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TITLE

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ESTIMATION OF THE HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF
ALLUVIUM DEPOSITS IN KUALA LUMPUR
OUTLINE
OBJECTIVE
INTRODUCTION
KLANG VALLEY SOURCE OF ALLUVIUM
STUDY AREA
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
BOREHOLE LOG ANALYSIS
HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY DETERMINATION
HYDROGEOLOGICAL MAP
STUDY AND WORK APPROACH
PROJECT RATIONAL
OBJECTIVE

• To characterize the geology of the study area by studying and analyzing the borehole data

• To determine the alluviums hydraulic conductivity empirical coefficient through laboratory studies.

- Particle Size Distribution
- Falling Head Permeability
- Constant Head Permeability

• To generate the conceptual hydrogeological map for alluvium aquifers
INTRODUCTION
• Quaternary Alluvium deposits in Peninsular Malaysia are
inferred to be a promising and potential groundwater bearing
aquifers (Chong and Tan 1986)
• The unconsolidated property of alluvium makes them to be an
ideal aquifer. Henceforth they are always under the influence of
extreme hydrological events.
• Alluvial deposits are generally termed as a semi-confined
aquifers (Samsudin 1977).
• Shallow or deep groundwater resource aquifer.
KLANG VALLEY SOURCE OF ALLUVIUM

• Klang Valley Quaternary Alluvium deposits are of the fluvial origin.

• The presence of similar mineral composition to the highly weathered
granite bodies of the main range ‘Titiwangsa’, located to the east, imply
that the main range were the source rock of the alluvium deposits.
Deposited in a fluviatile environment (Ayob 1970).
STUDY AREA
Taman Naga Emas located at the
southern end of Kuala Lumpur
were selected as the designated
area of research study for this
purpose.

GEOLOGY OF THE STUDY AREA

Kenny Hill Formation
1) Sandstone
2) Siltstone

Main Rivers:
1) Sungai Gombak
2) Sungai Klang
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
• Borehole Log analysis to determine the spatial thickness of Alluvium of the
study area with the surrounding vicinities and to substantially determine
the geology together with JMG data.
• Particle size analysis to segregate the samples to be used for the specific
test.
• Falling Head Permeameter and Constant Head Permeameter test to
determine the empirical coefficient of the alluvium.
• Hydrogeological map compilation for groundwater resource aquifers
BOREHOLE LOG ANALYSIS
• The spatial thickness of Alluvium and the substantial geology were visually
interpreted using the borehole log data.

• Few important aspects were noted to spatially infer and interpret the log:
1) Final Depth
2) Soil Description and Lithology
3) Water Level
4) Location
5) Boring Type
6) Logger
7) Reduced Level
8) Depth of Bedrock
9) N-values
Hydraulic Conductivity Determination

Falling Head Permeameter Constant Head Permeameter

• Cohesive soil type • Non-cohesive soil type

𝑎.𝐿 ℎ 𝑞 ×𝐿
• 𝐾= × 2.3 𝐿𝑜𝑔 ( 0) • 𝐾=
𝐴.𝑡 ℎ1 𝐴 × ∆ℎ
Table 1: General Ranges of Hydraulic Conductivity of Soil (Source:
Unified Soil Classification System (USCS))
HYDROGEOLOGICAL MAP
• Combination of geological and hydrologic data layers were used along
with the raw water table data obtained from the borehole logs.

• The main components of the map would be:
1) Hydrogeological environments
2) Lithology stratigraphic unit
3) Structural lineation
4) Surface water drainage
5) Groundwater abstraction units
6) Topography (DEM)
STUDY AND WORK APPROACH
• Assumptions were made through out this study of estimating hydraulic
conductivity of alluvium deposits.
• The first 3 meters of the borehole are considered as top soils and are
neglected in the study.
• The subsequent layers with consideration of blow count value ranging from
5-30 were reflected as the alluvium.
• Above these stipulated values the soils are assumed to residual.
• Henceforth, relative to this the limitations of the sample are cause for
concern. Rather estimating the hydraulic conductivity of layers (1.5m
interval) composite samples are used with three numbers of test
conducted for each borehole.
PROJECT RATIONAL
• To further explore and limit the overexploitation of the current hard rock
aquifers, alternative groundwater aquifers need to be explored. As such in
Kuala Lumpur, alluvium are not readily explored as a potential
groundwater aquifers.

• The studies of alluvium as aquifers potentiality would benefit the society,
economy and the nation in whole, as it is the shallowest and highest
yielding groundwater storage in general.

• The data and information would benefit the future researchers to vastly
improve on the understanding of the alluvium, which would thereafter be
used to develop and explore further the alluvium aquifers in Kuala Lumpur
to cater the growing population.
THANK YOU