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09 October 2018
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● Will discuss the operation and
maintenance of the Reciprocating
Engine Fuel Metering.

● To familiar with various types of fuel

metering used on a/c engine.

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● To control the amount of fuel being delivered to

the engine.
● Be able to mix fuel/air mixture over wide range of
operation and environmental condition.

In addition:-

● Be able to atomize and distribute in a manner

that promotes complete and even burning in the

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 Reciprocating engine use either a
Carburetor or Fuel Injection Unit.

1. Carburetor.
a) Float – types.

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b. Pressure –

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2. Fuel Injection.

a) Continuous.

b) Direct fuel
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Teledyne-continental Fuel Injection

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Bernoulli’s Principles.

 When air pass through the venturi

is forced to speed up at the
restricted portion of the venturi.

 Air speed increases and pressure


 The pressure differential

produced by the venturi is used to
meter the fuel delivery.

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 To burn gasoline or liquid fuel it must mixed with


 For mixture to burn properly, the ratio of fuel to

air must be kept within a certain range.

 Acceptable range is govern by the composition of

atmosphere and the fuel.

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 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and 1% other gases.

 Nitrogen is an inert gas. Does not support combustion.

Oxygen does.

 To achieve any specific fuel/air ratio, air density must be

taken into consideration.

 Density is define as the mass or weight of the substance per unit


 Density of vaporized fuel and air affected by temperature, pressure

and humidity.

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• The accurate method to define a mixture ratio is in terms
of weight not volume.

• Pressure at sea level is 14.7 p.s.i or 29.92in. Hg. at a temp.

of 59⁰F (15⁰C), air weight is about 0.0765 lb/cu. ft.

• If either pressure, temperature or water content increases

its density or weight decreases.

• If the pressure or temperature decreased, air density


• Volume of air and fuel enter the engine increases, engine

performance increases.
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● Referred as the proportion of fuel that enters an engine.

● Mixture of 12:1 is referred to 12 lb. of air and 1 lb. fuel by


● Burnable fuel/air ratio between 8:1 and 16:1.

● Mixture ratios consisting of less than 8 parts of air and more

than 16 parts of air typically result in complete combustion.

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 Perfect mixture for combustion is 0.067 lb fuel to 1 lb. of air
or a 15:1 ratio, also known as stoichiometric mixture.

 Produces the highest combustion temperature.

 Its not necessary an ideal mixture for proper engine


 Reason is reciprocating engine not 100% efficient so less air is

required to provide adequate engine performance.

● Example:- engine develop maximum power with mixture of

12:1 and operates max. economy with a 14:1 fuel/air ratio.
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● Two common term often used to describe fuel/air mixture
are lean and rich.

 Lean - more air less fuel.

 Rich - more fuel less air.

 Full rich :-
- max. fuel flow with control full forward position and
normally used operate a/c on ground.

 If operated at elevation airport, mixture should lean slightly to

compensate less dense air and helps prevent overly rich
mixture and spark plug fouling.

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 Idle – cut off :-
-- control completely cuts off the fuel flow to the engine.
-- mixture control fully out or in aft position.

 Lean best power and Rich best power.

 Range of mixture ratio that provide max. rpm and manifold

pressure for a given throttle setting.

 Both produce the same engine performance, lean best power uses
slightly less fuel than rich best power.

 Best economy, mixture ratio develop max. power for least amount
of fuel flow.

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 To achieve a desired mixture, mixture control must be adjusted.

 To determine proper mixture ratio have achieve engine

instruments such as tachometer, manifold pressure and EGT is

 Adjust mixture control outward to achieve rpm at its maximum

value, that is best economy ratio.

 Best power enrichen the mixture slightly, this is used on fixed-

pitch propeller a/c.

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 Constant speed propeller, manifold press. is used because
propeller governor keep the propeller speed constant.

 Most accurate method of leaning is checking the EGT.

 By monitoring EGT you can set the fuel/air mixture for best
economy or best power.

