BASIC CHEMISTRY CHM 160

Chapter 2

1. Elements are composed of extremely small particles called atoms. 2. All atoms of a given element are identical, having the same size, mass and chemical properties. The atoms of one element are different from the atoms of all other elements. 3. Compounds are composed of atoms of more than one element. In any compound, the ratio of the numbers of atoms of any two of the elements present is either an integer or a simple fraction. 4. A chemical reaction involves only the separation, combination, or rearrangement of atoms; it does not result in their creation or destruction.

Law of Conservation of Mass
- Matter can be neither created nor destroyed

16 X

+

8Y

8 X2 Y

THE STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM
 Element - A substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical means.  Atom -The basic unit of an element that can enter into chemical combination  Proton - The positively charged particles in the nucleus  Neutron - Electrically neutral particles having a mass slightly greater than that of protons  Electron - Negatively charged particles

THE STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM

electron

mass p ≈ mass n ≈ 1840 x mass e-

6

Atomic number, Mass number and Isotopes
Atomic number (Z) = number of protons in nucleus Mass number (A) = number of protons + number of neutrons = atomic number (Z) + number of neutrons

Mass Number Atomic Number

A ZX

Element Symbol

Example:
Mass Number Atomic Number

16 O 8

Element Symbol

  

Mass number (A) = 16 Atomic number (Z) = 8 (indicating 8 protons in nucleus) Number of neutrons = 16-8 =8 Number of electrons = 8 (when the element is neutral)

Isotopes are atoms of the same element (X) with different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei or atoms that have the same atomic number but different mass number. Examples: 1) Hydrogen 1H 2 H (D) 1 1

3 H (T) 1

2) Uranium 235 U 92

238 U 92

Noble Gas Halogen

The Modern Periodic Table

Group

Alkali Earth Metal Alkali Metal

Period

MOLECULES AND IONS
• A molecule is an aggregate of two or more atoms in a definite arrangement held together by chemical forces

H2

H2 O

NH3

CH4

• A diatomic molecule contains only two atoms • Examples: H2, N2, O2, Br2, HCl, CO

diatomic elements

• A polyatomic molecule contains more than two atoms • Examples: O3, H2O, NH3, CH4

• An ion is an atom, or group of atoms, that has a net positive or negative charge. • Cation – ion with a positive charge - If a neutral atom loses one or more electrons it becomes a cation.

Na

11 protons 11 electrons

Na

+

11 protons 10 electrons

• anion – ion with a negative charge - If a neutral atom gains one or more electrons it becomes an anion.

Cl

17 protons 17 electrons

Cl

-

17 protons 18 electrons

• A monatomic ion contains only one atom • Examples: Na+, Cl-, Ca2+ , O2- , Al3+ , N3• A polyatomic ion contains more than one atom • Examples: OH-, CN-, NH4+, NO3-

Common Ions Shown on the Periodic Table

• metals tend to form cations • nonmetals tend to form anions

Examples:
1) How many protons and electrons are in No. of protons = 13 Charge = 3+ (loss of 3 electrons) No. of electrons = 13 – 3 = 10
27 3+ 13 Al

?

2) How many protons and electrons are in 78 Se2- ? 34 No. of protons = 34 Charge = 2- (accept of 2 electrons) No. of electrons = 34 + 2 = 36

CHEMICAL FORMULAS
 A molecular formula shows the exact number of atoms of each element in the smallest unit of a substance  Allotrope: one of two or more distinct forms of an element. - Example: two allotropic forms of the element carbon which are diamond and graphite.  An empirical formula shows the simplest whole-number ratio of the atoms in a substance Molecular formula H2O C6H12 O6 O3 N2H4 Empirical formula H2O CH2O O NH2

 A structural formula shows how atoms are bonded to one another in a molecule

Formulas and Models

Formula of Ionic Compounds
• ionic compounds consist of a combination of cations and an anions • The formula is usually the same as the empirical formula • The sum of the charges on the cation(s) and anion(s) in each formula unit must equal zero • Examples: NaCI (consists of equal numbers of Na+ and Cl-)

The most reactive metals (green) and the most reactive nonmetals (blue) combine to form ionic compounds.

