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COMMON BARRIERS TO

COMMUNICATION

1. SEMANTICS
Definition of words

Choice of words
COMMON BARRIERS TO
COMMUNICATION

2. POOR CHOICE, USE OF CHANNELS


 When to use certain channel

Oral alone:
• Simple reprimand
• Settle simple dispute
Written alone:
• Don’t need immediate feedback
• Need record
COMMON BARRIERS TO
COMMUNICATION

2. USE OF CHANNELS
Both channels:
• Commendation
• Serious reprimand
• Important policy change
Nonverbal
• Be aware of it.
COMMON BARRIERS TO
COMMUNICATION

3. PHYSICAL DISTRACTIONS
4. NOISE, PHYSICAL,
PSYCHOLOGICAL
5. STATUS DIFFERENCE
6. EFFECTS OF EMOTIONS
COMMON BARRIERS TO
COMMUNICATION

7. PERCEPTIONS
Stereotypes
Halo effects
Selective perception
• See and hear what we expect
• Ignore if conflicts with “what we know.”

Projection
COMMON BARRIERS TO
COMMUNICATION

8. FILTERING, SCREENING
NEGATIVE INFORMTAION
9. EVALUATING THE SOURCE
10.ABSENCE OF FEEDBACK,
POOR FEEDBACK
COMMON BARRIERS TO
COMMUNICATION

11. INFORMATION, DATA


OVERLOAD

12. POOR LISTENING


LISTEN TO RESPOND
LISTEN TO UNDERSTAND
TO OVERCOME BARRIERS:
 Learn to use feedback well.
 Be sensitive to receiver’s point of view.
 Listen to UNDERSTAND!
 Use direct, simple language, or at least use
language appropriate to the receiver.
 Use proper channel(s). Learn to use channels
well.
 Learn to use supportive communication, not
defensive communication.
LISTENING WITH...
“EXPERIENCE”
“WHAT WE KNOW”
BIASES
STEREOTYPES
PERCEPTIONS
EMOTIONS
LISTENING

LISTEN TO RESPOND

LISTEN TO UNDERSTAND
LISTEN TO UNDERSTAND
1. RESTATE/REPEAT
2. PARAPHRASE
3. REFLECT FEELING
4. PARAPHRASE CONTENT AND
REFLECT FEELING
5. SAY NOTHING
LISTEN TO UNDERSTAND

Before I can walk in


another person’s shoes,
I must remove my own.

Unknown
LISTEN TO UNDERSTAND
ASSUMES WIN-WIN

1. ASK PERMISSION
2. ESTIMATE TIME LIMIT
3. STATE BOUNDARIES
STATE WHAT IS NOT ACCEPTABLE

4. USE RESPECT, GENTLENESS


5. USE COURAGE
LISTEN TO UNDERSTAND
ASSUMES WIN-WIN

HIGH

RESPECT

LOW

LOW HIGH
COURAGE
LISTEN TO UNDERSTAND
ASSUMES WIN-WIN

BE DIRECT
BE CLEAR
BE SPECIFIC
BE HONEST
BE RESPECTFUL
BE TACTFUL
TAKE RESPONSIBILITY
FOR YOURSELF
LISTEN TO UNDERSTAND

WHEN YOU …………………..


(State observed action.)

I FEEL …………………………
(State feeling.)

BECAUSE I THINK …………..


(Thought that causes the feeling.)

AND I WOULD LIKE ………..


(Request for positive action.)
LISTEN TO UNDERSTAND

When you meet me an hour after you


said you would
I feel angry and hurt
Because I think you don’t care much
about my job demands
And I would like you to call when you
are going to be late.
LISTEN TO UNDERSTAND

YOU’RE AN HOUR LATE!


YOU MAKE ME ANGRY!
YOU’RE ALWAYS LATE!
YOU DON’T CARE ABOUT MY
TIME/FEELINGS!
YOU MAKE ME SICK!
NOT LISTENING?
AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL RESPONSES:
PROBE

 GIVE ADVICE

 EVALUATE

 INTERPRET
UNDERSTANDING?
I KNOW WHAT YOU MEAN
KNOW WHAT I MEAN?
I HEAR YOU
I’VE BEEN THERE!
YOU UNDERSTAND ME?
YOU HEAR WHAT I SAID?
YOU KNOW WHAT TO DO?
I KNOW WHAT YOU’RE TALKING ABOUT.
“FIXING” = LISTENING?