 Common method of setting best power is by setting EGT to

max. then enrichen it to 25⁰F cooler than peak EGT.

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 To determine the engine efficiency.

 SFC is the number of lbs of fuel

burned/hr to produce 1 hp.

 Most modern a/c engine have a brake SFC

between 0.4 – 0.5 lbs/hp/hr.

 To verify SFC value and proper operation

of the fuel metering device, engine has to
be run up.

● Eg. Run engine at a given rpm for specific period and monitoring the
fuel flow, you can determine the engine’s SFC.

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 Normal combustion.
– complete and even combustion of mixture that causes a
smooth build-up of pressure and temperature to give max.

 Detonation :-
- Uncontrolled, explosive ignition of fuel / air mixture
in a cylinder.

 Causes high temp. and press. which lead to engine run rough,
overheating and power loss.

 Damage or failure of piston, cylinders and valves can happen.

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 High press. and temp. with high turbulence generated cause a

“hammering” or “scrubbing” action in a cylinder that can
burn a hole through piston.

 An audible “knocking” can be identified if not because of the

noise created by the propeller.

 Caused by several factors, low grade fuel and excessively lean


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 Preignition :-

i) Fuel / air mixture ignites too soon.

ii) Caused by hot spots in the cylinder

that ignite the mixture before the spark
plugs fire.

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 Hot spot can be caused by :-
a) Carbon deposits.
b) Overheat valve edges (feathered valve).
c) Silica deposit on the spark plug.
d) Red-hot spark plug electrode.

► Hot spots are caused by :-

a) Poor engine cooling.
b) Dirty intake air filter.
c) Shutting down engine at high rpm.

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 Preignition may also cause engine continues to run
after the ignition is turn off.

 Preignition and detonation can occur

simultaneously, but difficult to distinguish between
the two.

 Either condition the engine run rough with high

operating temperature.

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 Lean fuel/air mixture can result in detonation.

 Fuel/air mixture so lean burns very slow.

 Fuel/air still burning when intake valve open and allow fresh mixture
to enter.

 It ignited before the intake valve closed and engine backfire through
the induction manifold, fuel metering unit and out the induction

 Backfiring always occur in the induction system.

::- How to eliminate it?

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 After firing occurs in the exhaust system.

 Result from excessive rich fuel/air mixture.

 Rich mixture with lack of oxygen burn slowly.

 Mixture not completely burns when exhaust valve open, will

mix. with air in the exhaust and continue to burn.

 Causes flame to appear as unburned mixture exits the

exhaust stacks.

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Engine Control


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Classified as :-

i) Updraft.

ii) Downdraft.

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i) Updraft.
- Air flows upward.
ii) Downdraft.
- Air flows downward.

 Most a/c used updraft carburetor

mounted under the engine.

 Atomize fuel/air ratio and

distributed evenly as possible to
each cylinder of the engine.

 In reality, both volume and ratio of fuel/air charge enter the cylinder
varies because of the different distance to travel through the
induction manifold.

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Carburetor Venturi Principles
 Carburetor depends on differential pressure created at the
venturi throat to measure the amount of air delivered
and meter the proper amount of fuel.

 Air flows through the venturi, increases

in speed (velocity) and pressure decreases.

 Throttle valve (butterfly valve) control the

volume of air passes through the venturi.

 Valve is a flat circular piece of metal installed

between venturi and engine.
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Carburetor Venturi Principles
 Valve fully open, venturi limits the volume of air entering
the engine.

 Throttle valve controlled from the cockpit.

 Push forward, valve open engine

power increase.

 Pulled backward, valve close power

 Size and shape of venturi varies.

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Carburetor system
 To provide proper engine operation under
various engine load, speed and air densities.

 Five main system :-

i) Main metering.
ii) Idling.
iii) Mixture control.
iv) Accelerating.
v) Power enrichment or economizer.

