The Hindu Revival

The Decline of Buddhism

Post-Gupta India (600-1200)
-Buddhist practice is an influenced of Hinduism. -Indra ( The supreme diety of Aryans. The omnipotent ruler of the universe) - other lesser gods were more or less vaguely described in the Vedas. - they more concentrated on ritual act of worship - the pre-Aryan desire to have images

Hinduism
- is generally regarded as the world's oldest organized religion. It consists of "thousands of different religious groups that have evolved in India since 1500 BCE." - is often referred to as San tana Dharma ( a Sanskrit Phrase meaning ´The Eternal Lawµ)
- is formed of diverse traditions and has no single founder.

The aim of Hinduism is the discovery of the true nature of the self (atman) and the true nature of the undifferentiated eternal principle of existence, which is Brahman.

Brahma- creator god Vishnu ² sustainer god Shiva ² god of destruction

Cycle of Rebirths

In the Hindu religion, the self continues to be reborn until it discovers that it and Brahman are one; samsara.

Hindu Revival

Hinduism enjoyed a revival beginning in the later years of the Gupta dynasty. The Hindu renaissance centered around devotion to Vishnu and, in particular, his avatar, Krishna, the romantic hero of poetry and song. This cult of avatar is a parallel to that of the bodhisattva in Buddhism; both were expressions of a new humanism that brought divinity within the reach of everyday actuality.

Elephanta cave temple, south wall, Shiva Mahadeo, Rock cut (ca. seventh-eighth century)

The Pallava Dynasty
Sculpted Temples The rise of the Kushan in the north displaced the Andhra, whose successors set up the Later Andhra kingdom in the region of Amaravati on the southeast coast. Both the Kushan and the Andrha were subsumed under the Gupta power in the early fourth century. In the sixth century a new and important dynasty began to emerge to the south of that region. It was the Pallava. The Pallava capital was at Kanchipuram ( Conjeeveram). On the coast, at the site of Mamallapuram, during the reign of Narasimhavarman, some of the most remarkable works of the period were created.

During the reign of Narasimhavarman some of the most remarkable works were created. The coast is strewn with huge boulders and rounded outcroppings of granite, which were carved into sculptured temples. The engaged pilasters with their elongated shafts and brackets are clearly derived from a tradition of wood construction. In wooden buildings, they would probably have been fully rounded pillars, but in stone they seem too thin to support the superstructure of the tiered roofs so they have been treated as pilasters. The Temples are raised on short bases, and the silhouette of these roofs forms a straight line from the corner to the spire. When the plans are rectangular rather than square, the roofs are not straight-sided but rather curved so as to reflect the exterior shape of the barrel-vaulted interiors.

Pancha Rathas (Five Chariots), Mahabalipuram, India

Bhima Rath, Mamallapuram, Rock-cut temple

Dharmaraja Rath, Mamallapuram, Rock-cut temple

Hindu Deities
Between the tall thin pillars of these carved temples stand images of Hindu deities. They are slender like the Amaravati figures but less active. The poses seem in some cases to be purposely stiff.

Shiva Ardhinari

Durga attacking buffalo demon, Mamallapuram, Mahisha Mandapam, Rock-cut relief

The goddess Durga

Durga victorious, Mamallapuram

Chola queen as devi, Bronze, Chola

Descent of the Ganges, central section

Shiva

Ellura, Kailasanatha

Khajuraho, Kandariya Mahadeo Temple

The Moslem Conquest Of India
The Mogul Dynasty

-Moslems, or Muslims ( believers ), are followers of Islam. -Their scared book is the Koran. -Islam is monotheistic, with the belief that there is no god but Allah and Mohammad is His prophet. - The Principal Aspects of Their Faith: Prayers, almsgiving, fasting and pilgrimage to the Holy city of Mecca -The Islamic culture gradually absorbed the best aspects of those countries through which it swept.

Persian and Indian Art Concepts Create Mogul Art
Akbar - founder of the Mogul art.

- He synthesized the Moslem faith (Islam) with Zoroastriansim and Hinduism into a new religion - Mogul style painting brought India a realism unknown before.

Agra Fort. Red Sandstone. Moghul

Babur receives a courtier. Attributed to Farrukh

Diwani Khas (Hall of Private Audience), Red Fort Delhi. White marble inlaid with semiprecious stones

Shah Jahan s Portrait

Shah Jahan on horseback. Colors on paper

The Hall of Private Audience (Diwani-Khas) in the Red Fort, Delhi, colors on paper

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