Š Personality means how a person affects others and how he understands and views himself as well as the pattern of inner and outer measurable traits , and the person situation interaction. Š A person s general style of interacting with the world Š the inner psychological characteristics that both determine and reflect how a person respond to his or her environment Š Sum total of all typical ways of acting, feeling, and thinking that makes a person different from all others

Nature of personality 1.Reflects individual difference 2.Consistent and enduring 3.Personality can change

Trait Theory -quantitative approach to personality and a set of psychological traits.New Freudian Theory . .Freudian Theory .Theories of personality 1.unconscious needs or drives are at the heart of human motivation 2.social relationships are fundamental to the formation and development of personality 3.

seeks to gratify the Id in realistic ways Reality Principle Super Ego .energy constantly striving to satisfy basic drives Pleasure Principle Ego .1. FREUDIAN THEORY y Freud proposed that the human personality consists of three interacting systems: Id .voice of conscience that focuses on how we ought to behave .

Morals.Freud proposed that the human personality consists of three interacting systems: Primitive Drive Reality Beliefs . Ethics Freudian Systems Id: Immediate Gratification Pleasure Principle: To maximize pleasure and avoid pain Ego: Mediator Superego: System that internalizes society¶s rules .

It functions as an internal monitor that attempts to balance the impulsive demands of the ID and the socio cultural constraints of the superego. The superego role is to see that the individual satisfies needs in a socially acceptable manner. y EGO:.for which the individual seeks immediate satisfaction without concern for the specific means of satisfaction. . y SUPEREGO:.y ID:.The ID was conceptualized as a warehouse of drives-basic physiological needs.The EGO is the individual s conscious control.The superego is conceptualized as the individual s internal expression of society s moral and ethical codes of conduct.

individual identity and adaptation over one s lifetime .Limitations y Unconcerned with interpersonal relations.

NEO-FREUDIAN PERSONALITY THEORY y Believes that social relationships are fundamental to the formation and development of personality.those who move away from others (they desire independence. Detached. 3. Compliant-those who move towards others (they desire to be loved. self-sufficiency.those who move against others (they desire to excel and win admiration. The theory proposed that the individuals can be classified into three personality groups: 1. wanted and appreciated) 2. .2. and individualism or freedom from obligations. self-reliance. Aggressive.

relatively enduring way in which one individual differs from another. it focuses on the measurement of personality in terms of specific psychological characteristics.3. TRAIT THEORY No hidden personality dynamics« just basic personality dimensions y The orientation of trait theory is primarily qualitative . called traits. y Traits: Any distinguishing. .

The Big Five Emotional Stability ‡ Calm/Anxious ‡ Secure/Insecure ‡ Sociable/Retiring ‡ Fun Loving/Sober ‡ Imaginative/Practical ‡ Independent/Conforming ‡ Soft-Hearted/Ruthless ‡ Trusting/Suspicious ‡ Organized/Disorganized ‡ Careful/Careless Extraversion Openness Agreeableness Conscientiousness .


or that strengthens an area in which they feel weak .Use of personality in marketing y Products have their own µbrand personality¶ y People assign personalities to brands based on: y Characteristics of product category y Brand¶s features y Packaging y Advertising y Consumers will tend to purchase the product with the personality that closely matches their own.

favorable.The use of personality in marketing Brand image is what people think of and feel when they hear or see a brand name. Brand equity: The extent to which a consumer holds strong. Brand personality is a set of human characteristics that become associated with a brand and are a particular type of image that some brands acquire. and unique associations with a brand in memory. Advertisers are keenly interested in how people think about brands. .


y Components of Brand Personality y Brand Name & Logo y Colour& Packaging y Advertisement (including Brand Ambassador) y Price y Performance .


Self-concept theory Based on the set of attitudes a person holds about themselves and is made up of self-images and the evaluation of these images Self-concept is made up of two elements Self-image Self-esteem Our self-concept can vary across situations .

what he think he can do and what he think he can become. These beliefs (self-image) and evaluations (self-esteem) actually determine not only who he is. .SELF CONCEPT y Self-concept is an individual s perception of himself that is formed over time. y It is made up of different components -. emotional self and academic self. but what he think he is.physical self. y It is composed of all the beliefs (general characteristics and abilities) and evaluations the person has about himself. social self.

Development of Self-Concept y Learned over time through verbal + nonverbal reactions of significant others . teachers. siblings. schoolmates y Personal history of successes and failures y Personal expectations " A child's life is like a piece of paper whereby every passer-by leaves a mark!" .parents. peers.

Self-image and buying behaviour The different aspects of self-image that influence buying behaviour include: Real self -How we perceive ourselves Ideal self -How we think we are perceived by others Social self -How others see us Consumers purchase products that reflect their sense of self .

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