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Chapter 1

Introduction
Contents

Engineering drawing
Drawing standards
Drawing sheet
Scale
Lettering
Line types
Engineering
Drawing
The words of the language, as they are written or spoken, do not seem to play any role in my
mechanism of thought. The psychical entities which seem to serve as elements in thought are
certain signs and more or less clear images which can be “voluntarily” reproduced and
combined--this combinatory play seems to be the essential feature in productive thought before
there is any connection with logical construction in words or other kinds of signs which are
communicated to others
--Albert Einstein
Contents
Effectiveness of Graphic Language

1. Try to write a description of


this object.

2. Test your written description


by having someone attempt
to make a sketch or visualize
from your description.

You can easily understand that …

The word language is inadequate for describing the size,


shape and features completely as well as concisely.
Graphic Language in
Engineering Drawing
“Engineering drawing” or “blueprint” uses lines to
represent the features of an object.

Features of an object are surface (include plane) and


edge.

Surface

Edge
Ways to Create an
Engineering Drawing

A drawing can be created in 3 ways

1. Freehand sketch
2. Using typical drawing instruments
3. Using a computer
Create a Drawing : Freehand sketch
The lines are drawn using only pencil and erasers on a
blank or grid paper.

Example

Pictorial sketch Orthographic sketch


Create a Drawing : Using instruments
Drawing instruments are used to
draw straight lines, circles, and
curves concisely and accurately.
Drawings are usually made to scale.

Example
Create a Drawing : Using a computer
Computer aided drafting (CAD) software is used.

Example

2D drawing Solid modeling


Elements of a Drawing
A clear and precise engineering drawing requires both
graphics and word languages.

Graphics language
Describe a shape (mainly).

Word language
Describe an exact size,
location and specification
of the object.
Text on drawings : Example
Dimensions
&
Notes

General
notes Title
block
Knowledge and Skills Require
Engineering Drawing

Graphics Word
language language

Geometric Projection
construction method Dimensions & Notes

Using line types Visualization

Visualization is the ability to mentally picture things that do not exists.

Contents
Drawing Standard

Drawing sheet Scale Lettering Line types Contents


Definition and Necessity
Drawing standards are set of rules that govern how
technical drawings are represented.

Drawing standards are used so that drawings convey


the same meaning to everyone who reads them.
Standard Code
Country Code Full name

Thailand มอก./TIS สำนักงำนมำตรฐำนผลิตภัณฑ ์อุต


USA ANSI American National Standard Institute
Japan JIS Japanese Industrial Standard
UK BS British Standard

Australia AS Australian Standard


Germany DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung

ISO International Standards Organization


Examples of TIS Standard
Code number Contents

มอก. 210 2520 ่


วิธเี ขียนแบบทัวไป ่
: ทำงเครืองกล
มอก. 440 ล.1 2541 ่
กำรเขียนแบบก่อสร ้ำงเล่ม 1 ทัวไ
มอก. 446 ล.4 2532 ข้อแนะนำสำหร ับกำรเขียน
แผนภำพวงจรไฟฟ
มอก. 1473 2540 ้ ำ กำรเขียนแบบเทคนิ ค กำรติดตัง้
สัญลักษณ์สำหร ับระบบท่อของเหลว
ระบบทำควำมร ้อน กำรระบำยอำกำศ
และระบบท่ออำกำศ
่ : http://library.tisi.go.th/data/lib_resources/pdf/catalog-online49/tis/02_ICS.pdf
ทีมำ
Examples of JIS Standard
Code number Contents

JIS Z 8311 Sizes and Format of Drawings


JIS Z 8314 Scales
JIS Z 8312 Line Conventions
JIS Z 8313 Lettering
JIS Z 8315 Projection methods
JIS Z 8316 Presentation of Views and Sections
JIS Z 8317 Dimensioning
Drawing Standard
Drawing Sheet

Drawing standard Contents


Drawing Sheet : Standard size
Trimmed paper of A4

a size A0 ~ A4.
A3

Standard sheet size A2


(JIS)
A4 210 x 297 A1
A3 297 x 420
A2 420 x 594
A1 594 x 841
A0 841 x 1189
A0
(Dimensions in millimeters)
Drawing Sheet : Orientation & Margin
1. Type X (A0~A4)

c
Sheet size c (min) d (min)

A4 10 25
Border d Drawing space
c
A3 10 25
lines
A2 10 25
A1 20 25
A0 20 25
c

Title block
2. Type Y (A4 only)

d
Drawing
space Title block
Drawing Standard
Drawing Scale

Drawing standard Contents


Drawing Scales : Definition
Length, size
Scale is a ratio between the linear dimension of a
drawn representation of an object and the actual object.