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Carburetor system
The two types of carburetor to be

a) Float-type carburetor.

b) Pressure Injection carburetor.

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Carburetor system

 Consist of :-
a) Float chamber.
b) Needle valve.
c) Needle seat.
d) Float.
e) Fuel screen.

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Carburetor system conts.
 Main Metering.
Purpose :- To supply the correct amount of fuel to
the engine at all speeds above idle.

 Main metering system is

comprised of:-
- Venturi tube.
One or more venturi tubes.
- Main metering jet.
Meter amount of fuel flow.

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Carburetor system conts.
 Discharge nozzle.

a) Delivers fuel to the intake air

and is installed between the
float chamber and the

b) Engine at rest, fuel level in

discharge nozzle is 1/8”
below the opening – prevent
fuel leak.
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Carburetor system conts.
 Throttle valve.

a) Control volume of air

passes through venturi.

b) At least 0.5 in. Hg. Is

required to raise the fuel
past the fuel metering
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Carburetor system conts.


 The operation of discharge

nozzle is based on the
pressure difference between
the float chamber (P1) and
the venturi (P2).

 Pressure differential forces

the fuel to flow-out
(discharge) into the airstream.

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Carburetor system conts.

• The greater the pressure

difference between the float
chamber and the venturi, the
more fuel is discharged.

• Maximum fuel flow limited by

the size of main metering jet.

• Surface tension – liquids tend

to hold together instead of
break out or spread out.

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Carburetor conts.
Air Bleed.

 Air bleed incorporated into the

metering system to decreased fuel
surface tension.

 Its consists of a passage with small

calibrated orifice.

 Low pressure at the discharge

nozzle draws fuel out of the float
chamber and bleed air from behind
the venturi.
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Air Bleed

 Bleed air and fuel mix. in the

discharge nozzle, creating an
emulsion or mixture, which lower
the fuel’s density and help break
up its surface tension.

 By disrupting this surface tension,

fuel discharge from nozzle in fine
uniform spray which promotes

 If air bleed passage partially or

completely blocked, the mixture
will become excessively rich at
higher power settings.
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Air Bleed

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Carburetor System

 The lowest possible rpm the engine

can maintain in smooth running
without the tendency to vibrate or

 Throttle valve is nearly closed position.

 Air in the venturi is reduced, it

reduces pressure differential.

 Insufficient fuel be drawn from main

discharge nozzle.

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Idling System cont’s
 Series of two or three small passages provided in the
carburetor barrel near the edge of the throttle valve where
a small amount of air can still flow.

 Its called ‘Idle discharge ports or idle jets’ are connected by

idle emulsion tube to an annulus that draws fuel from the
outlet of the main metering jet.

 The emulsion tube consists of idling jet that regulate amount

of fuel drawn from main discharge system.

 Idle air bleed aids in emulsifying the fuel.

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Idling System

 Throttle closed, venturi is

established near the discharge
ports creating low pressure,
draws fuel from discharged ports
and into airstream.

 Adjustable needle valve control

the amount of fuel discharge into
the airstream.

 Needle valve screwed in reducing

fuel discharge and mixture become
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Idling System.

 Screwed out enrichen the idle


 Mixture for idling system is rich

for cooling purposes.

 More ports will exposed as

throttle valve moves to allow
more fuel flow.

 Provide smooth transition from

idle to higher power setting.

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Carburetor conts.

 Regulate the ratio of fuel/air mixture to the

engine and allow engine to operate efficiently at
various altitude and condition.

 Two common methods used:-

1. Variable orifice.

2. Back suction.
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Variable Orifice.

 Float chamber vented to atmosphere

and a valve is installed in the float
chamber to control the size of the
passage between the float chamber
to the metering jet.

 Some carburetor use needle valve to

control fuel flow.

 Some use a step-cut rotary valve, installed in series with

the main fuel metering jet.
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Variable Orifice cont’s.

► Mixture valve in idle-cutoff,

no fuel flows to the main
metering jet.

