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Researchers:

JENALYN GACIAS
ANGELIKA MAE ARAO
WENDY CABARANGAO
MA. CRISTINA BAQUIRAN
LEIRINE AIPHRYLL AVILA
MARIDEE YOANNA ALIGAM
JOVIANNE CORINE BALISI
THE PROBLEM AND ITS
BACKGROUND
Introduction
Lingua Franca is an Italian Frankish word which
is used as means of communication between
populations speaking vernaculars that are not
mutually understood. The term was first used
during the Middle Ages to describe a French and
an Italian-based jargon that was developed by
Crusaders and traders in the Eastern
Mediterranean.
Philippines is a country situated southeast of China,
composing of more or less 7,107 islands as well as
plenty of mountain ranges and volcanoes. Because
of this geography, no wonder each group of people
that settled in the different parts of the country
developed its own ethnicity and language or dialect
over the course of centuries.
Philippines is known as country that has
numerous dialects that are present. There are
154 dialects that are present which includes
Chavacano, Ilocano, Manobo, Maranao, Ibanag,
Itawit Tagalog and etc. Tagalog functions as the
lingua franca and the national working
language of the Philippines.
It is used as the basis for the development of Filipino, the
national language of the Philippines, a country with 181
documented languages. It is spoken in central and southern
Luzon, in Manila and on some of the other islands. According
to the Philippine Census of 2000, 21.5 million people claim
Tagalog as their first language. In addition, it is estimated that
50 million Filipinos speak Tagalog as a second language.
English is the language of higher education and a lingua
franca in the Philippines, second only to Filipino. Many
Filipinos who are fluent in English frequently switch between
Tagalog and English for a variety of reasons. This mixed
language is called Taglish. It is more common among educated
city dwellers than in rural areas. Preferred lingua franca in
the Philippines, eventually resulted in the conclusion of many
researchers and journal writers across the globe as well as bloggers
found on various websites and forums on the internet that Taglish is now
being considered as the mother tongue of Filipinos, Baylon (2008).
Foreigners who visit Manila or other urban areas in the Philippines for
the first time are struck by the phenomenon of hearing snatches of
conversation that they can understand because part of the conversation
is recognizably in English, but at the same time feel completely lost when
listening to the other parts of the conversation.
The experience is repeated when they open an English newspaper and see
an advertisement in English but with a long stretch of Tagalog thrown in,
or a news item with English and Tagalog quotations from government
officials, or a feature interview with both the interviewer and the
interviewee switching between English and Tagalog. Switching became
prominent in issue in society today. In teaching the students the
teachers sometimes need to epeak English, Filipino, Tagalog or Taglish to
explain the of the subject matter.
The researchers want to investigate if the findings of the
research study entitled“Tagalog or Taglish: the Lingua Franca of
Filipino Urban Factory Workers” conducted by Mikhail Alic Go
and Leah Gustilo of De La Salle University in the year 2013 would
be also applicable to Senior High School teachers of the Cagayan
National High School in an urbanized place specifically,
Tuguegarao City.
The researchers will use two types of data gathering namely the
non-participant and participant observation. In the non-participant
observation the researchers will record the conversations
wherein the researcher, relying on eavesdropping while
accompanying the teachers. The participant observation will be
recorded wherein the researchers will start engaging in tasks with
teachers, then the researchers would initiate conversations.
Statement of the Problem

The present study aims to investigate if the findings of the numerous studies done
with regards to the use of code mixing and code switching in bilingual/multilingual
speech are also applicable to teachers specifically to the senior high school
teachers of Cagayan National High School. At the same time to distinguish the lingua
franca of Senior High School teachers in Cagayan National High School.
Specifically, the study aims to answer the following questions:

1. What is the preferred mode of communication of Senior High


School teachers in Cagayan National High School?

2. What are their reasons for opting to use that particular mode of
discourse?

3. How do these teachers code switch when they use Taglish?


Significance of the Study

The findings of these study will serve as a feedback mechanism to


identify what is the Lingua Franca of Senior High School teachers in
Cagayan National High School. The findings of the study will also tend to
be a reference to conduct research studies that will bring out what the
real Lingua Franca of Tuguegaraoeňos.

The findings of the study would be beneficial to following:


Teachers, Instructors and/or Professors
Local Cultural Analyst
Students
Filipino Community
Content Area Teachers
Filipino Linguists
Future Researchers
Scope and Limitations of the Study