Method of Writing Chemical Formula for Ionic Compounds
1) Aluminium oxide (containing Al3+ and O2- ) Al3+ 3+ 2 O223

Charge Simplest ration of ion combined

So, 2 cation Al3+ combined with 3 anion O2- to form aluminium oxide Sum of charges is 2(+3) + 3(-2) = 0 Formula: Al2O3

Method of Writing Chemical Formula for Ionic Compounds
2) Ammonium carbonate (containing NH4+ and CO32- )

NH4+
Charge Simplest ration of ion combined 1+ 2

CO3221

So, 2 cation NH4+ combined with 1 anion CO32- to form ammonium carbonate Sum of charges is 2(+1) + 1(-2) = 0 Formula: (NH4)2CO3

CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE

1) Elements:  Refer to the periodic table - Examples: i) Na = sodium ii) Si = silicon

2) Ionic Compounds
 

Often a metal (cation) + nonmetal (anion) Binary compounds (compounds formed from two elements)

- first element named is the metal cation followed by the nonmetallic anion.
 

Anion (nonmetal), add “ide” to element name Examples:

i) BaCl2 = barium chloride ii)K2O = potassium oxide iii) Mg(OH)2 = Magnesium hydroxide

Transition metal ionic compounds - older nomenclature system: - ending “ous” cation with fewer positive charges - ending “ic” to the cation with more positive charges - examples: Fe2+ ferrous ion Fe3+ ferric ion - indicate charge on metal with Roman numerals

Examples: i) FeCl2 ii) FeCl3 iii) Cr2S3 2 Cl- -2 so Fe is +2 iron(II) chloride 3 Cl- -3 so Fe is +3 iron(III) chloride 3 S-2 -6 so Cr is +3 (6/2) chromium(III) sulfide

3) Molecular compounds - place the name of the first element in the formula first and second element is named by adding “-ide” to the root of element name - Nonmetals or nonmetals + metalloids - Common names: H2O, NH3, CH4 - Element furthest to the left in a period and closest to the bottom of a group on periodic table is placed first in formula - If more than one compound can be formed from the same elements, use prefixes to indicate number of each kind of atom - Last element name ends in “-ide”

Guidelines in naming compounds with prefixes

The prefix ‘mono-’ maybe omitted for the first element. For oxides, the ending ‘a’ in the prefix is sometimes omitted. - for example: N2O4 maybe called dinitrogen teroxide rather than dinitrogen teraoxide.

Molecular Compounds
HI NF3 SO2 N2Cl4 NO2 N2O hydrogen iodide nitrogen trifluoride sulfur dioxide dinitrogen tetrachloride nitrogen dioxide dinitrogen monoxide

36

4) Acids and bases • An acid can be defined as a substance that yields hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water. • For example: HCl gas and HCl in water - Pure substance, hydrogen chloride - Dissolved in water (H3O+ and Cl−), hydrochloric acid • Anions whose names end in “-ide” form acids with a “hydro-” prefix and an “-ic” ending.

• An oxoacid is an acid that contains hydrogen, oxygen, and another element. • Examples:
i) HNO3 ii) H2CO3 iii) H3PO4 iv) HCIO3 v) H2SO4 vi) HIO3 vii)HBrO3 nitric acid carbonic acid phosphoric acid chloric acid sulfuric acid iodic acid bromic acid

Naming Oxoacids and Oxoanions

39

The rules for naming oxoanions, anions of oxoacids, are as follows:

1. When all the H ions are removed from the “-ic” acid, the anion’s name ends with “-ate”. 2. When all the H ions are removed from the “-ous” acid, the anion’s name ends with “-ite.” 3. The names of anions in which one or more but not all the hydrogen ions have been removed must indicate the number of H ions present. For example:  H PO Phosphoric acid 3 4  H PO - dihydrogen phosphate 2 4  HPO 2- hydrogen phosphate 4  PO43phosphate

