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Porosity Formation Mechanisms in

Cold Metal Transfer (CMT)


Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) of
Zinc-Coated Steels

 Yeong-Do Park
 Yereum Kim
 Md Rumman Ul Ahsan
Contents

Introduction
1

Experimental procedure
2

Results & Discussion


3
3.1 Porosity Formation: Affecting Factors
3.2 Effects of welding parameters
3.3 Mechanisms of Porosity Formation
3.4 Optimized welding conditions for Porosity

Conclusion
4
1
Introduction
Reason for Zinc Coating

• Protect the components from aqueous corrosion by barrier protection and galvanic
protection.
• Based on coating type, zinc-coating can provide corrosion resistance up to 10
years.
Challenges in welding of zinc coated steels

Bead image X-ray RT image

Visually sound welding


Internal porosities found in X-ray RT

Porosities

• Presence of porosities drastically reduces the joint strength compromising vehicle safety.
Challenges in welding of zinc coated steels

Process Pros Cons


Gas Metal Arc Welding • Standard equipment • High Travel speed (Less heat input)
(With solid wire) • Standard solid wire •High Porosity
• No clean-up needed • Spatter
• Low travel speed (High heat input)
o Burn through
Metal cored wire • Minimum porosity •Investment on new
• Low spatter •equipment
• Flexible with gap •Silica islands on the
• High travel speed •surface
Flux cored wire • Standard • Slag clean-up
• Equipment • Fume cleaning
• Minimum porosity • May not e-coat well
• High travel speed
Laser welding • Minimum porosity • High equipment cost
• No clean-up needed • Additional training required
Challenges in welding of zinc coated steels
 Gas Metal Arc Welding of Zinc Coated Steels with solid wires:

Burn
Through
Porosity

Research focuses:
1. Development of wire for less porosity.
Heat input 2. Modification the welding process for less
porosity.

Research Lacking:
1. Effects of welding parameters on
porosity formation over a large range.
2. Research work associating the CMT
process.
The CMT Process

Lower limit for short arc or • CMT process can produce same
pulsed arc welding deposition at lower current and voltage
compared to short circuit or pulsed arc
process.
• CMT process has weldability at a
lower Current and Voltage (Heat input)
compared to other processes.

Wire feed rate: 7.7 m/min


22
240 Current Comperison Voltage comperison
20
220
8% less current 18 19% less voltage
Current (Amp)

200

Voltage (V)
16
180

160 14

140 12

120 10
CMT Short-arc CMT Short-arc
Process Process
Objectives

The Objectives of Current Study are:


• Study the effect of Welding parameters on Porosity
formation over a large Range for CMT- GMAW process:
– Welding Speed: 40~120 cpm
– Welding Current: 120~263 A
– Welding Voltage: 12~20 V
• High Speed video analysis to study the weld pool behavior.
2
Experimental procedure
Experimental Set up

Spot weld

Direction of welding
• Samples are spot welded before experiments to ensure zero gap.

(+) (-)
Increase (+) (-)

90°
Torch angle Push angle

Direction of welding

Torch Angle Push Angle


Experimental Set up
 High speed camera set up schematic
Porosity Analysis procedure
 Porosity Analysis Procedure

Porosities
Porosities
Total bead

Weld Length

Total area of pores


Porosity as Area Percentage= x 100 %
Total Bead Area
3
Results & Discussion
3.1 Porosity formation: Affecting factors

Phase 1 : Zn vapor Formation and Growth.

Phase 2 : Zn vapor Rise to the surface and escape.

Phase 3 : Weld Pool Closes After Zn Vapor escapes.