This project mainly focuses on the preferred Lingua Franca of the Cagayan National High School’s
teachers within the senior high school department. The Cagayan National High School Senior High
School is one of the public schools that has the most number of teachers and includes
approximately sixty-five teachers. The study is only limited to the Senior High School Department
and the respondents will be only limited to the Senior High School teachers. The study aims to
distinguish the Lingua Franca of the respondents within the school premises and to find out the
contributing factors that provokes the respondents to code switch.
Definition of Terms
-Lingua Franca
-Code Switching
-Code Mixing
-Multilingualism
-Bilingualism
-Inter-sentential Switching
-Tag-Switching
Research Design
The research will follow a qualitative research design wherein the
researchers will collect data in the form of words or statements.
Following a qualitative research design, the data will be analyzed based
on the theories that the researchers gathered specifically in line with the
type of analysis in the study of Mikhail Alic Go and Leah Gustilo of De La
Salle University, entitled “Tagalog or Taglish: the Lingua Franca of Filipino
Urban Factory Workers”.
The approach that will be used in the study will be
Case Study, this approach will present a detailed
analysis of a specific case. The researchers will be
only focusing on a particular group specifically the
senior high school teachers of Cagayan National High
School. Triangulation method will be used to gather
more substantial data.
Research Respondents and Sampling Procedures
Sixteen senior high school teachers in different subjects (8 male
and 8 female), their ages ranging from 21 – 55 years will be
drawn from the total population of 65 teachers and will
interviewed. These workers are currently working in the
teaching profession in a public school which is located in a
particular urban area in the Philippines, specifically in Cagayan
National High School located in Tuguegarao City.
The researchers will seek permission from the Teacher and the
Assistant Principal in academics in performing the research.
When the request letter will be approved, the researchers will
personally proceed to interview random SHS teachers. To obtain
the main objective of the study, a purposive sampling will be
used. This sampling known as judgmental, selective or subjective
sampling, is a type of non-probability sampling technique.
The goal of purposive sampling is not to randomly select units from a population to
create a sample with the intention of making generalizations. The samples will be
randomly selected among SHS Teachers of Cagayan National High School. When the
needed data will be retrieved, it will tabulate, analyze and interpret. The answer of
the respondents will be treated with confidentiality. Cultural context will be also
considered wherein the researchers will ask the respondents on what would they
feel when the data will be gathered from them.
Locale of the Study
Cagayan National High School also known as Cagayan High, is the universal high
school of Region 2. It is located in Taft Street, Tuguegarao City, province of Cagayan,
Philippines. It is the oldest public school in Cagayan and also the biggest school in
Cagayan Valley. The school was situated on 16.5 hectares of land. Cagayan National
High School pioneered its Senior High School program in the school year 2016-2017
with a handful of offerings — two strands in the Academic Track (STEM and GAS),
the Technical Vocational Livelihood (TVL) Track and the Sports Track.
With the introduction of a new track, Arts and Design Track, and other strands
for school year 2017-2018, Cagayan National High School is currently offering
all tracks as prescribed by the Senior High School program, laid out by the K-
12 Basic Education Curriculum. The research will be conducted within the
Senior High School Department of Cagayan National High School.
Research Instrument
A descriptive method will be used to provide a much informative and
relative evaluation. The researchers will also include the use of interview
questionnaires that will only include questions which will be constructed
by the researchers and it will be an impromptu interview. One of these
questions will enable the researchers to know the reason why the
teachers code switch.
The 10 questions in the interview questionnaire will be formulated by the
researchers based on the researchers’ reading and views related to the study.
Open ended questions were also provided to delve deeper into the observations of
the researchers. The instrument is authorized to obtain valid responses from the
preferred respondents. It has encouraged open responses to those issues at hand.
The data in the Non-participant type of observation will be recorded through the use
of a cellular phone wherein it will be an ambush data gathering.
The data will be encoded for easier analysis while in the
Participant type of observation, the researchers will interview
the respondents following a certain flow of questions written in
an interview questionnaire. The interview questionnaire will
consist 10 questions that will follow a subjective form.
Data Gathering Procedure
The first part of the data gathering consist of non-participant observation wherein the
researcher, relying on eavesdropping, would record the conversations between the teachers and
the teachers’ conversations among the students. The first part of the data gathering consists of
non-participant observation wherein the researchers will record the discussion of the teacher
and the teachers’ conversation with the students while inside of the classroom. Under the non-
participant observation, the researchers will also record the teachers’ conversations during
vacant time (outside the classroom). In the non-participant observation, the respondents are not
aware that the researchers are gathering in the form of recording.
The second part is the participant type of data gathering wherein the
researchers interact with the respondents to gather data and the
respondents are not aware that the researchers are gathering data. The
third part of data gathering is still under participant type of observation
in the form of interviews but will follow an Overt type of participant
observation, wherein the identity of the researchers was known to
the group being studied.
Participant observation will be used that will enable the researchers to
gather more significant data. Then the researchers will conduct
interviews but the use of a patterns interview questionnaire to get more
information out of them. The researchers would gather data every 30
minutes to an hour to record, recording will be the best way to ensure
that the researchers won’t miss anything.
Data and Data Analysis
In order to answer research question 1, ―. What is the
preferred mode of communication of Senior High School
teachers in Cagayan National High School, Taglish or Pure
Tagalog, the most frequently used language will be
determined in the data that will be taken. Next, in order to
answer research question two, ―What are their reasons
for opting to use that particular mode of discourse?”,
the data gathered through ethnographic interview were
analyzed by categorizing responses into themes. in her
study in order to determine whether their responses
belong to intersentential, tag-switching, or intra-sentential
switching. It should be noted that the overall data gathered
during the present study were analyzed per utterance.