► Fully open, fuel flows

restricted by main metering

► Intermediate position the

amount of fuel flow determine
by size of the mixture valve.

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2. Back Suction Mixture Control
 Low pressure used to control the pressure differential between
the venturi and the float chamber.

 Low pressure air from venturi,

routed through mixture valve
into float chamber.

 Float chamber, vented to

atmosphere and low pressure
from venturi.

 Mixture control in rich position,

vent valve fully open to atmosphere,
creating large pressure differential
and maximum fuel flow to discharge nozzle.
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2. Back Suction Mixture Control

 Idle-cut off position, chamber vented to low pressure air

eliminates pressure differential and stop fuel flow.

 Intermediate position float

chamber vented to combination
of atmosphere air and venturi air.

 The two pressure dictates the

pressure differential between the
float chamber and discharge
nozzle, control the amount of fuel discharged.
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Automatic Mixture Control (AMC).

 As a/c ascends, mixture is automatically leaned to provide

optimum fuel/air ratio.

 As a/c descends mixture control enrichens the mixture.

 AMC utilizes a sealed bellow position either a back suction or

variable orifice type mixture control through actuator.

 A/c climb, bellow expands and reduces the amount of fuel

flow to the discharged nozzle, leaning the mixture.

 A/c descends, bellow contract and enrichen the mixture.

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Automatic Mixture Control (AMC) cont’s.

 Engine problem with AMC.

a) A/c experiences rising in CHT during descend, mixture

become leaner, control actuator (bellow) stuck in
extended position.

b) Engine not produce full power at altitude, control

actuator (bellow) stuck in retracted position or
punctured – provide rich mixture.

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 When throttle is rapidly opened, airflow increases before

discharged nozzle has the time to increase the amount of fuel flow.

 Delay respond creates momentary leaning fuel/air mixture cause

engine to stagger before accelerating.

 To prevent this, carburetor provides an immediate but brief

increase in fuel flow in the throat of the carburetor to enrichen the

 Extra fuel, engine can accelerate smoothly and quickly until

discharged nozzle can deliver fuel at rate proportional to the
airflow rate.

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 Two most commonly used:-

a) Acceleration Well.

b) Acceleration Pump.

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a) Acceleration Well.

- Located in the main

discharged nozzle.

- An enlarged annular
chamber surrounds the
main discharged nozzle at
the main air bleed

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a) Acceleration Well cont’s.

 Engine running, fuel is stored in

the acceleration well.

 Throttle rapidly advanced, the

fuel in acceleration well is drawn
out through the discharge nozzle
to provide rich mixture.

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b) Acceleration Pump.

- Consist of a leather packing held

against the wall of a pump
chamber by coiled spring.

- Pump connected to the throttle

valve shaft actuated by the
throttle linkage.

- When throttle closed the accelerator pump moves upward in

the chamber cause fuel to fill the chamber from float bowl
through a pump inlet check valve.

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b) Acceleration Pump cont’s.

 When throttle open quickly, piston moves down and forces

the stored fuel past a discharge check valve and through a
separate discharge nozzle into the airstream.

 The discharge check valve

and nozzle are much smaller
than the acc. pump piston.

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Acceleration Pump cont’s.

 The speed of pumping the fuel

must be limited by installing the
piston on a spring loaded
telescoping shaft which contract
when throttle valve open rapidly
and allow throttle valve to open

 Spring on the telescoping shaft

continues to force piston
downward to pump fuel at rate the
discharge nozzle can handle

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• Provide rich mixture at high power setting.

• Excess fuel in the mixture helps to cool the engine


• Function at throttle setting above cruising power.

• Normal cruise operation at high power setting permit

the use of leaner mixture.

• Power enrichment also referred as economizer system.

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• Needle Type

• Enrichment metering jet operates

parallel with main metering jet.

• Operating bellow full throttle a spring

hold the needle valve on its seat
prevent fuel from flowing through the
economizer jet.

