GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

GROWTH
is generally refers to change in body structure. the quantitative changes that takes place in an organism.

MATURATION
refers to changes independent of experiences is a process of ripening, of being ready.

DEVELOPMENT
refers to the integration of constitutional and learned changes make up an individual¶s ever developing personality. is a process, change is a product.

DEVELOPMENT
it is a qualitative change that takes place in various organisms. is learning and maturation

PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

PRINCIPLE
1. The development of an organism is the result of the interaction between heredity (nature) and environment (nurture) 

FOCUS
The process of the heredity and  environment are interdependence and complimentary. Neither appears to be dominant.

APPLICATION
Teachers take note or consider the family background of the child as well as the environment when he/she was born or grew up to better understand him/her especially his/her behavior. Teachers to know what stage in a particular aspect of growth the child is so he/she would know what is expect and also what to be prepared the child for the next stage of development. Knowledge of characteristics traits at different stage can be of considerable value for the teacher in choosing the appropriate activities as well as the methods of teaching.

2.

Growth is sequential. 

Growth follows an orderly sequence in general is the same for all individuals. 

3.

Each stage of development has characteristics traits 



Characteristic traits vary at stage of development Traits become more complex as the child gets older. 

PRINCIPLE
3. Each stage of development has characteristics traits  

FOCUS
Characteristic traits vary at stage of development Traits become more complex as the child gets older. 

APPLICATION
Knowledge of characteristics traits at different stage can be of considerable value for the teacher in choosing the appropriate activities as well as the methods of teaching. Teacher to consider the maturity level of the child in asking him/her to do something. Forcing a child who is not mature or ready may lead to personality disturbance. Teacher should be a keen observer so he/she can do something when a sign of uneasiness or boredom on the part of the students is shown or exhibited, while he/she is teaching or observing students do something

4.

Maturation or readiness should precede certain types of learning. 

Definite degree of maturity is prerequisite to various kind of learning. 

5.

The body tends to maintain a state of equilibrium called homoeostasis. 

There is wisdom in the body. Strive to preserve a constant internal. Each stage of development has characteristics traits environment despite changing conditions. 

PRINCIPLE
6. Development rate vary.   

FOCUS
The speed of development is not even Each part of the body has its own particular rate of growth. Children tend to inherit the physique of their parents. There are no two identical growth patterns. Each child has its own characteristics.  

APPLICATION
Teacher to understand that girls mature earlier than boys. Growth maybe retarded by illness and certain types of deprivation such as prolonged poor nutrition.

7.

Growth is patterned. 

 

Children should never be compared unless their rate and patterned growth have been taken into account.

POTENTIALITIES OF DEVELOPMENT The bases of heredity are germ cells, not somatic or body cells. Potentials are handed down form parents to offspring.

POTENTIALITIES OF DEVELOPMENT Human beings tend to be more alike rather than different. Human beings tend t o look alike but not resemble each other in physical structure.

POTENTIALITIES OF DEVELOPMENT There is a tendency toward arriving at a mean or average. Processes of heredity are slow; the flow of environment is continuous.

THE NATURE OF HUMAN GROWTH
The germinal(or egglike organism ) after conception, the embryonic after the eight week Fetal from the eight week to birth.

CONGENITAL INFLUENCES
refers to the conditions ad factors which can affect the unborn child as well as its development, such as malnutrition, disease, infection, birth, injury, emotional shock, and toxin.

FACTORS EXPLAINING WHY SOME CHILDREN ARE EITHER HANDICAPPED OR ABNORMAL.

And they are as follows:
If a child is born before full normal term of forty weeks Genes play a role in some birth defects. Every cell in the body has chromosomes containing genes that determine a person's unique characteristics.

And they are as follows:
Environmental causes of birth defects have more to do with the mother's health and exposure to chemicals or diseases. When a mother has certain infections, such as rubella, during pregnancy, it can cause birth defects.

Birth defects
are structural or functional abnormalities present at birth that cause physical or mental disability. Some may be fatal.

Causes birth defects
Birth defects have a variety of causes, such as: Genetic problems caused when one or more genes doesn't work properly or part of a gene is missing

Causes birth defects
Problems with chromosomes, such as having an extra chromosome or missing part of a chromosome pregnancy.

Causes birth defects
Environmental factors that a woman is exposed to during pregnancy, such as rubella or German measles while pregnant, or using drugs or alcohol during.

SOME COMMON BIRTH DEFECTS

Cleft palate
An opening in the roof of the mouth (the palate) due to a failure of the palatal shelves to come fully together from either side of the mouth and fuse, as they normally should, during embryonic development.

Cleft palate
The opening in the palate permits communication between the nasal passages and the mouth. Surgery is needed to close the palate.

Cerebral palsy
is a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to move and to maintain balance and posture. The disorders appear in the first few years of life. Usually they do not get worse over time.

Cerebral palsy
People with cerebral palsy may have difficulty walking. They may also have trouble with tasks such as writing or using scissors. Some have other medical conditions, including seizure disorders or mental impairment.

