EXPERT SYSTEMS AND SOLUTIONS

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May 21, 2006

Sizing Electric Motors for Mobile Robotics

May 21, 2006

The Basics

May 21, 2006

Unit Conversions
rad rev 2T !1 sec sec N ™m 1Watt ! 1 sec

Coulomb 1Watt ! 1Volt ™ Ampere ! 1Volt sec

May 21, 2006

Basics
The FORCE applied by a wheel is always tangent to the wheel.

Force is measured in units of weight (lb, oz, N)
May 21, 2006

Basics
The required TORQUE to move a mobile robot is the force times the radius of the wheel.

May 21, 2006

Torque is measured in units of weight x length (lb·ft, oz ·in, N·m)

Procedure for Sizing DC Motors

May 21, 2006

Information Needed
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Estimated Weight Number of wheels and motors Maximum incline Desired maximum velocity at worst case Push/Pull forces

May 21, 2006

Procedure
‡ Step One: Determine total applied force at worst case

May 21, 2006

Friction
‡ Static Friction
± Used to determine traction failure

‡ Rolling Friction
± Used to determine motor requirements

‡ Kinetic Friction

May 21, 2006

Rolling Friction
FR !
R

™N

‡ QR Is the coefficient of Rolling friction
± Using the coefficient of Static friction (QS) will typically be to high

‡ To determine QR:
± Roll a wheel at a initial velocity, v, and measure the time, t, in which it takes to stop v
R
May 21, 2006

!

t™g

Rolling Friction
‡ Some typical values for QR
± Steel on steel: 0.001 ± Rubber on pavement: 0.015

May 21, 2006

Other Forces
‡ Gravity

FI ! W ™ sin U
‡ External
U

May 21, 2006

Total Force
‡ Calculate worst case
± Up hill with rolling friction

F ! W ™ ( Q R ™ cos U  sin U )
± Up hill with rolling friction, pushing

F ! W ™ ( Q R ™ cosU  sin U )  FEX
± Level ground with rolling friction

F ! Q R ™W
± Level ground with rolling friction, pushing
May 21, 2006

F ! Q R ™ W  FEX

Other Cases
‡ Tracks
± Set Qr=0 ± Use a spring scale to determine the force required to pull the chassis in neutral and add that to the worst case force

‡ Gear Trains
± Bulky gear trains may significantly affect the outcome ± If this is a concern, it may be best to test in the same way as tracks
May 21, 2006

Procedure
‡ Step One: Determine total applied force at worst case ‡ Step Two: Calculate power requirement

May 21, 2006

Power Requirement
‡ Determine velocity, v, requirement under maximum load (worst case force) ‡ Using the worst case force and velocity, calculate the power requirement

P ! F ™v
‡ This is the total power, divide by the number of motors if more than one motor is used
RULE OF THUMB: 3 TIMES MARGIN
May 21, 2006

Procedure
‡ Step One: Determine total applied force at worst case ‡ Step Two: Calculate power requirement ‡ Step Three: Calculate torque and speed requirement

May 21, 2006

Speed/Torque Requirements
‡ Using the velocity requirement, v, and the radius of the wheel, r

v [! r

Speed requirement is in rad/sec

‡ Using the speed from above and the power per motor

P T! [
May 21, 2006

Procedure
‡ Step One: Determine total applied force at worst case ‡ Step Two: Calculate power requirement ‡ Step Three: Calculate torque and speed requirement ‡ Step Four: Find a motor that meets these requirements
May 21, 2006

Spec Sheet

May 21, 2006

Spec Sheet

May 21, 2006

Procedure
‡ Step One: Determine total applied force at worst case ‡ Step Two: Calculate power requirement ‡ Step Three: Calculate torque and speed requirement ‡ Step Four: Find a motor that meets these requirements ‡ Step Five: Plot motor characteristics
May 21, 2006

Torque vs. Speed Curve
T ! TPK
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

TPK  ™[ S NL

Where T = Torque TPK = Stall Torque SNL = No Load Speed [ = Speed

May 21, 2006

Torque vs. Speed Curve
Torque vs. Speed
7.00 -02 6.00 -02

5.00 -02 Torque, Nm

4.00 -02

From this plot, maximum speed can be determined for a given load.

3.00 -02

2.00 -02

1.00 -02

0.00 +00 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 Speed, rpm 5000 6000 7000 8000

May 21, 2006

Power
T ! TPK TPK  ™[ S NL

[ ! (TPK P ! T ™[

S NL T ) TPK

TPK 2 ™ [  TPK ™ [ P ([ ) !  S NL S NL 2 P (T ) !  ™ T  S NL ™ T TPK

May 21, 2006

Power
Power vs. Speed
1 20 +01 1 00 +01

8 00 +00 Power, watts

6 00 +00

4 00 +00

2 00 +00

TPK 2 ™ [  TPK ™ [ P([ ) !  S NL
0 1000 2000 3000 Speed, rpm 4000 5000 6000 7000

0 00 +00

May 21, 2006

Power
Power vs. Torque
1 20 +01 1 00 +01

8 00 +00 Power, watts

6 00 +00

4 00 +00

2 00 +00

S NL 2 P (T ) !  ™ T  S NL ™ T TPK
0 0 01 0 02 0 03 Torque, Nm 0 04 0 05 0 06

0 00 +00

May 21, 2006

Power
1 20

eed

Power
Power vs. Tor
1 20 01

01

1 00

01

Power, watts

6 00

00

00

00

1 00

01

2 00

00 Power, watts

00

00

0

1000

2000

000 Speed, rpm

000

000

2 00

Peak power is obtained at half of maximum torque and speed
May 21, 2006 

Tor

e , Nm

1 T ! Tmax 2

¥

¥

¥

0

0 01

0 02

00

00

00 

¥

¨¥ 

¥

0 00

§¦ ¥

§¦ ¥

1 [ ! [ max 2

00

00

00

00 

§¦ ¥¨ 

¨ 

0 00

00

6 00 6000

00

000 

00

00

§¦ ¥

§¦ ¥

§¦ ¥©

§¦ ¥

¤£ ¢ ¡  

§¦ ¥ §¦ ¥ §¦ ¥ §¦ ¥ §¦ ¥

§¦ ¥© §¦ ¥¨

e

0 06

Procedure
‡ Step One: Determine total applied force at worst case ‡ Step Two: Calculate power requirement ‡ Step Three: Calculate torque and speed requirement ‡ Step Four: Find a motor that meets these requirements ‡ Step Five: Plot motor characteristics
May 21, 2006

A Few Extra Points

May 21, 2006

Simple DC Motor Model
V ! I ™Re
T ! kt ™ I e ! ke ™ [ V ! I ™ R  ke ™ [

L max

¨ I NL ! ©1  © IP ª

¸ ¹ ¹ º

2

May 21, 2006

Motor Inductance
‡ The windings of a DC motor creates an Inductance, L ‡ Change in current through an di V !L inductance creates a voltage dt ‡ Switching current to a motor causes di/dt to spike (Flyback)
Flyback voltages can be very high and damage electronics, that is why a flyback diode in the switching circuit is required.

May 21, 2006

Winches
‡ Similar to drive motors

May 21, 2006

Common Mistakes
‡ Using static or kinetic friction instead of rolling friction
± If a wheel is rolling without slipping, the only energy loss is due to deformations in the wheel/surface (rolling friction)

‡ Using PWM to control a motor reduces the available torque
± The average power, speed and torque are reduced, however, effective torque is not significantly effected
May 21, 2006

Questions?

May 21, 2006

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