## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Email: expertsyssol@gmail.com expertsyssol@yahoo.com Cell: 9952749533 www.researchprojects.info PAIYANOOR, OMR, CHENNAI Call For Research Projects Final year students of B.E in EEE, ECE, EI, M.E (Power Systems), M.E (Applied Electronics), M.E (Power Electronics) Ph.D Electrical and Electronics. Students can assemble their hardware in our Research labs. Experts will be guiding the projects.

May 21, 2006

Sizing Electric Motors for Mobile Robotics

May 21, 2006

The Basics

May 21, 2006

Unit Conversions

rad rev 2T !1 sec sec N m 1Watt ! 1 sec

Coulomb 1Watt ! 1Volt Ampere ! 1Volt sec

May 21, 2006

Basics

The FORCE applied by a wheel is always tangent to the wheel.

**Force is measured in units of weight (lb, oz, N)
**

May 21, 2006

Basics

The required TORQUE to move a mobile robot is the force times the radius of the wheel.

May 21, 2006

Torque is measured in units of weight x length (lb·ft, oz ·in, N·m)

Procedure for Sizing DC Motors

May 21, 2006

Information Needed

Estimated Weight Number of wheels and motors Maximum incline Desired maximum velocity at worst case Push/Pull forces

May 21, 2006

Procedure

Step One: Determine total applied force at worst case

May 21, 2006

Friction

Static Friction

± Used to determine traction failure

Rolling Friction

± Used to determine motor requirements

Kinetic Friction

May 21, 2006

Rolling Friction

FR !

R

N

** QR Is the coefficient of Rolling friction
**

± Using the coefficient of Static friction (QS) will typically be to high

To determine QR:

± Roll a wheel at a initial velocity, v, and measure the time, t, in which it takes to stop v

R

May 21, 2006

!

tg

Rolling Friction

Some typical values for QR

± Steel on steel: 0.001 ± Rubber on pavement: 0.015

May 21, 2006

Other Forces

Gravity

FI ! W sin U

External

U

May 21, 2006

Total Force

Calculate worst case

± Up hill with rolling friction

F ! W ( Q R cos U sin U )

± Up hill with rolling friction, pushing

**F ! W ( Q R cosU sin U ) FEX
**

± Level ground with rolling friction

F ! Q R W

± Level ground with rolling friction, pushing

May 21, 2006

F ! Q R W FEX

Other Cases

Tracks

± Set Qr=0 ± Use a spring scale to determine the force required to pull the chassis in neutral and add that to the worst case force

Gear Trains

± Bulky gear trains may significantly affect the outcome ± If this is a concern, it may be best to test in the same way as tracks

May 21, 2006

Procedure

Step One: Determine total applied force at worst case Step Two: Calculate power requirement

May 21, 2006

Power Requirement

Determine velocity, v, requirement under maximum load (worst case force) Using the worst case force and velocity, calculate the power requirement

P ! F v

This is the total power, divide by the number of motors if more than one motor is used

RULE OF THUMB: 3 TIMES MARGIN

May 21, 2006

Procedure

Step One: Determine total applied force at worst case Step Two: Calculate power requirement Step Three: Calculate torque and speed requirement

May 21, 2006

**Speed/Torque Requirements
**

Using the velocity requirement, v, and the radius of the wheel, r

v [! r

Speed requirement is in rad/sec

Using the speed from above and the power per motor

P T! [

May 21, 2006

Procedure

Step One: Determine total applied force at worst case Step Two: Calculate power requirement Step Three: Calculate torque and speed requirement Step Four: Find a motor that meets these requirements

May 21, 2006

Spec Sheet

May 21, 2006

Spec Sheet

May 21, 2006

Procedure

Step One: Determine total applied force at worst case Step Two: Calculate power requirement Step Three: Calculate torque and speed requirement Step Four: Find a motor that meets these requirements Step Five: Plot motor characteristics

May 21, 2006

**Torque vs. Speed Curve
**

T ! TPK

TPK [ S NL

Where T = Torque TPK = Stall Torque SNL = No Load Speed [ = Speed

May 21, 2006

**Torque vs. Speed Curve
**

Torque vs. Speed

7.00 -02 6.00 -02

5.00 -02 Torque, Nm

4.00 -02

From this plot, maximum speed can be determined for a given load.

3.00 -02

2.00 -02

1.00 -02

0.00 +00 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 Speed, rpm 5000 6000 7000 8000

