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AERONAUTICAL TELEMETRY

Darrell Ernst
Gerhard Mayer
February 2005
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Introduction

• WRC Agenda Item 1.5


• The Aeronautical Telemetering Community
• The International Consortium for Telemetry
Spectrum
• The ICTS Position
• A Video about Flight Testing and Agenda
Item 1.5
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WRC-07 Agenda Item 1.5

1. consider the spectrum required to satisfy justified wideband aeronautical


mobile telemetry requirements and associated telecommand above 3
GHz;

2. review, with a view to upgrading to primary, secondary allocations to the


mobile service in the frequency range 3-16 GHz for the implementation
of wideband aeronautical telemetry and associated telecommand;

3. consider possible additional allocations to the mobile service, including


aeronautical mobile, on a primary basis in the frequency range 3-16 GHz
for the implementation of wideband aeronautical telemetry and
associated telecommand, taking into account considering d) above;

4. designate existing mobile allocations between 16 and 30 GHz for


wideband aeronautical telemetry and associated telecommand,
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Future Data Rates


800
Data rate for one vehicle
700

600
Data Rate - Mbps

500

400

300

200

100

0
2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025

“Prediction is hard, especially about the future”


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Implications for the Spectrum

1800
Bandwidth needed for one vehicle
1600
1400
Bandwidth MHz

1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
2000 2005 2010 2015 2020
Current B/W
Allocation = 215 PCM/FM Tier 1 Tier 2

Multiply data rate by efficiency factor for each modulation type:


PCM/FM=2.4 Hz/bit Tier 1= 1.2 Hz/bit Tier 2= 0.8 Hz/bit
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Region 1 Region 3 Region 2


Kiruna, Sweden Anna Plains, Australia Tortuguero, Puerto Rico
Formosa Bay, Kenya Chandapore, India Punta Lobos, Peru
Coronie, Surinam Sonmiani, Pakistan Ft.Yukon, Alaska
Biscarosse, France Chiu Peng, Taiwan Nanoose Bay, Canada
Salto di Quirra, Sardinia Shuang Chenghzi, China Mar Chiquita, Argentina
Aberporth, Wales Changwon, S.Korea Wallops, USA
Zingst, Germany Malute, Pakistan Stromfjord, Greenland
Emba, Kazakhstan Wake, Marshall Islands Poker Flat, Alaska
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Science Missions Requiring Wideband TM


• Existing LEO-satellite data collection platforms only
for narrow band data transmission (e.g. Argos,
Orbcomm) available
• Onboard storage capacity limited by space and
weight, data compression & reduction of science data
onboard critical
• Data required on ground mostly in near-realtime

Therefore:
• High-resolution science instruments, like imaging
sensors, spectrometers, carried as Balloon,
Sounding Rocket or UAV- payload need wideband
telemetry links to fulfill their future missions
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Telemetry Inevitable in Global Missions

Platforms on balloon, sounding rocket and UAV


required for In-situ-measurements &
calibration of satellite and groundborne
instruments
Examples of important disciplines :
• Geophysics
Atmosphere, Land , Sea, Ice Research
• Biology
Animal behaviour & wildlife research
• Remote Medical Supervision
patient monitoring e.g. at expeditions („bush
telemetry“)
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Science and Telemetry Goes Global…

• Local changes of environmental


parameters have a world-wide impact

• Wide-area telemetry networks needed to


collect data from e.g. remote field stations,
balloons, buoys, sounding rockets, UAV

• Specific ranges for launching, science


observations and data collection
worldwide available
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ICTS MISSION:
To Ensure the Future
Availability of
Electromagnetic Spectrum
for Telemetering
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International Foundation for


Telemetering Board of Directors

ICTS
Chair www.telemetry.org
S. Lyons

ICTS ICTS
Secretary/Treasurer Vice Chair
D. Holtmeyer G. Mayer

Region I (Europe/Africa) Region II (Americas) Region III (Asia)


Coordinator Coordinator Coordinator
J. M. Berges M. Ryan V. Crouch
vrcrouch@bold.net.au

