terminology

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terminology

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INTRODUCTION TO DIFFERENTIAL

EQUATIONS

1.1 DEFINITION AND TERMINOLOGY

Classification by order and linearity

Example 1: Example 2:

d2y dy

1 x 2 4 x 5 y cos x sin y cos y 2

dx dx

d3y dy

or sin 3 cos 2

or 1 x y 4xy 5 y cos x d d

is a linear, second order ODE

ODE

Example 3: Example 5:

4 dy

5

x y x y 6 y 0

3

2 y 3y ex

dx

d4y 3 d2y

or x 5

4

x 2

6y 0 is a nonlinear first order

dx dx ODE

is a linear, fourth order

ODE Example 6:

d2y

Example 4: 2

cos y 0

dx

2

d2y dy is a nonlinear second

1

dx

2

dx order ODE

is a second order,

nonlinear ODE

Example 7:

Writing y 2 1 dx xdy 0

as y 1 x 0 ,

2 dx

dy

we see that the ODE is linear in x.

Writing y 2 1 dx xdy 0

dy

as x y 2 1 ,

dx

we see that the ODE is nonlinear in y.

Solution of an ODE

Example 1:

1

Verify that y is an explicit solution of the

4 x2

differential equation y 2 xy 2

for the solution.

Solution:

Solution of an ODE

1

y

4 x2

2

2x 1

y 2x 2

2 xy 2

4 x

2

4 x2

1

y is a solution of the ODE.

4 x 2

intervals are , 2 and 2, .

1

Note: Considered as a function, the domain of y

4 x2

is x : 4 x 2 0 , i.e x : x 2or x 2

Solution of an ODE

Example 2:

2 y 1

Verify that ln x is an implicit solution of

y 1

dy

the differential eqn. y 11 2 y

dx

Solution:

Solution of an ODE

1 dy

1

2 y 1 2 y 1 y 1 dx

ln x

y 1 dy

2 y 1 y 1

ln 2 y 1 ln y 1 x dx

y 11 2 y

Differentiating wrt x,

2 dy 1 dy 2 y 1

2 y 1 dx y 1 dx

1 ln x is an

y 1

2 1 dy implicit solution of

1

2 y 1 y 1 dx ODE.

2 y 2 2 y 1 dy

1

2 y 1 y 1 dx

Example 3:

Solution of an ODE

c1et

Verify that the family of functions y

1 c1et

dy

is a solution of the differential eqn. y 1 y

dt

Solution:

y

c1et

dy

1 1 1 1

1 c e t

c e t

c e t

c e t

1 c1et dt 1 c e

1

t 2

c1et c1et

1 t

y 1 y

1 c1et 1 c1e

t

The family of functions y 1c e

is a solution of

1 c1e t

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