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The Mole Concept

Christopher G. Hamaker, Illinois State University, Normal IL

© 2005, Prentice Hall
Avogadro’s Number

• Avogadro’s Number (symbol N) is the number of atoms in 12.01

grams of carbon.
• Its numerical value is 6.02 × 1023.
• Therefore, a 12.01 g sample of carbon contains 6.02 × 1023 carbon
The Mole
• The mole (mol) is a unit of measure for an amount of a chemical
• A mole is Avogadro’s number of particles, that is 6.02 × 1023
1 mol = Avogadro’s Number = 6.02 × 1023 units
• We can use the mole relationship to convert between the number of
particles and the mass of a substance.
Mole Calculations
• We will be using the Unit Analysis Method again.
• Recall:
• First we write down the unit asked for
• Second we write down the given value
• Third we apply unit factor(s) to convert the given units to the
desired units
Mole Calculations I

Mole Calculations I

Molar Mass
• The atomic mass of any substance expressed in grams is the molar
mass (MM) of that substance.
• The atomic mass of iron is 55.85 amu.
• Therefore, the molar mass of iron is 55.85 g/mol.
• Since oxygen occurs naturally as a diatomic, O2, the molar mass of
oxygen gas is 2 times 16.00 g or 32.00 g/mol.
Calculating Molar Mass
• The molar mass of a substance is the sum of the molar masses of
each element.
• What is the molar mass of magnesium nitrate, Mg(NO3)2?
• The sum of the atomic masses is:
24+ 2(14 + 16 + 16 + 16) =
24 + 2(62) = 148 amu
• The molar mass for Mg(NO3)2 is 148 g/mol.
Mole Calculations II
• Now we will use the molar mass of a compound to convert
between grams of a substance and moles or particles of a
6.02 × 1023 particles = 1 mol = molar mass
• If we want to convert particles to mass, we must first convert
particles to moles and than we can convert moles to mass.
Mass-Mole Calculations
• What is the mass of 1.33 moles of titanium, Ti?
• We want grams, we have 1.33 moles of titanium.
• Use the molar mass of Ti: 1 mol Ti = 48 g Ti
Mole Calculations II
• What is the mass of 2.55 × 1023 atoms of lead?
• We want grams, we have atoms of lead.
• Use Avogadro’s number and the molar mass of Pb
Mole Calculations II
• How many O2 molecules are present in 0.470 g of
oxygen gas?
• We want molecules O2, we have grams O2.
• Use Avogadro’s number and the molar mass of O2
Gas Density
• The density of gases is much less than that of liquids.
• We can calculate the density of any gas at STP easily.
• The formula for gas density at STP is:

molar mass in grams

= density, g/L
molar volume in liters
Calculating Gas Density
• What is the density of ammonia gas, NH3, at STP?
• First we need the molar mass for ammonia;
• 14+ 3(1) = 17 g/mol
• The molar volume NH3 at STP is 22.4 L/mol.
• Density is mass/volume
Molar Mass of a Gas
• We can also use molar volume to calculate the molar
mass of an unknown gas.
• 1.96 g of an unknown gas occupies 1.00L at STP.
What is the molar mass?
• We want g/mol, we have g/L.
Mole-Volume Calculation

• A sample of methane, CH4, occupies 4.50 L at STP.

How many moles of methane are present?
• We want moles, we have volume.
• Use molar volume of a gas: 1 mol = 22.4 L
Mass-Volume Calculation

• What is the mass of 3.36 L of ozone gas, O3, at STP?

• We want mass O3, we have 3.36 L O3.
• Convert volume to moles then moles to mass:
Molecule-Volume Calculation
• How many molecules of hydrogen gas, H2, occupy
0.500 L at STP?
• We want molecules H2, we have 0.500 L H2.
• Convert volume to moles and then moles to
Mole Unit Factors
• We now have three interpretations for the mole:

• 1 mol = 6.02 × 1023 particles

• 1 mol = molar mass
• 1 mol = 22.4 L at STP for a gas
• This gives us 3 unit factors to use to convert between moles,
particles, mass, and volume.
Law of Definite Composition

• The law of definite composition states that “Compounds always

contain the same elements in a constant proportion by mass”.
• Sodium chloride is always 39.3% sodium and 60.7% chlorine by
mass, no matter what its source.
• Water is always 11.2% hydrogen and 88.8% oxygen by mass.
Law of Definite Composition

A drop of water, a glass of water, and a lake of water all contain

hydrogen and oxygen in the same percent by mass.
Percent Composition
• The percent composition of a compound lists the mass percent of
each element.
• For example, the percent composition of water, H2O is:
• 11% hydrogen and 89% oxygen
• All water contains 11% hydrogen and 89% oxygen by mass.
Calculating Percent Composition
• There are a few steps to calculating the percent composition of a
compound. Lets practice using H2O.