• A base can be defined as a substance that yields hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water. • Examples: NaOH KOH Ba(OH)2 sodium hydroxide potassium hydroxide barium hydroxide

5) Hydrates • Hydrates are compounds that have a specific number of water molecules attached to them. • Examples: i) BaCl2•2H2O ii) LiCl•H2O iii) MgSO4•7H2O iv) Sr(NO3)2 •4H2O barium chloride dihydrate lithium chloride monohydrate magnesium sulfate heptahydrate strontium nitrate tetrahydrate

CuSO4•5H2O

CuSO4

ATOMIC MASS
• Atomic mass is the mass of an atom in atomic mass units (amu) • One atomic mass unit – a mass exactly equal to one-twelfth the mass of one carbon-12 atom. By definition: 1 atom 12 C “weighs” 12 amu On this scale:
1

H = 1.008 amu O = 16.00 amu

1 6

The average atomic mass is the weighted average of all of the naturally occurring isotopes of the element.

Average atomic mass of natural carbon = (0.9890)(12.00000 amu)+(0.0110)(13.00335 amu) = 12.01 amu

Example: Naturally occurring lithium is: 7.42% 6Li (6.015 amu) 92.58% 7Li (7.016 amu) Average atomic mass of lithium: (7.42 x 6.015) + (92.58 x 7.016) = 6.941 amu 100

Average atomic mass (6.941)

AVOGADRO’S NUMBER AND THE MOLAR MASS
• The Mole (mol): A unit to count numbers of particles Dozen = 12

Pair = 2 • The mole (mol) is the amount of a substance that contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in exactly 12.00 grams of 12 C 1 mol = NA = 6.0221367 x 1023 Avogadro’s number (NA)

Molar mass is the mass of 1 mole of atoms in grams 1 mole 12 C atoms = 6.022 x 1023 atoms = 12.00 g 1 12 C atom = 12.00 amu 1 mole 12 C atoms = 12.00 g 12 C 1 mole lithium atoms = 6.941 g of Li For any element atomic mass (amu) = molar mass (grams)

÷ molar mass (g/mol)

x NA

Mass of element (m)

No. of moles (n)
÷ NA

No. of atoms/molecules (N)

x molar mass (g/mol)

NA = Avogadro’s number = 6.022 x 1023 atoms

Example:
How many atoms are in 0.551 g of potassium (K) ? 1 mol K = 39.10 g K 1 mol K = 6.022 x 1023 atoms K

No. of moles = 0.551 g 39.10 g/mol = 0.014 mol No. of atoms = 0.014 mol x 6.022 x 1023 atoms/mol = 8.43 x 1021 atoms K

MOLECULAR MASS
• Molecular mass (or molecular weight) is the sum of the atomic masses (in amu) in a molecule. 1S 2O SO2 SO2 For any molecule molecular mass (amu) = molar mass (grams) 1 molecule SO2 = 64.07 amu 1 mole SO2 = 64.07 g SO2 32.07 amu + 2 x 16.00 amu 64.07 amu

Example How many H atoms are in 72.5 g of C3H8O ? 1 mol C3H8O = (3 x 12) + (8 x 1) + 16 = 60 g C3H8O 1 mol C3H8O molecules = 8 mol H atoms 1 mol H = 6.022 x 1023 atoms H
1 mol C3H8O 8 mol H atoms 6.022 x 1023 H atoms 72.5 g C3H8O x x x 1 mol C3H8O 1 mol H atoms 60 g C3H8O

= 5.82 x 1024 atoms H

• Formula mass is the sum of the atomic masses (in amu) in a formula unit of an ionic compound. 1Na NaCl 22.99 amu

1Cl + 35.45 amu NaCl 58.44 amu

For any ionic compound formula mass (amu) = molar mass (grams) 1 formula unit NaCl = 58.44 amu 1 mole NaCl = 58.44 g NaCl