May 21, 2006

Power

T ! TPK TPK [ S NL

[ ! (TPK P ! T [

S NL T ) TPK

TPK 2 [ TPK [ P ([ ) ! S NL S NL 2 P (T ) ! T S NL T TPK

May 21, 2006

Power

Power vs. Speed

1 20 +01 1 00 +01

8 00 +00 Power, watts

6 00 +00

4 00 +00

2 00 +00

TPK 2 [ TPK [ P([ ) ! S NL

0 1000 2000 3000 Speed, rpm 4000 5000 6000 7000

0 00 +00

May 21, 2006

Power

Power vs. Torque

1 20 +01 1 00 +01

8 00 +00 Power, watts

6 00 +00

4 00 +00

2 00 +00

S NL 2 P (T ) ! T S NL T TPK

0 0 01 0 02 0 03 Torque, Nm 0 04 0 05 0 06

0 00 +00

May 21, 2006

Power

1 20

eed

Power

Power vs. Tor

1 20 01

01

1 00

01

Power, watts

6 00

00

00

00

1 00

01

2 00

00 Power, watts

00

00

0

1000

2000

000 Speed, rpm

000

000

2 00

**Peak power is obtained at half of maximum torque and speed
**

May 21, 2006

Tor

e , Nm

1 T ! Tmax 2

¥

¥

¥

0

0 01

0 02

00

00

00

¥

¨¥

¥

0 00

§¦ ¥

§¦ ¥

1 [ ! [ max 2

00

00

00

00

§¦ ¥¨

¨

0 00

00

6 00 6000

00

000

00

00

§¦ ¥

§¦ ¥

§¦ ¥©

§¦ ¥

¤£ ¢ ¡

§¦ ¥ §¦ ¥ §¦ ¥ §¦ ¥ §¦ ¥

§¦ ¥© §¦ ¥¨

e

0 06

Procedure

Step One: Determine total applied force at worst case Step Two: Calculate power requirement Step Three: Calculate torque and speed requirement Step Four: Find a motor that meets these requirements Step Five: Plot motor characteristics

May 21, 2006

A Few Extra Points

May 21, 2006

**Simple DC Motor Model
**

V ! I Re

T ! kt I e ! ke [ V ! I R ke [

L max

¨ I NL ! ©1 © IP ª

¸ ¹ ¹ º

2

May 21, 2006

Motor Inductance

The windings of a DC motor creates an Inductance, L Change in current through an di V !L inductance creates a voltage dt Switching current to a motor causes di/dt to spike (Flyback)

Flyback voltages can be very high and damage electronics, that is why a flyback diode in the switching circuit is required.

May 21, 2006

Winches

Similar to drive motors

May 21, 2006

Common Mistakes

Using static or kinetic friction instead of rolling friction

± If a wheel is rolling without slipping, the only energy loss is due to deformations in the wheel/surface (rolling friction)

** Using PWM to control a motor reduces the available torque
**

± The average power, speed and torque are reduced, however, effective torque is not significantly effected

May 21, 2006

Questions?

May 21, 2006

- The Light Between Oceans
- Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close
- The Sympathizer
- The Silver Linings Playbook
- Leaving Berlin
- You Too Can Have a Body Like Mine
- The Incarnations
- The Love Affairs of Nathaniel P.
- Life of Pi
- Bel Canto
- The Master
- A Man Called Ove
- The Flamethrowers
- Brooklyn
- The Blazing World
- The Rosie Project
- The First Bad Man
- We Are Not Ourselves

- POWER TRANSFORMER PROTECTION BASED ON CLARKE’S TRANSFORMATION AND FUZZY SYSTEMS
- Power System Stability Enhancement Using UPFC
- Optimal Location and Capacity of Statcom for Voltage Stablity Enchancement Using Ga2 (1)
- Security Constrained Econoimc Dispatch Using Pso
- Improved Fuzzy Logic Controller for Agc System After Deregulation
- Optimal Location and Capacity of Statcom for Voltage Stablity Enchancement Using Ga
- Simulation and Hardware Implementation Echo Cancellation Using the Lms Algorithm
- Reactive Power Optimization in Deregulated Electricity Market Using Firefly Algorithm
- Improving Grid Power Quality With Fuzzy Controller on Wind Energy System (1)
- Transmission Line Pricing
- Simulation and Hardware Implementation of Single Phase Matrix Converter for Passive Loads
- Optimal Location of Facts Devices for Voltage Stablity Enchancement Using Ga (1)
- Reactive Power Optimization in Deregulated Electricity Market Using Firefly Algorithm (1)
- POWER TRANSFORMER DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION BASED ON CLARKE’S TRANSFORMATION AND FUZZY SYSTEMS
- Improving Grid Power Quality With Fuzzy Controller on Wind Energy System
- Hardware Implementation of a New Single-Phase Cycloconverter Based on Single-Phase Matrix Converter Topology Using Pulse Width Modulation
- Firefly Algorithm for Economic Dispatch
- FPGA Based Hardware Implementation of Median Filters for Image Enhancement
- Transmission Line Pricing
- Implementation of Overmodulation in Single Phase Cascade Inverter
- Identification of Heffron-Phillips Parameters for Synchronous Machine
- A New Digital Distance Relaying Scheme for Statcom (1)
- Simulation and Hardware Implementation of Single Phase Matrix Converter for Passive Loads
- Design of Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Controller for Load Frequency Control in Two Area System
- Fast Transversal Recursive Least Squares Algorithm Implementation in Dsp Processor
- Security Constrained Econoimc Dispatch Using Pso
- Dc-link Fuzzy Controller for Pmsg
- Hardware Implementation of Three Level Inverter Reduced Switches
- Energy Management by Loss Minimization Using PSO
- Simulation and Hardware Implementation Echo Cancellation Using the Lms Algorithm

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot usefulClose Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Close Dialog## This title now requires a credit

Use one of your book credits to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

Loading