Human Resources Management Certificate Recruitment & Selection Course

Chapter one Job Analysis

Chapter¶s main purpose: The main purpose of this chapter is to show you how to analyze a job and write professional job descriptions

Job Analysis: The procedures for determining the duties and skills requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it . Job description: A list of a job¶s duties , responsibilities, reporting relationships, working conditions, and supervisory responsibilities. It is a product of the job Analysis.

knowledge. personality characteristics .Job Specifications: A list of a job¶s human requirements those should be possessed by the person who will perform the job. They could be education. and abilities or attitude . SKAs: Means skills . or knowledge. certain level of skills.

Process chart: A work flow chart that shows the flow of inputs of a particular job and outputs of it. It includes titles of the organization¶s jobs and the interconnecting lines which shows who reports and communicates to whom.Organization Chart: A chart that shows the organization distribution of work and hierarchy of positions. .

Job analysis is considered as the basic source of information for several interrelated HR activities: `Recruitment & selection: Information offered by the job analysis in form of job description and job specifications . & other benefits) Compensation usually determined based on the required SKAs of each job. Therefore. is considered as the back bone of upper management decisions regarding selecting and hiring their staff ` Compensation:( Wages . Salaries. . job analysis is considered very essential when it comes to compensation activities.

So the majority are using the job analysis as a reference to determine the specific activities and performance standards of a certain job. Training & People Development: Job analysis reveals the required SKAs of a job. ` .`Performance Appraisal: Performance appraisal means comparing the actual performance of employees to the performance standards of a certain job. therefore we depend a lot on it when designing a certain training program for this job.

Before digging into details . we can simply figure out the process of job analysis using the following diagram: Gathering data Reviewing JDS & OCs Selecting sample a Analysis steps Revision & Approval Developing JDs & JSs .

they are as the following: Which information should be collected How to collect this required information .` A) B) Gathering data is based on two essential factors.

. and what critical competences should be possessed by the person who will perform. & tools: collecting info about types of machines or other equipments are used to perform this job.A) ` ` ` Types of information should be collected: Work Activities : collecting info about the job¶s actual work activities . teaching. location. number of direct reportees.such as.«etc. Machines . Equipments . painting. approved budgets. internal & external communications. selling. The rule of 4 wives & husband Job context: means collecting info about the conditions under which the job is performed. such as physical demand.

skills and / or . interests. Human requirements: means all issues related to the person who will perform the job regarding having job related knowledge. This is very essential when it comes to appraise employees.. the required personal attributes (physical characteristics.` Performance Standards: In terms of quantity or quality levels for each job duty or task.) ` . Also it helps a lot when in comes to assess each job¶s complexity or difficulty. etc.

B) JA information collection methods: There are many techniques could be used when doing the part of information collection . more than assess the quantitative job factors. responsibilities . so. and the like . . those techniques are widely common used. and we refer to them using the term of (Qualitative Techniques). because these techniques rely on collecting the info in comprehensively way. they focus a lot on the job details regarding duties .

The qualitative techniques are : Interviews Questionnaires Observations logs .

. `Group of supervisors: who are fully understand the job know ± how. Fixed role : in all types of interviews the supervisor should attend to verify the accuracy of information collected.1. and usually done through 3 types: ` Individual : with only one employee `Group of employees : who are typically doing the same job with the same duties and responsibilities.Interviews: Are the most common used techniques .

or mental demand? `What are the job¶s health & safety conditions? . emotional.Sample of interviews typical questions: ` What is the job being performed? `What are the major duties of your position? `What actually do you do? `What are your duties & responsibilities? `What physical location do you work in? `What are the performance standards of your job? `What are the job¶s physical.

2. should be answered and filled out by the end user. we can consider it as a checklist contains a number of questions .Questionnaires: To simply define what is questionnaire . The same goes for the Job Questionnaire. As a main point is that you have to decide how will your questionnaire¶s question will be formed? .

are directed toward having the point of view of each employee using his / her own language and terminology. questions: Open ended questions . using the role of 4 wives & husband.There are 2 types of questionnaire¶ questions : ` Structured questions : close ended questions . the questions are directed toward a big number of specific tasks and duties . and the employees are asked to indicate whether they are performing or not. `Unstructured . Such as. ³state your job¶s overall purpose´.

record them into a certain manner facilitates recalling. The method is useful when observing a job needs mainly physical activities .Observation: The job analyst using this method should notice all the analyzed job¶s related activities . . and verify them with the job performer.3. in order to assure the accuracy of all the information gathered. as you can not fully rely on it when analyzing a job. and useless when the job needs mental or logical activities. Observation is a handicapped method. it should be used along with interviewing method.

4. because a lot of worker do not give accurate info in this log. they whether exaggerate some activities or underplay other . based on their own preferences ( Likes & Dislikes).Logs: Log: is a list made by workers for every activity in which they engage clarified with the time each activity takes. This method is not that effectiveness to rely on it as a mono methodology . .

the range of communication whether internally or externally . and already ± made job description before analyzing the job.OC : Organization chart JD : Job description It is very essential to review all the analyzed job¶s related organization charts. . and the appropriate place in which the job could fit within the organization. It gives you chance to understand and recognize the volume of the job¶s inputs & outs. process chart.