Example: What is the formula mass of Ca3(PO4)2 ? 1 formula unit of Ca3(PO4)2 3 Ca 2P 8O 3 x 40.08 2 x 30.97 + 8 x 16.00 310.18 amu

Percent composition of an element in a compound = n x molar mass of element x 100% molar mass of compound n is the number of moles of the element in 1 mole of the compound 2 x (12.01 g) x 100% = 52.14% 46.07 g 6 x (1.008 g) %H = x 100% = 13.13% 46.07 g 1 x (16.00 g) %O = x 100% = 34.73% 46.07 g %C = C2H6O 52.14% + 13.13% + 34.73% = 100.0%

Determination of empirical formula
Determine the empirical formula of a compound that has the following percent composition by mass: * Assume we have 100 g of the compound, then each percentage can be converted directly to grams. K: 24.75%, Mn: 34.77%, O: 40.51% Elements Mass (g) mol K 24.75 Mn 34.77 O 40.51

24.75 g 34.77 g 40.51 g 39.10 g/mol 54.94 g/mol 16.00 g/mol = 0.6330 = 0.6329 = 2.532 0.6330 0.6329 ≈1 0.6329 0.6329 =1 2.532 0.6329 ≈4

Simplest ratio

Empirical formula = KMnO4

Determination of empirical formula
Elements C H O Mass (g) mol 40.92 40.92 g 12.01 g/mol = 3.407 3.407 3.406 ≈1 x 3 =3 4.58 4.58 g 1.008 g/mol = 4.54 54.50 54.50 g 16.00 g/mol = 3.406

Simplest ratio

4.54 3.406 3.406 3.406 =1.33 x 3 =1 x 3 =4 =3

Empirical formula = C3H4O3

Determination of Molecular Formula

Elements Mass (g) Determination of empirical formula mol 1.52

N 3.47

O

1.52 g 3.47 g 14.01 g/mol 16.00 g/mol = 0.108 = 0.217 0.108 0.108 ≈1 0.217 0.108 ≈2

Simplest ratio

Empirical formula = NO2

Determination of molecular formula
1) Empirical molar mass = 14.01 g/mol + 2(16.0g/mol) = 46.01 g/ mol molar mass compound between 90 g/mol-95 g/mol 2) Determine the ratio between the molar mass and empirical formula Molar mass = 90 g/mol ≈2 Empirical molar mass 46.01 g/mol Molecular formula = 2(NO2) = N2O4 Actual molecular molar mass = 2(14.01 g/mol) + 4(16.00) = 92.02 g/mol

CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND CHEMICAL EQUATIONS
• A process in which one or more substances is changed into one or more new substances is a chemical reaction • A chemical equation uses chemical symbols to show what happens during a chemical reaction reactants products 3 ways of representing the reaction of H2 with O2 to form H2O

How to “Read” Chemical Equations
2 Mg + O2 2 MgO

2 atoms Mg + 1 molecule O2 makes 2 formula units MgO 2 moles Mg + 1 mole O2 makes 2 moles MgO 48.6 grams Mg + 32.0 grams O2 makes 80.6 g MgO NOT 2 grams Mg + 1 gram O2 makes 2 g MgO

Balancing Chemical Equations
1. Write the correct formula(s) for the reactants on the left side and the correct formula(s) for the product(s) on the right side of the equation. Ethane reacts with oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water C2H6 + O2 CO2 + H2O

2. Change the numbers in front of the formulas (coefficients) to make the number of atoms of each element the same on both sides of the equation. Do not change the subscripts.

