Introduction to Zoology

Department of zoology Shri.Siddheshwar Mahavidyalaya Majalgaon-431131 Under Guidence :-Dr.Pr.Ingole Sir :-Pr.Naik Sir
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Presented by:- Tarkasband Vaibhav

Zoology
‡ Scientific study of the diversity of animal life

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Why Study Zoology?

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Understand the natural world

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Learn to protect the environment

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Develop skills for learning

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Myths To Explain Biological Processes
‡ Disease caused by evil spirits ‡ Brain produces snot ‡ Blood determines heredity ‡ Heart is for emotions

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How Does Science Separate Myths from Reality?

Scientific Method

Scientific Method
‡ Observation ‡ Hypothesis
± Prediction

‡ Test Hypothesis
± Experiment ± Further Observations

‡ Conclusion

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Edward Jenner 1749-1823
‡ Smallpox ‡ Scientific method

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Observation
‡ Smallpox is deadly

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Observation
‡ Survivors are immune

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Observation
‡ Milkmaids do not get smallpox

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Observation
‡ Milkmaids get cowpox from cows

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Hypothesis Cowpox Makes You Immune to Smallpox

Prediction
‡ If you are exposed to cowpox, you will be immune to smallpox

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Experiment

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Results
‡ Boy did not get smallpox

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Conclusion
‡ Hypothesis supported

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Robert Koch 1843-1910
‡ Identified the bacterium that causes anthrax ‡ Identified the bacterium that causes tuberculosis

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Louis Pasteur 1822-1895
‡ Developed vaccines for rabies and anthrax ‡ Demonstrated the existence of germs ‡ Invented Pasteurization

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A New Scientific Theory Explains the Observations of Many Scientists
‡ Edward Jenner
± Smallpox

‡ Louis Pasteur
± Rabies and anthrax

‡ Robert Koch
± Tuberculosis and anthrax

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Germ Theory of Disease
‡ Germs cause disease ‡ Predictions of the Germ Theory
± Many diseases are caused by germs
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Diptheria Whooping cough Measles Plague

‡ Modern medicine uses the Germ Theory to guide research
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Ramifications of Germ Theory
‡ Previous concepts about the cause of many diseases incorrect
± Evil spirits ± Bad thoughts ± Excess blood

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Theory vrs Scientific Theory
‡ Theory (as used outside of science)
± Guess ± Speculation ± Has not been tested

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Scientific Theory
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Principle Tested many times Explains many different phenomena Makes predictions Falsifiable

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Falsify Germ Theory
‡ Smallpox occurs without the smallpox virus ‡ Tuberculosis occurs without the TB bacterium ‡ Discovery of a different type of cause for infectious diseases
± Cell phones ± Computer screens ± Lack of exercise
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Jeff¶s Lost Dog
I love my dog

‡ Jeff¶s beloved dog is missing (observation) ‡ Jeff thinks the dog has run away (hypothesis) ‡ What can falsify his hypothesis? ‡ Jeff finds his dog asleep in the house
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Testing Hypotheses
‡ Observation
± Jeff found his dog asleep in the house ± Scientists find the same bacterium in the bodies of people who die of the plague

‡ Experiment
± Jenner vaccinates boy with cowpox and later infects him with smallpox. The boy does not get smallpox.
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100 Sick People

‡ Experimental group ‡ 50 People ‡ Medicine X

‡ Control group ‡ 50 People ‡ Placebo

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Three Days Later

‡ Experimental group ‡ 34 Better ‡ Medicine X

‡ Control group ‡ 33 Better ‡ Placebo

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Three Days Later

‡ Experimental group ‡ 34 Better ‡ Medicine X

‡ Control group ‡ 5 Better ‡ Placebo

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Why does this frog have extra legs?

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Law vrs Theory
‡ Law
± Observation that has been repeated numerous times ± Law of gravity ± Does not explain the observation

‡ Theory
± Explains why or how something in nature happens
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Which is most important to a scientist?
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Fact Hypothesis Law Theory

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Theory is the most important
‡ Theory
± Explains laws, hypotheses and facts

‡ Law
± States what happens

‡ Hypothesis
± Untested theory

‡ Fact
± Observation
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Major Scientific Theories
‡ Germ Theory of Disease
± Germs cause infectious disease

‡ Atomic Theory
± Matter is made if tiny atoms

‡ Gene Theory (Chromosomal Theory)
± Genes on chromosomes determine heredity

‡ Cell Theory
± All living things are made of cells
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Theory of Evolution
‡ Populations of organisms change over time ‡ Changes result in new species that share a common ancestor.

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Evolution is both a fact and a theory
‡ Fact
± Evolution is documented in the fossil record and has been observed in our lifetime.

‡ Theory
± How evolution happens

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Theory of Evolution
‡ Scientists no longer ask if evolution occurs. They study how evolution occurs. ‡ Evolution is the major theory that guides research in Zoology

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Science
‡ A body of knowledge gained from studying the natural world ‡ It is tested against the natural world
± Does not use supernatural explanations

‡ Its conclusions are not absolute.
± New discoveries can revise previous conclusions

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It is falsifiable
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The End
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