“DON’T FEEL BAD.”


 “DON’T CRY.”
 “DON’T BE UPSET.”
 “YOU SAY THAT BUT YOU
ALWAYS DO WELL.”
Ten Rules for Good Listening

Rule Listening Reasoning Behind the Rule


1. Stop talking You cannot listen if you are
talking.

2. Put the person at ease Help a person feel free to talk;


create a permissive environment.

3. Show the person you Look and act interested; listen to


want to listen understand, not to oppose.

4.Remove distractions Don’t doodle, tap, or shuffle


papers; shut the door if necessary
to achieve quiet.
Ten Rules for Good Listening

Rule Listening Reasoning Behind the Rule


5. Empathize Try to see the other person’s
point of view.

6. Be patient Allow plenty of time; do not


interrupt; don’t start for the
door or walk away.

7. Hold your temper An angry person takes the wrong


meaning from words.
Ten Rules for Good Listening

Rule Listening Reasoning Behind the Rule


8.Go easy on argument Don’t put people on the defensive
and criticism and cause them to “clam up” or
become angry; do not argue-
even if you win, you lose.

9. Ask questions This encourages a person and


shows that you are listening; it
helps to develop points further.

10. Stop talking This is first and last, because all


other guides depend on it; you
cannot listen effectively while you
are talking.
Source: Adapted from Human Behavior at Work, Fifth Edition, by Keith Davis. 1977.
KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF SUPPORTIVE COMMUNICATION

1.Channels Congruent.   Incongruent.  “Oh, do I 
Verbal and non­verbal  seem upset?  No, everything
channels must agree.   is fine” ­ while obviously 
upset.

2.Descriptive.  “This is what  Evaluative.  “You are 
happened and this is how I  wrong for doing what you  
felt about it.  I’d like to suggest  did.”
an alternative that would be 
more acceptable.

3.Problem oriented.  “How Person oriented.  “Why
can we solve this problem?” are you so slow?”
KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF SUPPORTIVE COMMUNICATION

4.Specific.  “I felt like I did not Global.  “You are always
get equal time to cover my  seeking all the recognition
material in that presentation.” for our work.”

5.Owned.  “I have decided Not owned.  “You have a
to turn down your request pretty good idea, but you
because…” know how it is in this
organization ­­ everyone
can’t get everything they
want.”

6.Validating.  “That is an  Not validating.  “I can’t  
interesting suggestion.”  believe you could think such
a thing.”
KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF SUPPORTIVE COMMUNICATION

7.Equality oriented. “I have Superiority oriented. 
some ideas, but do you have “Your suggestion is dumb.  
any suggestions?” This is the way to handle this
problem.”

8.Flexible.  “I have some Closed­minded.  “What­
questions, but let’s explore ever made you think that
it further.” would work?”

9.Appropriately intimate. Overbearing or aloof.
“Since we have known each “I know we just met, but I
other a long time, I’d like really need to tell you
to tell you how I feel about something personal.”
our relationship.”
ORGANIZATIONAL
COMMUNICATION
 STRUCTURE SHOULD FACILITATE,
NOT HINDER
 MANAGE INFORMATION FLOW
 CLIMATE INFLUENCES
 INTERGROUP INTERACTIONS,
BARRIERS?
 USE GRAPEVINE
COMMUNICATION NETWORKS

. . .

. . . .
.
. .
Y WHEEL, STAR

CENTRALIZED
COMMUNICATION NETWORKS

. .

. . . .

. . . .

CIRCLE ALL CHANNEL


DECENTRALIZED
COMMUNICATION NETWORKS

SIMPLE
CIRCLE Y
TASKS WHEEL
ALL CHANNEL
STAR

Y
COMPLEX CIRCLE
WHEEL
TASKS ALL CHANNEL
STAR

SLOW FASTER
LESS ACCURATE MORE ACCURATE