# EXPERT SYSTEMS AND SOLUTIONS

Email: expertsyssol@gmail.com expertsyssol@yahoo.com Cell: 9952749533 www.researchprojects.info PAIYANOOR, OMR, CHENNAI Call For Research Projects Final year students of B.E in EEE, ECE, EI, M.E (Power Systems), M.E (Applied Electronics), M.E (Power Electronics) Ph.D Electrical and Electronics. Students can assemble their hardware in our Research labs. Experts will be guiding the projects.

May 21, 2006

Sizing Electric Motors for Mobile Robotics

May 21, 2006

The Basics

May 21, 2006

Unit Conversions
rad rev 2T !1 sec sec N m 1Watt ! 1 sec

Coulomb 1Watt ! 1Volt  Ampere ! 1Volt sec

May 21, 2006

Basics
The FORCE applied by a wheel is always tangent to the wheel.

Force is measured in units of weight (lb, oz, N)
May 21, 2006

Basics
The required TORQUE to move a mobile robot is the force times the radius of the wheel.

May 21, 2006

Torque is measured in units of weight x length (lb·ft, oz ·in, N·m)

Procedure for Sizing DC Motors

May 21, 2006

Information Needed
     Estimated Weight Number of wheels and motors Maximum incline Desired maximum velocity at worst case Push/Pull forces

May 21, 2006

Procedure
 Step One: Determine total applied force at worst case

May 21, 2006

Friction
 Static Friction
± Used to determine traction failure

 Rolling Friction
± Used to determine motor requirements

 Kinetic Friction

May 21, 2006

Rolling Friction
FR !
R

N

 QR Is the coefficient of Rolling friction
± Using the coefficient of Static friction (QS) will typically be to high

 To determine QR:
± Roll a wheel at a initial velocity, v, and measure the time, t, in which it takes to stop v
R
May 21, 2006

!

tg

Rolling Friction
 Some typical values for QR
± Steel on steel: 0.001 ± Rubber on pavement: 0.015

May 21, 2006

Other Forces
 Gravity

FI ! W  sin U
 External
U

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Total Force
 Calculate worst case
± Up hill with rolling friction

F ! W  ( Q R  cos U  sin U )
± Up hill with rolling friction, pushing

F ! W  ( Q R  cosU  sin U )  FEX
± Level ground with rolling friction

F ! Q R W
± Level ground with rolling friction, pushing
May 21, 2006

F ! Q R  W  FEX

Other Cases
 Tracks
± Set Qr=0 ± Use a spring scale to determine the force required to pull the chassis in neutral and add that to the worst case force

 Gear Trains
± Bulky gear trains may significantly affect the outcome ± If this is a concern, it may be best to test in the same way as tracks
May 21, 2006

Procedure
 Step One: Determine total applied force at worst case  Step Two: Calculate power requirement

May 21, 2006

Power Requirement
 Determine velocity, v, requirement under maximum load (worst case force)  Using the worst case force and velocity, calculate the power requirement

P ! F v
 This is the total power, divide by the number of motors if more than one motor is used
RULE OF THUMB: 3 TIMES MARGIN
May 21, 2006

Procedure
 Step One: Determine total applied force at worst case  Step Two: Calculate power requirement  Step Three: Calculate torque and speed requirement

May 21, 2006

Speed/Torque Requirements
 Using the velocity requirement, v, and the radius of the wheel, r

v [! r

 Using the speed from above and the power per motor

P T! [
May 21, 2006

Procedure
 Step One: Determine total applied force at worst case  Step Two: Calculate power requirement  Step Three: Calculate torque and speed requirement  Step Four: Find a motor that meets these requirements
May 21, 2006

Spec Sheet

May 21, 2006

Spec Sheet

May 21, 2006

Procedure
 Step One: Determine total applied force at worst case  Step Two: Calculate power requirement  Step Three: Calculate torque and speed requirement  Step Four: Find a motor that meets these requirements  Step Five: Plot motor characteristics
May 21, 2006

Torque vs. Speed Curve
T ! TPK
   

TPK  [ S NL

Where T = Torque TPK = Stall Torque SNL = No Load Speed [ = Speed

May 21, 2006

Torque vs. Speed Curve
Torque vs. Speed
7.00 -02 6.00 -02

5.00 -02 Torque, Nm

4.00 -02

From this plot, maximum speed can be determined for a given load.

3.00 -02

2.00 -02

1.00 -02

0.00 +00 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 Speed, rpm 5000 6000 7000 8000

May 21, 2006

Power
T ! TPK TPK  [ S NL

[ ! (TPK P ! T [

S NL T ) TPK

TPK 2  [  TPK  [ P ([ ) !  S NL S NL 2 P (T ) !   T  S NL  T TPK

May 21, 2006

Power
Power vs. Speed
1 20 +01 1 00 +01

8 00 +00 Power, watts

6 00 +00

4 00 +00

2 00 +00

TPK 2  [  TPK  [ P([ ) !  S NL
0 1000 2000 3000 Speed, rpm 4000 5000 6000 7000

0 00 +00

May 21, 2006

Power
Power vs. Torque
1 20 +01 1 00 +01

8 00 +00 Power, watts

6 00 +00

4 00 +00

2 00 +00

S NL 2 P (T ) !   T  S NL  T TPK
0 0 01 0 02 0 03 Torque, Nm 0 04 0 05 0 06

0 00 +00

May 21, 2006

Power
1 20

eed

Power
Power vs. Tor
1 20 01

01

1 00

01

Power, watts

6 00

00

00

00

1 00

01

2 00

00 Power, watts

00

00

0

1000

2000

000 Speed, rpm

000

000

2 00

Peak power is obtained at half of maximum torque and speed
May 21, 2006 

Tor

e , Nm

1 T ! Tmax 2

¥

¥

¥

0

0 01

0 02

00

00

00 

¥

¨¥ 

¥

0 00

§¦ ¥

§¦ ¥

1 [ ! [ max 2

00

00

00

00 

§¦ ¥¨ 

¨ 

0 00

00

6 00 6000

00

000 

00

00

§¦ ¥

§¦ ¥

§¦ ¥

¤£ ¢ ¡

§¦ ¥ §¦ ¥ §¦ ¥ §¦ ¥ §¦ ¥

e

0 06

Procedure
 Step One: Determine total applied force at worst case  Step Two: Calculate power requirement  Step Three: Calculate torque and speed requirement  Step Four: Find a motor that meets these requirements  Step Five: Plot motor characteristics
May 21, 2006

A Few Extra Points

May 21, 2006

Simple DC Motor Model
V ! I Re
T ! kt  I e ! ke  [ V ! I  R  ke  [

L max

¸ ¹ ¹ º

2

May 21, 2006

Motor Inductance
 The windings of a DC motor creates an Inductance, L  Change in current through an di V !L inductance creates a voltage dt  Switching current to a motor causes di/dt to spike (Flyback)
Flyback voltages can be very high and damage electronics, that is why a flyback diode in the switching circuit is required.

May 21, 2006

Winches
 Similar to drive motors

May 21, 2006

Common Mistakes
 Using static or kinetic friction instead of rolling friction
± If a wheel is rolling without slipping, the only energy loss is due to deformations in the wheel/surface (rolling friction)

 Using PWM to control a motor reduces the available torque
± The average power, speed and torque are reduced, however, effective torque is not significantly effected
May 21, 2006

Questions?

May 21, 2006