Nervous system or brain problems
such as learning disabilities, mental retardation, behavioral disorders, speech or language difficulties, convulsions, and movement trouble.

Nervous system or brain problems
Some examples of birth defects that affect the nervous system include Autism, Down syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, and Fragile X syndrome.

Mental retardation
A term used when a person has certain limitations in mental functioning and in skills such as communicating, taking care of him or herself, and social skills.

Mental retardation
Children with mental retardation may take longer to learn to speak, walk, and take care of their personal needs such as dressing or eating.

Mental retardation
They are likely to have trouble learning in school. They will learn, but it will take them longer. There may be some things they cannot learn.

SIGNS OF MENTAL RETARDATION.

children with mental retardation may:
sit up, crawl, or walk later than other children; learn to talk later, or have trouble speaking, find it hard to remember things,

children with mental retardation may:
not understand how to pay for things, have trouble understanding social rules, have trouble seeing the consequences of their actions, have trouble solving problems, and/or have trouble thinking logically.

CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION

The most common causes are:
Genetic conditions -- Abnormalities of chromosomes and genes. Examples of genetic conditions are Down syndrome (trisomy 21), fragile X syndrome, and phenylketonuria (PKU).

The most common causes are:
Problems during pregnancy -- When the baby does not develop normally inside the mother. For example, a woman who drinks alcohol or gets an infection like rubella during pregnancy may have a baby with mental retardation.

The most common causes are:
Prenatal problems -- Problems during labor and birth, such as not getting enough oxygen.

The most common causes are:
health problems diseases like whooping cough, the measles, or meningitis. Mental retardation can also be caused by extreme malnutrition or being exposed to poisons like lead or mercury.

Down syndrome
Down syndrome (also called Trisomy 21) is a genetic disorder that occurs in approximately 1 of 800 live births. It is the leading cause of cognitive impairment.

Down syndrome
Down syndrome is associated with mild to moderate learning disabilities, developmental delays, characteristic facial features, and low muscle tone in early infancy.

Down syndrome
Many individuals with Down syndrome also have heart defects, leukemia, early-onset Alzheimer's disease, gastrointestinal problems, and other health issues.

Down syndrome
Down syndrome is named after Doctor Langdon Down, who in 1866 first described the syndrome as a disorder. Although Doctor Down made some important observations about Down

Down syndrome
Continuation«« syndrome, he did not correctly identify what causes the disorder. It wasn't until 1959 that scientists discovered the genetic origin of Down syndrome.

Sensory problems
such as blindness, cataracts and other visual problems, and varying degrees of hearing loss including deafness.

Blindness
Loss of useful sight. Blindness can be temporary or permanent. Damage to any portion of the eye, the optic nerve, or the area of the brain responsible for vision can lead to blindness.

Blindness
There are numerous (actually, innumerable) causes of blindness. The current politically correct terms for blindness include visually handicapped and visually challenged.

Metabolic disorders
involve a body process or chemical pathway or reaction, such as conditions that limit the body's ability to get rid of waste materials or harmful chemicals. Two common metabolic disorders are phenylketonuria (PKU) and hypothyroidism.

Phenylketonuria
the inherited inability to metabolize (process) the essential amino acid phenylalanine due to complete or nearcomplete deficiency of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase.

hypothyroidism
is a condition characterized by abnormally low thyroid hormone production. There are many disorders that result in hypothyroidism.

hypothyroidism
These disorders may directly or indirectly involve the thyroid gland. Because thyroid hormone affects growth, development, and many cellular processes, inadequate thyroid hormone has widespread consequences for the body.

Degenerative disorders
are conditions that might not be obvious at birth, but cause one or more aspects of health to steadily get worse.

Degenerative disorders
For example, Xlinkedadrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), which was the focus of the movie Lorenzo's Oil, Rett syndrome, muscular dystrophy, and lysosomal disorders are examples of degenerative disorders.

THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF DEVELOPMENTS
according to Witheringon

Learning depends upon maturation. Rate of growth is rapid in the early years. Each individual has his own rate of growth.

Muscular dystrophy
one of a group of genetic diseases characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal or voluntary muscles which control movement.

Muscular dystrophy
The muscles of the heart and some other involuntary muscles are also affected in some forms of muscular dystrophy, and a few forms involve other organs as well.

PREMATURE CHILD
is backward in his development. more alert in sensory behavior, that is sensitive to sights, colors, noises, sounds, or moving objects although he is backward in motor performance.

The five post-natal periods of life are:
infancy childhood puberty adolescence adulthood/maturity senescence

THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF DEVELOPMENTS
Members of the same species follow common general pattern of development. Mental traits appear together rather than in series.

THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF DEVELOPMENTS
Different aspects of development are: physical, motor, mental, social, and emotional are interrelated. The direction of growth proceeds in a cephalo-caudal and proximodistal

Submitted by:
Arturito C. Tomines Ab-english4 student

Submitted to:
Mrs. Genalyn Capelo instructor