2C2H6

NOT

C4H12

Balancing Chemical Equations
3. Start by balancing those elements that appear in only one reactant and one product. C2H6 + O2 2 carbon on left C2H6 + O2 6 hydrogen on left C2H6 + O2 CO2 + H2O 1 carbon on right 2CO2 + H2O 2 hydrogen on right 2CO2 + 3H2O start with C or H but not O multiply CO2 by 2

multiply H2O by 3

Balancing Chemical Equations
4. Balance those elements that appear in two or more reactants or products. C2H6 + O2 2 oxygen on left C2H6 + 7 O2 2 2C2H6 + 7O2 2CO2 + 3H2O multiply O2 by 7 2

4 oxygen + 3 oxygen = 7 oxygen (3x1) on right (2x2) 2CO2 + 3H2O 4CO2 + 6H2O remove fraction multiply both sides by 2

Balancing Chemical Equations
5. Check to make sure that you have the same number of each type of atom on both sides of the equation. 2C2H6 + 7O2 4 C (2 x 2) 12 H (2 x 6) 14 O (7 x 2) Reactants 4C 12 H 14 O 4CO2 + 6H2O 4C 12 H (6 x 2) 14 O (4 x 2 + 6) Products 4C 12 H 14 O

AMOUNTS OF REACTANTS AND PRODUCTS • Stoichiometry: - comparison of coefficients in a balanced equation - The quantitative study of reactants and products in a chemical reaction

1. Write balanced chemical equation 2. Convert quantities of known substances into moles 3. Use coefficients in balanced equation to calculate the number of moles of the sought quantity 4. Convert moles of sought quantity into desired units

Example: Methanol burns in air according to the equation 2CH3OH + 3O2 2CO2 + 4H2O If 209 g of methanol are used up in the combustion, what mass of water is produced? grams CH3OH moles CH3OH moles H2O grams H2O

molar mass CH3OH

molar mass coefficients H2O chemical equation

1) Moles of CH3OH = 209 g 32 g/mol = 6.53 mol

2CH3OH + 3O2

2CO2 + 4H2O

2) From the equation, 2 mol CH3OH is used to give 4 mol H2O, if we have 6.53 mol CH3OH, how many mole that H2O will produce? 2 mol CH3OH = 4 mol H2O 6.53 mol CH3OH = ? mol H2O = 4 mol H2O x 2 mol CH3OH = 13.06 mol H2O 3) Mass of H2O = mol x molar mass H2O = 13.06 mol x 18 g/mol = 235.1 g 6.53 mol CH3OH

LIMITING REAGENT
• Reactant used up first in the reaction.

2NO + O2

2NO2

NO is the limiting reagent O2 is the excess reagent • Excess reagents: the reactants present in quantities greater than necessary to react with the quantity of the limiting reagent

LIMITING REAGENT
In one process, 124 g of Al are reacted with 601 g of Fe2O3 2Al + Fe2O3 Al2O3 + 2Fe Calculate the mass of Al2O3 formed. Determination of limiting reagent and excess reagent 1) Mole of Al = 124 g 27.0 g/mol = 4.59 mol 2) Mole of Fe2O3 = 601 g 160 g/mol = 3.76 mol

3) i)

Divide moles of Al and Fe2O3 with their stoichiometric coefficients Al = 4.59 mol = 2.295 mol 2 ii) Fe2O3 = 3.76 mol = 3.76 mol 1

• •

The reagent that show the smallest no. of mole is a limiting reagent, while another reagent is a excess reagent. So, Al is a limiting reagent, while Fe2O3 is a excess reagent.

4) From the equation, 2 mol Al is used to give 1 mol Al2O3 , if we have 4.59 mol Al, how many mole that Al2O3 will produce? 2 mol Al produce 1 mol Al2O3 4.59 mol Al = 1mol Al2O3 x 4.59 mol Al 2 mol Al = 2.295 mol Al2O3 5) Mass of Al2O3 = mol x molar mass Al2O3 = 2.295 mol x 102.0 g/mol = 234 g

REACTION YIELD • Theoretical Yield is the amount of product that would result if all the limiting reagent reacted. • Actual Yield is the amount of product actually obtained from a reaction.
Actual Yield Theoretical Yield

% Yield =

x 100%

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