 8 = 9 d=4

a4 = 1 + (4 – 1)4 = 1 + 12 = 13

a5 = 1 + (5 – 1)4 = 1 + 16 = 17

a1 = 2

2, 8, 14, 20, 26, . . . .

d=8–2=6

Example: Find the formula for the nth term of an

arithmetic sequence whose common difference is 4

and whose first term is 15. Find the first five terms

of the sequence.

d=4

a1 = 15

a1 = 15

15, 19, 23, 27, 31.

d=4

Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company, Inc. All rights reserved. 6

The sum of a finite arithmetic sequence with n

terms is given by

S n n (a1 an).

2

5 + 10 + 15 + 20 + 25 + 30 + 35 + 40 + 45 + 50 = ?

n = 10

a1 = 5 a10 = 50

2

The sum of the first n terms of an infinite sequence

is called the nth partial sum.

Sn n (a1 an)

2

Example: Find the 50th partial sum of the arithmetic

sequence – 6, – 2, 2, 6, . . .

a1 = – 6 d=4 c = a1 – d = – 10

an = dn + c = 4n – 10 a50 = 4(50) – 10 = 190

2

Graphing Utility: Find the first 5 terms of the arithmetic

sequence an = 4n + 11. variable beginning

value

end value

List Menu:

100

Graphing Utility: Find the sum 2n .

i 1 lower limit

upper

List Menu: limit

The sum of the first n terms of a sequence is

represented by summation notation.

upper limit of summation

n

a a a

i 1

i 1 2 a3 a4 an

summation

5

1 n (1 1) (1 2) (1 3) (1 4) (1 5)

i 1

2 3 4 5 6

20

Copyright © by Houghton Mifflin Company, Inc. All rights reserved. 10

Example: Find the partial sum.

100

i 1

246 200

a1 a100

2 2

50(202) 10,100

Consider the infinite sequence a1, a2, a3, . . ., ai, . . ..

a finite series or the partial sum of the sequence.

n

a1 + a2 + a3 + . . . + an ai

i 1

called an infinite series.

a1 + a2 + a3 + . . . + ai + . . . ai

i 1

i

Example: Find the fourth partial sum of 5 1 .

i 1

2

4 i 1 2 3 4

i1

5 1 5 1 5 1 5 1 5 1

2 2 2 2 2

5 1 5 1 5 1 5 1

2 4 8 16

555 5

2 4 8 16

40 20 10 5 75

16 16 16 16 16

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