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Introduction to the

Embedded Systems
Dr.Narayana Swamy R
Professor, Dept. of Electronics and Communication Engineering, SET-JU
9886424319, narayanaswamy.ramaiah@gmail.com
Embedded system
• System
• A set of connected things or devices that operate together, it follows set of rules
• Embedded System
• A set of computer equipment and programs used together for a particular purpose
Characteristics of Embedded systems
Processor Embedded into a system
Embedded hardware units and devices in a
system

V α 1/Propogation Delay
• Clock Oscillator Circuit and Clocking Unit
• Clock controls the time for executing an instruction

• System Timers and Real Time Clocks


Embedded Software In a System
• Coding of Software in Machine Codes
• Is done only in specific situations to configure some specific physical device
or subsystem, because it is time consuming and the programmer must be
aware of complete ISA and machine codes.
• Programmer defines the address and the corresponding byte or bits at each
address.
‰ After the program is burned into ROM,
PROGRAM the opcode and operand are placed in
COUNTER AND
ROM SPACE ROM memory location starting at 0000
ROM contents
Address Code
Placing Code in
0000 7D
ROM 0001 25
(cont’) 0002 7F
0003 34
0004 74
0005 00
0006 2D
0007 2F
0008 24
0009 12
000A 80
000B FE

Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering


HANEL National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN 19
• Software in processor specific assembly language
‰ Examine the list file and how the code
PROGRAM is placed in ROM
COUNTER AND 1
2
0000
0000 7D25
ORG
MOV
0H
R5,#25H
;start (origin) at 0
;load 25H into R5
ROM SPACE 3 0002 7F34 MOV R7,#34H ;load 34H into R7
4 0004 7400 MOV A,#0 ;load 0 into A
5 0006 2D ADD A,R5 ;add contents of R5 to A
Placing Code in 6 0007 2F ADD A,R7
;now A = A + R5
;add contents of R7 to A
ROM ;now A = A + R7
7 0008 2412 ADD A,#12H ;add to A value 12H
;now A = A + 12H
8 000A 80EF HERE: SJMP HERE ;stay in this loop
9 000C END ;end of asm source file

ROM Address Machine Language Assembly Language


0000 7D25 MOV R5, #25H
0002 7F34 MOV R7, #34H
0004 7400 MOV A, #0
0006 2D ADD A, R5
0007 2F ADD A, R7
0008 2412 ADD A, #12H
000A 80EF HERE: SJMP HERE

Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering


National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN 18
‰ After the program is burned into ROM,
PROGRAM the opcode and operand are placed in
COUNTER AND
ROM SPACE ROM memory location starting at 0000
ROM contents
Address Code
Placing Code in
0000 7D
ROM 0001 25
(cont’) 0002 7F
0003 34
0004 74
0005 00
0006 2D
0007 2F
0008 24
0009 12
000A 80
000B FE

Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering


HANEL National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN 19
‰ After the program is burned into ROM,
PROGRAM the opcode and operand are placed in
COUNTER AND
ROM SPACE ROM memory location starting at 0000
ROM contents
Address Code
Placing Code in
0000 7D
ROM 0001 25
(cont’) 0002 7F
0003 34
0004 74
0005 00
0006 2D
0007 2F
0008 24
0009 12
000A 80
000B FE

Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering


HANEL National Cheng Kung University, TAIWAN 19
Embedded System On Chip and use of VLSI
CIRCUIT DESIGN TECHNOLOGY
Raspberry Pi
Design Process in Embedded System
Classification of embedded systems
Skills Required for an Embedded System Designer
• Embedded System Designer has to develop a product using the
available tools with in a given specifications, cost and time frame.

• Skills for Small Scale Embedded System Designer


• Full understanding of microcontrollers with basic knowledge of
• Computer architecture,
• Digital electronics design,
• Software engineering,
• Data communication,
• Control engineering,
• Motors and actuators, sensors and measurements,
• Analog electronic design and IC design and manufacture.