Region I Region II Region III


Members Members Members
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Aeronautical
Telemetry
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What is Telemetry?
Telemetry : The process of
measuring at a distance.
Vibrations
 Aeronautical telemetry: The Velocities

process of making measurements


on an aeronautical vehicle and
sending those measurements to a Flows Pressures Temperatures

distant location for analysis

If it is ORANGE it is flight
test measurement
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End Slide
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Current Band Allocations


Other
European
Austria,
Finland,
ITU All Common Norway Spain
Band (MHz) Regions US Europe UK France Italy Sweden Australia Canada
X - harmonized G 4460-
4400-4800 X G G G X Defense All X Defense
military band 4540
4800-4825; G 4900-
4800-4940 G G G Finland, Spain
4835-4940 4940
4940-4990 4940-4950 G G Finland, Spain
Austria, Norway,
5850-5925 X X G X Defense X
Spain Sweden
6875-7125 X NG NG Spain Sweden X
7145-7235 7250- Norway, Spain,
7125-7300 X NG to 7250 7125-7250
7300 Sweden
X - harmonized
military band - Austria(7942-
7900-8025 X 7900-7975 MHz 8000) Norway,
in NATO Spain, Sweden
Countries
14,714.5-
14,500- 14,714.5- X - harmonized 14,620- G 14,500- 14,620- Austria, Norway, 15,136.5
X (secondary)
15,300 15,136.5 military band 15,230 15,250 15,350 Spain, Sweden Defense, rest
open

X=Permitted G=Government Only NG=Non-Government Only


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Current Band Allocations (Concluded)

Band (MHz)ITU All Regions Japan India (Draft) Taiwan Argentina Brazil Chile Germany
4400-4800 X After 1/1/10 X X 4400-4500

4800-4825, 4800-4900 4800-4825, 4900-4925


4800-4940 X
4835-4940 After 1/1/10 4835-4940 4935-4940

4940-4990 4940-4950 4940-4950 X 4940-4950

5850-5925 X X X X x X X

6875-7125 X X X 6875-7100 X

7125-7250
7125-7300 X Public X X X
Service
7900-8000 X X X X 7900-7975
Commercial
14,620-
14,500-15,300 X Telecom X X
15,230
Service

X=Permitted G=Government Only NG=Non-Government Only


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Spectrum Encroachment
WARC 92
US Alternative BBA 97

2200-2290 MHz: Unmanned 2360-2390


MHz: Manned
2200

2390
2350
2300
2250

2200-2390 MHz: Manned and Unmanned Vehicle (S Band) Telemetry


OBRA 93
BBA 97 WARC 92
Terrestrial DAB (Canada), One A/C can easily use
over 20MHz of spectrum
CARIBSS, MediaStar for a single mission
1435

1500
1485
1460

1525
1435-1525 MHz: Manned Vehicle (L Band) Telemetry
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TELEMETERING APPLICATIONS

• The use of telemetry spectrum is common to many different


nations and many purposes
– National defense
– Commercial aerospace industry
– Space applications
– Scientific research

• The primary telemetering applications represented by ICTS are


– Range and range support systems
• Land mobile
• Sea ranges
• Air ranges
– Space-based telemetry systems
– Meteorological telemetry
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ICTS SOCIETAL MEMBERSHIP


•Aero-Sensing
•Aerospace and Flight Test Radio Coordination Council
•Aerospatiale Airbus
•Airbus
•Australian Department of Defence
•Boeing Company
•British Aerospace
•Dassault Aviation
•Eurocopter
•European Telemetering Standardization Committee
•French Department of Defense
•German Society of Telemetering
•IN SNEC
•MITRE Corporation
•National Aeronautics and Space Administration
(NASA)
•New Mexico State University
•Sandia National Laboratories
•SEE
•Spanish Department of Defense
•United Kingdom Department of Defence
•United States Department of Defense
10 /11/20 00 14
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Atmospheric Attenuation vs. Frequency

Proposed New TM Band


A: Rain
Dow npour (150 mm/hr)
Specific Attenuation ( dB/km)