• Throttle wide open a linkage lifts the

economizer needle valve off its seat to
allow fuel flow through the
economizer jet and out to the
discharged nozzle.
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• Air Bleed Type

• A needle valve and seat installed

at the air bleed entrance.

• When engine operating at cruising

speed, a spring holds the needle
valve off its seat and full effect of
the air bleed is realized at the
discharged nozzle.

• Leaner the fuel/air mixture.

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Air Bleed Type

• When throttle is fully

open, operating lever
attached to the throttle
shaft presses against the
needle valve restricting
the air bleed.

• Decreased air bleed make

fuel/air mixture becomes
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 Low operating pressure result in incomplete vaporization and
inadequate fuel flow from the discharged nozzle.

 Float design does not respond well to sudden a/c manoeuvres and
unusual a/c altitude.

 Tendency to accumulate ice.

 Carburetor icing occurs when water freezes in carburetor venturi

and restrict the airflow to the engine.

 Engine may run rough, lose power and even quit in flight.

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• Carburetor icing categorize into:-

a) Fuel evaporation ice.

b) Throttle ice.

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a) Fuel evaporation ice (carburetor ice).

 Result from temperature drop occurs when fuel

vaporized in the venturi.

 Discharged fuel into venturi turn vapor and absorbs

heat from surrounding air.

 Evaporation cause air temp. in the venturi to drop to

30⁰F or more.

 Loss of heat enough to cause the moisture in the air

to condense and freeze.
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a) Fuel evaporation ice (carburetor ice). Cont’s

• Carburetor is the first area in a/c to accumulate ice

during flight.

• Carburetor ice can occur at ambient air temperature

up to 70⁰F with relative humidity as low as 50%.

• Optimum condition carburetor ice exist when outside

air temperature between 30⁰F to 40⁰F with relative
humidity above 60%.

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b) Throttle Ice.

• Ice forms on the rear side of the throttle valve when it is

partially closed.

• Air flows across and around the throttle valve, a low pressure
area is created on the downstream side.

• The cooling effect on the fuel/air mixture cause moisture to

accumulate and freeze on the backside of the valve.

• Since throttle ice occurs with throttle valve partially closed, small
amount of ice can cause reduction in airflow, lose of engine

• Large accumulation of ice can jam the throttle.

• Throttle ice seldom occurs at temp. above 38⁰F.

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• Periodic checking of all control linkages for freedom of movement at full


• Examine fuel lines and air hoses for kinks, distortion or indication of

• Verify the security of carburetor mounting flange, sign of crack or leak.

• Leak between of carburetor body and engine mounting flange

allows additional air into the fuel / air mixture, lean the mixture to
cause engine to rough idle and produce less power.

• If leak is severe lean mixture could cause detonation and engine


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Additional maintenance.

- Check main fuel filter and carburetor strainer.

- Verify all safety wire and cotter pin are in place and

- On automatic mixture control, accelerator pump or

economizer periodically clean all linkages and moving
components, cleaned and oil moving parts.

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• Correct idle mixture adjustment, result in engine idling smoothly and

spark plug fouling kept to minimum.

• Idle mixture, control by a needle valve with a screw head or knocked

knob, spring loaded to maintain a setting.

• Check idle mixture by running the engine until the CHT rises to a
normal value.

• As the engine warm, retard the mixture toward idle – cut-off position
and observe the tachometer.

• If mixture is adjusted properly engine RPM will increase slightly

before it drops off rapidly. Increases between 25 and 50 RPM.

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• An immediate RPM decrease with no momentary increase indicate

idle mixture is too lean.

• A momentary increase more than 25 RPM indicate a rich idle


• Manifold pressure gauge, manifold pressure decreasing just before

it increases when engine ceases to fire. The amount of drop is
about 1/4 inch. Hg.

• After proper mixture is obtain, clear the engine by running it at a

high RPM to prevent spark fouling.

• Once the current RPM indication obtained, repeat the idle mixture
check with the cockpit mixture control several time to ensure a
consistent response.

