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Internal Combustion Engines

Classification, Basic Components


and Terminology

Rahul Deharkar
Lecturer
School of Technology,
PDPU, Gandhinagar
Introduction
 Engine : “A Device which transforms one form of energy into
another form.”

 Heat Engine: “Device which converts thermal energy into


mechanical work.”
 Definition: “A device which transforms chemical energy of
fuel into thermal energy and utilizes this thermal energy to
perform useful work.”
Classification of heat engine

Heat Engine
Internal External
Combustion Engine Combustion Engine

Rotary Reciprocating Reciprocating Rotary

Open Closed
cycle or Wankel Gasoline Diesel Steam Stirling Steam cycle
Gas engine Engine Engine Engine Engine turbine cas
turbine turbine
Classification
E.C engine and I.C engine
 External Combustion Engine
 Combustion takes place outside engine.
 Internal Combustion Engine
 Combustion takes place inside engine.
Important Points
 Widely used Engines:
 Reciprocating IC engine and Gas turbine.
 Steam Turbine.
 Steam engine are rarely used nowadays.
 IC engines have advantage over steam turbines due to
absence of Boilers and Heat exchangers
 Mechanical simplicity and improves efficiency.
Important Points
 Average component temperature of IC engine is
much below the maximum temperature of the
working fluid.
 Due to less in cycle time
 High working fluid temperature can be employed,
thus improving thermal efficiency.
 IC engine have lower weight to power ratio than EC
engine.
Important Points
 Disadvantage of IC engine:
 Vibration in Reciprocating engine.
 Not possible to use variety of fuels.
 Only fuel with specific properties can be used.
 Higher fuel rate.

 Application:
 Automobiles
 Power boats
 Ships
 Slow speed aircrafts
 locomotives
Engine Component
 Type:
 S.I ( Spark Ignition )
 C.I ( Compression Ignition )
Engine Component
 Cylinder Block:
 Main supporting structure.
 Made by casting.
 Cylinder head mounted on top.
 Cylinder gasket is used between cylinder head and cylinder block.

 Crank case fastened at bottom.


 Crank case is used as lubricating oil sump.

 Cooling done by water jacket or fins


 Inner surface is machined and finished to accurately to cylindrical
shape is called bore or face.
 Cylinder : is the cylindrical vessel or shape in which the piston makes
reciprocating motion. It is subjected to different thermodynamic
process.
Engine Component
 Piston:
 First link in transporting the gas forces to output
shaft.
 Combustion chamber:
 Space enclosed in upper part of cylinder head and
piston is called the combustion chamber.
 High pressure is build up in this part of engine.
Engine Component
 Inlet and Exhaust valves:
 Usually, mushroom shaped poppet type.
 Controls flow of working fluid in and out of
combustion chamber
 Inlet manifold:
 Pipe connecting intake system to inlet valve.
 Exhaust manifold:
 Pipe connecting Exhaust system to exhaust valve.
Engine Component
 Spark Plug:
 Initiate combustion in Gasoline engines.
 Connecting rod:
 Interconnects piston and crank shaft.
 Two ends called as small end connecting to piston
with gudgeon pin and big end connecting to crank
shaft with crank pin.
Engine Component
 Crank shaft:
 Converts reciprocating motion of piston to rotary
motion of output shaft.
 Balance weight are used for static and dynamic
balancing of the rotating system.
 Enclosed in crank case.
 Piston rings:
 Fitted into the piston to prevent leakage of
combustion product.
 Prevents wear and tear of piston.
Engine Component
 Cam shaft:
 Associated with opening and closing of the two valves.
 Parts : push rods, rocker arms, valve springs and tappets.
 Provide the drive to ignition system.
 Driven by crank shaft through timing gears.
 Cams: integral part of cam shaft.
 Designed to open and close valves at correct timing and
duration.
Engine Component
 Flywheel:
 Fluctuation occur in net torque obtained from crankshaft
during one cycle.
 To achieve uniform torque, flywheel is attached to output
shaft.
Engine Assembly
Nomenclature
 Cylinder bore (d) : nominal diameter of working
cylinder. Unit expressed in millimeter (mm).
 Piston Area (A) : Area of circle equal to diameter of
cylinder bore. Unit expressed in square centimeter
(cm2).
 Stroke (L) : Nominal distance through which working
piston moves between two successive reversal of its
direction of motion. Unit expressed in millimeter
(mm).
Nomenclature
 Stroke to bore ratio (L/d) : ratio is important
parameter in classifying the size of engine
 L/d < 1 , Under-square engine
 L/d = 1 , Square engine
 L/d > 1 , Over-square engine
 Dead centre : The position of the working piston and
the moving part which are mechanically connected to
it, at the moment when the direction of the piston
motion is reversed at either end of the stroke is called
the dead centre.
Nomenclature
 Top dead centre (TDC) : Dead centre when the piston
is farthest from the crankshaft.
 Designated as TDC for vertical engines and inner
dead centre (IDC) for horizontal engines.
 Bottom dead centre (BDC) : Dead centre when the
piston is nearest to the crankshaft.
 Designated as BDC for vertical engines and outer
dead centre (ODC) for horizontal engines.
Nomenclature
 Displacement or swept volume (Vs) : Nominal
volume swept by working piston when travelling
from one dead centre to another. Unit expressed as
cubic centimeter (cc)
 Vs = A x L = Π/4 x d2 L
 Cubic Capacity or engine capacity : Displacement
volume multiplied by number of cylinders in an
engine.
 Cubic capacity = Vs x K
 Where K = no of cylinders
Nomenclature
 Clearance volume (VC) : Nominal volume of
combustion chamber above the piston when it is at
top dead centre.
 Compression ratio ( r ): ration of total cylinder
volume when the piston is at BDC, VT , to clearance
volume (VC) .
 r = VT / VC = (VC + Vs )/ Vs = 1+(Vs / VC )