NETWORKING

Objective • To understand basics of networking • To be able to perform networking lab sessions

Definition • Networking is connecting two or more devices to allow communication between them with the purpose of sharing information and resources

LAN and WAN
• A group of networked computers, printers, or other hardware devices that are all connected relatively close to each other like an office, home, or school • It allows connected users to share files, printers, or other applications • A wide area network (WAN) is a group of networked computers in a much larger geographical area, such as a state or country • The best example of a WAN is the Internet, which spans the entire world

Network model types
• Peer to Peer network model
– Every computer can act as a client and a server at the same time

• Client/Server Network Model
– At least one computer acts as a server – server hold resources that are accessed over the network by clients

Components of Network
• Client
– The software that provides your computer with access to the network's services – The computer that requests the information from a network is usually referred to as the client

• Protocol
– This is the language that the computers use to communicate with each other – The industry standard in networking today is called TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)

• Ethernet Cable
– Cable used to connect computers, hubs, switches, routers, etc. – The most popular, for home use, is Cat 5 or Cat 5e

Cross-Over Cable
• Ethernet crossover cables are most often used in home networks when connecting two ethernet computers without a hub.

NIC – Network Interface Card

HUB

SWITCH

ROUTER

DAWN OF THE NET

IP address • Every machine on the Internet has a unique identifying number, called an IP Address. • A typical IP address looks like this:
– 216.27.61.137

• Look at the same IP address in binary:
– 11011000.00011011.00111101.10001001

Network Setup

• PING
– The Internet Ping program works much like a sonar echo-location, sending a small packet of information containing an ICMP ECHO_REQUEST to a specified computer, which then sends an ECHO_REPLY packet in return.

• TRACERT
– Traces the route that a packet of information takes to get from your computer to another computer connected to the Internet.

• IPCONFIG
– IP Configuration Utility – Used to view and assign IP addresses a local machine. – There are three main commands: "all", "release", and "renew“

• WINIPCFG
– With this utility you can quickly find your computer's network addresses and other useful TCP/IP settings

Benefits • Relatively low cost • Offers the highest performance possible • Fast speed - standard Ethernet cable up to 100Mbps. • Faster speed - Gigabit Ethernet cable up to 1000Mbps.