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• Carburetor adjustments.

i. Idle mixture.

ii. Idle rpm.

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• Adjusted, after adjusting the idle mixture.

• Typical idle speed range

from 600 - 800 RPM.

• Spring - loaded adjustment


• Engine should be warm before

any adjustment made.

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► Check ignition system for proper operation.

► If everything is operating properly open the throttle to clear

the engine, then close the throttle and allow the RPM to

► Adjust idle speed screw as needed and recheck the idle


► Clear the engine by open the throttle after each

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- Overhaul the carburetor at the time of engine overhaul.

- Overhaul procedure required complete teardown of the

carburetor visual inspection of all internal component.

- Dimensional check made to determined serviceability of

each reusable components.

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Carburetor overhaul.
1. Disassembly.

> Should be done on a clean work bench.

> Disassemble as instructed in the overhaul


> Proper tool to prevent damage to the


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2. Cleaning.
> Recommended cleaning procedures and solvents are in
the overhaul manual.

> Metal parts clean with stoddard solvent to remove

grease and oil then rinse in fresh solvent and air dried.

> Removal of carbon and gum deposits by decarbonizing


> Rinse in hot water, clean and dry by compressed air.

> If carbon deposit remain on aluminium parts remove with

no. 600 wet sandpaper and water.

> Corrosion on aluminium parts remove it with alkaline cleaner.

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3. Inspection.

> Complete visual inspection, free from corrosion, dent, bent parts
and crossed threads.

> All passages not blocked – use magnifying glass and light.
= Do not use wire to clear hole.

> All moving parts check for free movement.

> Check float for leak and buoyancy;

- immersing in the hot water (brass float), any leak repaired by
- composite material – loss of buoyancy - change.

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3. Inspection.

> Needle valve and seat – cx. for wear, grooves, scratches and

> Needle valve and seat not seat properly will cause fuel leak
when engine is shut down.

> Fuel level in the carburetor is between 3/16 and 1/8 ins.
from the top of the discharge nozzle.

● Too low and too high ? ……

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3. Inspection conts.

• Float clearance is measured by ruler or by slipping the twist

drill (proper size) between the gasket and float with the
throttle body inverted.

• If incorrect – adjustment tab

provided to correct the clearance.

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3. Inspection conts.

• Check total float travel.

- Throttle body in upright.
- Float rest in its lowest position.
- Distance from mounting
flange to the float top is
referred to as float drop.
- If insufficient, adjust by
either bending the adjustment
tab or filing the float stop.

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3. Inspection conts.

• Check the side clearance of the float.

- Measured with drill rod gauge of specified size.
- Around the float without binding.

► Add.
- all check and measurement must
fall within the permissible limit
listed in the overhaul /
maintenance manual.

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4. Reassembly.

- Sequence outlined in the overhaul manual.

- Special tools as required to prevent accidental damage to
- Lubricate treaded fittings.
- insert at least one tread before lubricant is applied.
- This will prevent lubricant from entering the carburetor and
plugging the jet and small passages.
- Lubricate all moving part and tighten to safety them as

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4. Reassembly.

• Final check of the fuel level in the float bowl.

• Proper operation of the float and needle valve be
• Measure the distance
from the fuel surface
to the parting surface.

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5. Installation

• Reinstall the carburetor to the engine.

• As its secured and safetied, the fuel lines and controls


• Check controls for free movement and travel.

• Cx. for springback on the control.

- must be equal amount for full open and full close
- stops on the carburetor must be reached before the
cockpit controls reached their stop.
Prepared By: Mohd Luqman Tan 91
5. Installation

• Installation and rigging completed.

• Engine run to verify proper performance.

= checked include:-
- idle mixture.
- idle rpm. ( adjusted as required )

• Once completed control to idle-cut off – engine


Prepared By: Mohd Luqman Tan 92



Prepared By: Mohd Luqman Tan 93