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Women’s Day
Beauty as racial progress / Cure ugliness An ideal of beauty, hygiene and eugenics
How to improve race / How lift your face will lift your morale Repairs this labor as a mother, as a woman
How to become yourself or how to make yourself another National beauty standard
thing? Epidemy of beauty / Beauty for export
How to modify yourself? "Negroid nose" "Andean nose"
How to become full citizen of the nation? National obsolescence
Jorge Eliécer Gaitán
• Ancestry
• Kinship
• Solidarity
• Territorial
• Patriotism
• Oligarchy
• Belonging
It is not only a project from the
top (design a nation guided by
1. By the middle decades of the century, social groups including women,
urban workers, and rural laborers, pressed for political and economic
2. Dual impulses of political inclusion and economic growth
3. Who bears the costs? And who reaps the rewards?
The answers to the first question reflected a broad consensus: the state
must act where the market had failed to propel economic development.

Inclusion? Yes, but….. Many reforms were made to stop the advance
of the left in any form (socialism, communism).
Nationalism is prior to Populism, is its context
or framework

• Nationalism: even though you usually have a leader, the project has a
collective sense. The center is the whole (the leader and the people).

* Not all the nationalists projects become populist *

• Populism: The leader can (or cannot) guide a collective project. In

many cases it generates cult. The leader is the center.

Patriotic emblems Self-esteem Identity Pure identity Hyper-nationalism


Strong State Property over resources: Soil/Land No State

“the oil is ours!”
Unique identity (Getulio Vargas): Militarism
Nationalized industries Migration/ Frontiers
State companies

Ancestral inhabitants
(indigenous people,
Right-Wing Populism
Left-wing populism

• Hugo Chavez based his populist model exclusively on oil

• Rafael Correa (Ecuador, 15 de enero de 2007 – 24 de mayo de 2017)
and Evo Morales (Bolivia, 22 de enero de 2006 – ) follow a similar
path regarding the economic model
• Economically, underdevelopment meant
reliance on export agriculture sustained by impoverished rural laborers,
as well as reliance on imported technology, manufactured goods, and
capital. It also meant deficient infrastructure.

• Politically and socially, it meant weak institutions with a limited reach.

• “Developmentalism” was the art of correcting underdevelopment.

Among 1950s U.S. intellectuals, modernization theory was an especially
influential vision of development which was based on the assumption
that underdeveloped societies faced a lag relative to developed societies.
It presumed a linear path of evolution in which the United States sat
hierarchically above Latin America.
Modernization versus dependency
Walter Rostow
(Non-communist manifesto)
• The transformation to modernity from the “traditional society”

You are a “free subject” that choose your own improvement (or not)
Why is Latin America specially important for
the history of U.S modernity?