1 : 2

Drawing Actual
Drawing Scales : Designation
Designation of a scale consists of the word “SCALE”
followed by the indication of its ratio, as follows

SCALE 1:1 for full size


SCALE X:1 (X > 1) for an enlargement scales
SCALE 1:X (X > 1) for a reduction scales
Drawing scale is commonly found in a title block.
Drawing Scales : Notes
Dimension numbers shown in the drawing represent
the “true size” of an object and they are independent of
the drawing scale used.
Drawing Scales : Standard scale

Standard reducing scales are


1:2, 1:5, 1:10, 1:20, 1:50, 1:100

Standard enlarging scales are


2:1, 5:1, 10:1, 20:1, 50:1, 100:1
Drawing Standard
Lettering

Drawing standard Contents


Recommendation
Text’s style on the drawing Examples
must have the following
GOOD
2 properties
Not uniform in style.
Legibility
- Shape Not uniform in height.
- Space between letters
- Space between words Not uniformly vertical.

Uniformity Not uniform in


- Size (or text height) thickness of stroke.

- line thickness Inappropriate space


between letters
Style (this course)
Gothic vertical style.

Begin the sentence, phrase or word with a capital letter.

Text height 2~3 mm.

Space between lines of text is about of text height.

Height of the lower-case letter is about 2/3 of that of a


capital letter.
Basic Strokes
Straight Slanted Horizontal Curved

Examples
“I” letter “A” letter “B” letter
4 5
1 1 2 1

3 6

3
2
Upper-case Strokes
Suggested Letters &Sequence
Numerals
Straight line
letters

Curved line
letters
&
Numerals
Lower-case Letters
Stroke Sequence : Upper-case
I L T F

E H

Skip section
Stroke Sequence : Upper-case
V X W

Skip section
Stroke Sequence : Upper-case
N M K Z

Y A 4

Skip section
Stroke Sequence : Upper-case
O Q C G

Skip section
Stroke Sequence : Upper-case
D U P B

R J

Skip section
Stroke Sequence : Upper-case
1 2 5 7

Skip section
Stroke Sequence : Upper-case
S 0 3 6

8 9

Skip section
Stroke Sequence : Lower-case
l i

Skip section
Stroke Sequence : Lower-case
v w x k

Skip section
Stroke Sequence : Lower-case
j y f t

Skip section
Stroke Sequence : Lower-case
c o a b

d p q e

Skip section
Stroke Sequence : Lower-case
g n m h

u s

Skip section
Word Composition
Space between the letters depends on the adjacent
contour of the letters.

Non-uniform
spacing
DRAWING
Uniform
spacing
D R A W IN G
Word having non-uniform spacing is more readable.
Word Composition

DRAWING
Contour

Contour can be denoted as “straight”, “slant” and “curve”.


Adjacent contour can be
1. straight-straight : II, IN, IM, IP etc.

Spacing
2. straight-curve (or curve-straight) : IO, QR etc.
3. straight-slant (or slant-straight) : IV, IW etc.
4. curve-curve : OO, OG etc.
5. slant-curve (or curve-slant) : VO, WG, VC etc.
6. slant-slant : VW, VX etc.
Sentence Composition
Leave the space between words equal to the space
requires for writing a letter “O”.

Example

ALL ODIMENSIONS OARE OIN


MILLIMETERS OUNLESS
OTHERWISE O SPECIFIED.
Drawing Standard
Line Types

Drawing standard Contents


Basic Line Types &
Name according to application
Thickness Thick Thin 1. Dimension line
2. Extension line
Visible line 3. Leader line
Style
Continuous Hidden line
Dash
Chain Center line

1. Visible line represent features that can be seen in the current view.
2. Dimension line
Extension line indicate the sizes and location of features.
Leader line

3. Hidden line represent features that can not be seen in the current view.

4. Center line represents symmetry, path of motion, centers of circles,


axis of axisymmetrical parts
Example

Contents