. Many times you will find that there may be too many similar positions need to be analyzed. you have only to take a sample of 5 ± 10 worker to apply with them the job analysis techniques.Question: Why is this important? Answer : to save time & effort. Example: If there is one job done by 100 workers. So do not waste your time in doing this.

This step is consider as the mid ± road of the job analysis process. this because the basic formation of those techniques relies on a methodology called ( Rating System). The job analysis techniques are referred by ( Quantitative techniques). Rating : giving a certain score or numeric value for a certain item needs to be appraised or measured. . As the job analyst here starts to convert all the qualitative information gathered into form of quantitative outputs using the analysis techniques.

What are the quantitative techniques? PAQ DOL FJA .

` How does it work? As we mentioned before . it is formed based on structured rating methodology .PAQ ( Position Analysis Questionnaire) ` A structured questionnaire used to collect quantifiable data concerning the duties and responsibility of a job. using a scale from (0) to (5) (0) is the lowest rating point (5) Is the highest rating point .

This system is mainly dividing each job into main 5 pillars . and then start rating them using the rating scale. they are as the following: Decision making / Communication responsibility Performing skilled activities Physical demand Operating Machines / Equipments Processing data And then the analyst classifies all the gathered info according to those 5 pillars . .

classified .DOL ( U. they are Necessity of special instruction Necessity of reasoning & judgment abilities Necessity of Mathematical abilities Necessity of verbal or language abilities `FJA ( . and compared . based on 3 pillars ( Data .S Department of labor procedures) ` A standardized method by which different jobs can be quantitatively rated . things) Functional Job Analysis) The same as DOL . but the jobs are quantitatively rated based on extra 4 pillars in addition to the 3 of DOL . people.

also he has to seek the approval of the concerned line manager. also it gives the job performer a chance to revise his job¶s duties and responsibility. the job analyst has to revise the analysis out come with both of the job performer and his immediate supervisor . .After finishing the job analysis assignment using the analyzing techniques . and accept them in their new form. This helps to ensure that all achieved results are correct and accurate .

Now . context . it is the time of the final step . the job analyst will develop the 2 required outcome of the Job analysis: Job description: covering all the job¶s purpose. . and working conditions Job specifications: covering all the job¶s human requirements. here . duties & responsibilities.

should be covered while writing the job description. but there are common components or sections .There is no standard format for writing the job description . What are those sections ? .

Job Identification Job Summary Relationships Duties & Responsibilities Standards of performance Job Dimension Job specifications .

and the name of job For example Marketing Manager Is the job`s name Is the function performed .1. contains certain information .Job Identification : It is a quick check ± hand or introduction about the job. as the following: ` Job title : Specifies the function performed.

branch office. production line . `Job holder name `Job code: In case that each job in the organization has a certain serial number or code `Date: on which the job description was developed `Job grade : the rank of this job according to the grading system `Approvals ` . factory. such as : main office.Reporting channel : means to whom the job holder should report. state or zone «etc. `Location: means the location in which the job will performed .

profit and execute the approved plan efficiently and effectively.Job Summary: A brief describes the general nature of the job and it includes only its major functions or activities. For example: if we have a job of ( National Sales Manager) . increase the company¶s market share.2. Train & develop the sales team. . its job summary could be as the following: Implement the national sales strategies and plans to accomplish sales targets. increase volume. maximize revenues. Develop good relationships with the company¶s customers and clients.

( inside the organization) External relationships: clients. (out side the organizations) . internally or externally. suppliers. «etc. governmental institutions. agencies. supervises who. works with who. firms . sister companies. Internal relationships: reports to whom. however.3.Relationships: It reveals the job holder¶s scope of relations with other .

and responsibilities of the job. This is done through listing all the job¶s tasks in order of importance. priority «etc. How to write professional & effective Duties &Responsibilities ?? . activities . frequency . and giving a percentage for each task based on time consumption.4.Duties & Responsibilities: This section presents a list which reflects the major tasks .

`Handling customer complaint within 3 minutes. `Possessing at least 15% of local market share. For example `Produce 350 units per shift.Performance standards : It is a list reveals the standards the employee is expected to achieve under of the job description¶s main duties and tasks. Those standards should be addressed in numerical manners. `Reduce waste to 20% less. or through using percentage scales.5. .

Number of direct subordinates 3.Total Head Count .Approved Budget or monetary value 2.6 ± Job Dimensions: A section that reveals the scope of the job in terms of : 1.

and it is simply the answer of the question ³ which human¶s traits & skills are required to perform this job accurately?´ Professionally. to assure accurate job specifications . the following points should be covered.Job specifications : Is the last step in writing the job descriptions.7.

` Age `Education graduate degrees `Years of experience `Language capabilities `Computer skills `Equipment / machines operating skills `Physical demand ( health conditions) `Mental capabilities ( analytical thinking ± conceptual thinking) `Interpersonal skills `Post .

Real Samples of Job Descriptions 1 .

Real Samples of Job Descriptions 2 Developed by Ahmed Adel .2009 .

End of chapter one .

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