Heavy (25 mm /hr)


Light (5 mm /hr)
Drizzle (0.2 5 m m/hr)
B: Fog (0.1g/m 3)
C: G aseous (H 2O + O 2)

Source: Attenuation by
Atm ospheric Gases, Report 719-3,
Reports of the CCIR, 19990, Annex
to Vol. V: Pr opagation in Non-
Ionized Media, Geneva, 1990, pg. 190.
3 30
Fre quency (GHz)
L, S TM Bands
M ITRE
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Techniques for Mitigating Spectrum Growth


Technique Potential Gain Limitations
Command Link Significant reduction of data Receiver volume & power, duration
quantities of test
Networking Reduce channel inefficiencies Destructive & short duration tests
On-Board Processing Significant reduction of Unexpected events
transmitted data
Data Compression Potential to reduce amount of Link layer compression has no
transmitted data advantage
On-Board Recording Off-loading of data not needed No data if platform does not return
real-time to ground intact
Modeling and Reduced flight data collection Validity and accuracy of M&S
Simulation (M&S)
In-Band Telemetry No independent telemetry link Data link not always available
Real Time Spectrum Efficient use of available Predictable behavior of algorithms
Management spectrum has not been verified
On-Board Test Reduce data transmission to Only feasible on large manned
Engineer ground aircraft
Directional Transmit Increased signal strength, Volume, cost of antenna
Antenna spectrum reuse
RESOLUTION [COM7/5] (WRC-03)
Consideration of mobile allocations for use by wideband aeronautical
telemetry and associated telecommand
The World Radiocommunication Conference (Geneva, 2003)
Considering
a) that there is a need to provide global spectrum to the mobile service for wideband
aeronautical telemetry systems;
b) that there is an identified need for additional spectrum required to meet future
wideband aeronautical telemetry demands;
c) that there is also a need to accommodate telecommand operations associated with
aeronautical telemetry;
that there is a need to protect existing services,
Noting
a) that a number of bands between 3 GHz and 30 GHz are already allocated to the
mobile service, without excluding the aeronautical mobile service, on a secondary
basis;
that any spectrum allocated to the mobile service above 3 GHz (to include aeronautical
telemetry) is not a substitution for existing allocations used for aeronautical telemetry
purposes below 3 GHz, the requirement for which will continue,
Recognizing
a) that there are emerging telemetry systems with large data transfer requirements to
support testing of commercial aircraft and other airframes;
b) that the future technologies and performance expectations for airborne platforms
contemplate a need for real-time monitoring of large data systems with multiple video
streams (including high-definition video), high-definition sensors, and integrated high-
speed avionics;
c) that the 2000 Radiocommunication Assembly approved Question ITU-R 231/8, titled:
"Operation of wideband aeronautical telemetry in bands above 3 GHz", with the
target date of 2005;
d) that those studies will provide a basis for considering regulatory changes, including
additional allocations and recommendations, designed to accommodate justified
spectrum requirements of aeronautical mobile telemetry consistent with the
Res 230 AI 1.5

protection of incumbent services,


Resolves that [WRC-07/a future competent conference] be invited to:
1 consider the spectrum required to satisfy justified wideband aeronautical mobile
telemetry requirements and associated telecommand above 3 GHz;
2 review, with a view to upgrading to primary, secondary allocations to the mobile
service in the frequency range 3-16 GHz for the implementation of wideband
aeronautical telemetry and associated telecommand;
3 consider possible additional allocations to the mobile service, including aeronautical
mobile, on a primary basis in the frequency range 3-16 GHz for the implementation
of wideband aeronautical telemetry and associated telecommand, taking into account
considering d) above;
designate existing mobile allocations between 16 and 30 GHz for wideband aeronautical
telemetry and associated telecommand,
invites ITU-R
to conduct, as a matter of urgency, studies to facilitate sharing between aeronautical mobile
telemetry and the associated telecommand, on the one hand, and existing services,
on the other hand, taking into account the resolves above.
ADD COM7/353/7 (B13/361/7)
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