EXPERT SYSTEMS AND SOLUTIONS

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MICROCONTROLLER BASED PWM INVERTER Under the guidance: Mr.P.PONSANKER.M.E., LECTURER, DEPARTMENT OF EEE DSEC. PRESENTED BY: K.SARAVANAN. K.MEHANATHAN. J.KAVIARASAN. A.SUHAILRASEED.

Abstract
Microcontroller based PWM inverter is the recent technique in which output voltage produced by the inverter is easily controlled.In this circuit five MOSFET¶s used for high speed switching purpose alone with eight diodes. Here four diodes used as freewheeling diode and remaining four diodes connected across the MOSFET. Single pulse gating signals are generated by microcontroller.The microcontroller is programmed using keil micro vision2 and ISPRO vision3(serial programmer). Atmel 89c52 is used for generation of gating pulses.

This pulse width modulation technique is very much useful for the reduction of harmonics in the inverter output voltage. The pulses are produced directly by the microcontroller through it¶s programing. The width of the pulses are easily varied by the program. Keil software is used for checking and debugging the program of the controller. ISPRO software is used for store the program in microcontroller with the help of computer. Simulation of single phase and three phase inverter is done by using MATLAB simulation software. After simulation process a necessary hardware for single phase inverter is to be produced.

INVERTER
An inverter is a circuit which converts a D.C power into an A.C power at desired output voltage and frequency This conversion can be achieved by controlled turn-on and turn-off devices like BJT,MOSFET and IGBT. For low and medium power outputs the above devices were used. The output waveform produced by the inverter should be sinusoidal.

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The commonly used PWM control techniques are: (a) Single-pulse width modulation (SPWM) (b) Multiple-pulse width modulation (MPWM) (c) Sinusoidal pulse width modulation (sin PWM)

(a) Single-pulse width modulation: In single-pulse width modulation control, there is only one pulse per half-cycle and the width of the pulse is varied to control the inverter output voltage. The generation of gating signals and output voltage of single phase full bridge inverter is shown in Fig

(a) Multiple pulse-width modulation:

In this method of pulse width modulation, the harmonic content can be reduced using several pulses in each half-cycle of output voltage. By comparing a reference signal with a triangular carrier wave, the gating signals are generated for turning-on and turning-off of a thyristor, as shown in Fig

Sinusoidal pulse width modulation :

In this method of modulation, several pulses per half-cycle are used as in the case of multiple pulse width modulation. Instead of maintaining the width of all pulses the same as in the case of multiple pulse modulation, width of each pulse is varied proportional to the amplitude of a sinewave evaluated at the centre of the same pulse. By comparing a sinusoidal refence signal with a triangular carrier wave of frequency, fc, the gating signals are generated, as shown in Fig

Single phase five level inverter
PWM inverter can control their output voltage and frequency. and also they reduce the harmonic components in load currents. The approach in these project also have lot of merits such as an improved output waveform, smaller size and low cost In single-phase three-level inverter output has three values: zero, positive, and negative supply dc voltage level. Therefore, the harmonic components of their output voltage are determined by carrier frequency and switching functions. Moreover, the harmonic reduction of them is limited to certain degree. The developed a single-phase five-level PWM inverter has an output voltage with five levels, they are 1.Zero, 2.Half Positive, 3.Full Positive, 4. Half Negative, 5.Full Negative supply dc voltage levels and hence called single-phase five-level PWM inverter.

(a) State 1: +(Vd/2)-Q1-R-L-Q4-(-Vd/2), output voltage positive (Vo=Vd) and direction of load current is negative (Io= (+)). (b) State 2: (-Vd/2)-D1-R-L-D4- (+Vd/2), output voltage positive (Vo =Vd) and direction of load current is negative (Io= (-)). (c) State 3: +(Vd/2)-D5-Q5-D8-L-R-Q4, output voltage positive (Vo = Vd/2) and direction of load current is negative (Io= (+)). (d) State 4: -(Vd/2)-D4-L-R-D6-Q5-D7- (+Vd/2), output voltage positive (Vo =Vd/2) and direction of load current is negative (Io= (-)). (e) State 5: L-Q4-D3-R -L, output voltage positive (Vo = 0) and direction of load current is negative (Io= (+)).

(f) State 6: L-R-Q3-D4-L, output voltage positive (Vo= 0) and direction of load current is negative (Io=(-)). (g) State 7: -(Vd/2-D5-Q5-D8-R-L-D2- (+Vd/2), output voltage positive (Vo = -Vd/2) and direction of load current is negative (Io= (+)). (h) State 8: +(Vd/2)-Q2-L-R-D6-Q5-D7- (-Vd/2), output voltage positive (Vo = -Vd/2) and direction of load current is negative (Io= (-)). (i) State 9: -(Vd/2)-D3-R-L-D2- (+Vd/2), output voltage positive (Vo = -Vd) and direction of load current is negative (Io= (+)). (j) State 10: +(Vd/2)-Q2-L-R-Q3- (-Vd/2), output voltage positive (Vo =-Vd) and direction of load current is negative (Io= (-)).

Keil microvision2
What's New in µVision3 µVision3 adds many new features to the Editor like Text Templates, Quick Function Navigation, Syntax Coloring with brace highlighting, Configuration Wizard for dialog based startup and debugger setup. µVision3 is fully compatible to µVision2 and can be used in parallel with µVision2.

What is µVision3? µVision3 is an IDE (Integrated Development Environment) that helps you write, compile, and debug embedded programs. It encapsulates the following components: A project manager. A make facility. Tool configuration. Editor. A powerful debugger.

To help you get started, several example programs (located in the \C51\Examples, \C251\Examples, \C166\Examples, and \ARM\...\Examples) are provided. HELLO is a simple program that prints the string "Hello World" using the Serial Interface. MEASURE is a data acquisition system for analog and digital systems. TRAFFIC is a traffic light controller with the RTX Tiny operating system. SIEVE is the SIEVE Benchmark. DHRY is the Dhrystone Benchmark. WHETS is the Single-Precision Whetstone Benchmark.

Additional example programs not listed here are provided for each device architecture. Building an Application in µVision2 To build (compile, assemble, and link) an application in µVision2, you must: 1.Select Project - Open Project (for example, \C166\EXAMPLES\HELLO\ HELLO.UV2). 2.Select Project - Rebuild all target files or Build target. µVision2 compiles, assembles, and links the files in your project.

1. 2. 3.

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Creating Your Own Application in µVision2 To create a new project in µVision2, you must: Select Project - New Project. Select a directory and enter the name of the project file. Select Project - Select Device and select an 8051, 251, or C16x/ST10 device from the Device DatabaseŒ. Create source files to add to the project. Select Project - Targets, Groups, Files. Add/Files, select Source Group1, and add the source files to the project.

Debugging an Application in µVision2 To debug an application created using µVision2, you must: 1.Select Debug - Start/Stop Debug Session. 2.Use the Step toolbar buttons to single-step through your program. You may enter G, main in the Output Window to execute to the main C function. 3.Open the Serial Window using the Serial #1 button on the toolbar. Debug your program using standard options like Step, Go, Break, and so on.

CONCLUSION

Single-phase five-level PWM inverter to reduce the harmonic components of output voltage and load current. The operational principles and the switching functions are analyzed in detail. The controller is also designed for the single-phase five-level PWM inverter to keep the output voltage being sinusoidal and have high dynamic performance even in the cases of load variations and also the single-phase five-level PWM inverter has been compared with a singlephase three-level PWM inverter. The simulation results show that Total harmonic distortion of the five-level inverter is considerably alleviated.

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