3.1 Porosity formation: Affecting factors

Welding Speed EMF/Lorentz


force

Vapor pressure of
zinc

Buoyancy
Zinc Vapor
Heat Input

Welding Zinc Vapor


Growth &
Current Formation
Escape Viscosity

Solidification rate

Welding Surface Tension


Voltage
3.1 Porosity formation: Affecting factors
Viscosity
Buoyancy
(acts against buoyancy
and vapor pressure)
Vapor pressure
of zinc
(Causes the
Viscosity

bubble growth)

Viscosity and Vapor pressure both are temperature


7 dependent.
Vapor Pressure (Mpa)

6  Temperature of weld pool depends on the amount


5 of heat input.
4 The competition of Buoyancy and Vapor
3 pressure of zinc against the Viscosity within the
2 time required to reach solidification temperature
1 governs the size and location of porosity.
600 900 1200 1500 1800 2100 2400 2700
Temperature (°C)
3.2 Effect of welding Parameters
 Effect of welding parameters on amount of porosity.
10 Welding speed : 60 cpm 10 Welding speed : 60 cpm
8 8
Porosity (Area %)

Porosity (Area %)
6 6

4 4

2 2

0 0

120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20


Welding Current (Amp) Welding Voltage (V)

10 Welding current : 200 A


Welding voltage : 16.9 V
8
Porosity (Area %)

6
• Occurrence of maximum porosity is observed
within the medium range for each parameters.
4

40 60 80 100 120
Welding Speed (cpm)
3.2 Effect of welding Parameters
 Effect of Heat inputon amount of porosity.
Welding Current: 200 A, Welding Speed: 40~120 cpm
10
Welding Speed: 60 cpm, Weldinc Current: 120~263 A

Porosity (Area %)
6

150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550


Heat Input (J/mm)
• Amount of porosity is higher within the heat input range of 250-350 J/mm
Low Heat Input Critical Heat Input High heat Input
Less than 250 J/mm 250~350 J/mm Over 350 J/mm
3.3 Mechanisms of Porosity Formation
 Critical heat Input vs. High Heat Input

100
Zinc Vapor Escape frequency

75  Zinc Vapor Escape frequency is High at high Heat


Input Condition.
(Per Second)

50

25

0
Critical Heat input High Heat input
Heat input (J/mm)
3.3 Mechanisms of Porosity Formation
 Critical heat Input vs. High Heat Input
5
High Heat input
4
Porosity (Area %)

0
Critical Heat input High Heat input
(350 J/mm) (400 J/mm)
Heat Input (J/mm) Critical Heat input
High Heat input Critical Heat input
3.3 Mechanisms of Porosity Formation
 Low Heat Input vs. Critical heat Input

30 5
Zn Vapor Escape Frequency

4
20

Porosity (Area %)
(Count Per Second)

10
2

0
1

-10 0
Low Heat input Critical Heat input Low Heat input Critical Heat input
Heat Input (J/mm) Heat Input (J/mm)
3.3 Mechanisms of Porosity Formation
 Low Heat Input vs. Critical heat Input
Low Heat input Critical Heat input

Small Sized Porosity Large Sized Porosity

 Low Heat= less Zn vapor= Less Porosity  High Heat= More Zn vapor= More Porosity
 Low Heat= Fast Cooling= Small porosity  High Heat= Slow Cooling= Large porosity
3.3 Mechanisms of Porosity Formation
 Reason for Porosity Distribution Pattern :

Zn vapor formation & growth >> Zinc vapor escape

10

8
Porosity (Area %)

6 Welding Speed
Welding Current
4

150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550

Zn vapor formation & growth is less Heat Input (J/mm) Zn vapor Escape rate is High
3.4 Optimized Welding Conditions for Porosity

 At Heat input Below 250 J/mm and Above 350 J/mm, Porosity is less than 2%.
 For all welding speeds, maximum Higher porosity is formed within heat input range of
250~350 J/mm.
4
Conclusion
Conclusion

Porosity formation, growth and escape


behavior :
•The competition of Buoyancy and Vapor
pressure of zinc against the Viscosity within the
time required to reach solidification temperature
governs the size and location of porosity.

• Difference in the viscosity of molten metal,


vapor pressure of zinc and the time required to
reach solidification temperature at different heat
inputs : Low, medium and High, results in the
difference on amount of porosity.
Thank You!

Questions