• Assume you have 1 mole of the compound.

• One mole of H2O contains 2 mol of hydrogen
and 1 mol of oxygen.
• 2(1.01 g H) + 1(16.00 g O) = molar mass H2O
• 2.02 g H + 16.00 g O = 18.02 g H2O
Calculating Percent Composition
• Next, find the percent composition of water by comparing the
masses of hydrogen and oxygen in water to the molar mass of

2.02 g H
× 100% = 11.2% H
18.02 g H2O

16.00 g O
× 100% = 88.79% O
18.02 g H2O
Percent Composition Problem
• TNT (trinitrotoluene) is a white crystalline substance that explodes
at 240°C. Calculate the percent composition of TNT, C7H5(NO2)3.

• 7(12.00g C) + 5(1.00 g H) + 3 (14.00g N + 32.00 g O) =

g C7H5(NO2)3

• 84.00g C + 5.00 g H + 42.00 g N + 96.00 g O = 227.00 g

Percent Composition of TNT
84.00 g C
× 100% = 37.00% C
227.00 g TNT
5.00 g H
× 100% = 2.20% H
227.00 g TNT
42.00 g N
× 100% = 18.50% N
227.00 g TNT
96.00 g O
× 100% = 42.30% O
227.00 g TNT
Empirical Formulas
• The empirical formula of a compound is the simplest whole
number ratio of ions in a formula unit or atoms of each element in
a molecule.
• The molecular formula of benzene is C6H6

• The empirical formula of benzene is CH.

• The molecular formula of octane is C8H18

• The empirical formula of octane is C4H9.

Calculating Empirical Formulas
• We can calculate the empirical formula of a compound from its
composition data.
• We can determine the mole ratio of each element from the mass to
determine the formula of radium oxide, Ra?O?.
• A 1.640 g sample of radium metal was heated to produce 1.755 g
of radium oxide. What is the empirical formula?
• We have 1.640 g Ra and 1.755-1.640 = 0.115 g O.
Calculating Empirical Formulas
• The molar mass of radium is 226.03 g/mol and the molar mass of
oxygen is 16.00 g/mol.

1 mol Ra
1.640 g Ra × = 0.00726 mol Ra
226.03 g Ra
1 mol O
0.115 g O × = 0.00719 mol O
16.00 g O
• We get Ra0.00726O0.00719. Simplify the mole ratio
by dividing by the smallest number.
• We get Ra1.01O1.00 = RaO is the empirical formula.
Empirical Formulas from
Percent Composition
• We can also use percent composition data to calculate empirical
• Assume that you have 100 grams of sample.
• Benzene is 92.2% carbon and 7.83% hydrogen, what is the
empirical formula.
• If we assume 100 grams of sample, we have 92.2 g carbon and
7.83 g hydrogen.
Empirical Formulas from
Percent Composition
• Calculate the moles of each element:

1 mol C
92.2 g C × = 7.68 mol C
12.01 g C
1 mol H
7.83 g H × = 7.75 mol H
1.01 g H
• The ratio of elements in benzene is C7.68H7.75.
Divide by the smallest number to get the formula.
7.68 7.75
C 7.68 H 7.68 = C1.00H1.01 = CH
Molecular Formulas
• The empirical formula for benzene is CH. This represents the ratio
of C to H atoms of benzene.
• The actual molecular formula is some multiple of the empirical
formula, (CH)n.
• Benzene has a molar mass of 78 g/mol. Find n to find the
molecular formula.

(CH)n 78 g/mol n = 6 and the molecular

CH 13 g/mol formula is C6H6.
• Avogadro’s number is 6.02 × 1023 and is one mole of any
• The molar mass of a substance is the sum of the atomic masses of
each element in the formula.
• At STP, 1 mole of any gas occupies 22.4 L.
Conclusions Continued
• We can use the following flow chart for mole calculations:
Conclusions Continued
• The percent composition of a substance is the mass percent of each
element in that substance.
• The empirical formula of a substance is the simplest whole number
ratio of the elements in the formula.
• The molecular formula is a multiple of the empirical formula.
Calculate the molar mass and the percent compostion of
the following substances:
1. Li2CO3
2. CS2
3. CHCl3
4. C6H8O6
5. KNO3
6. Mg3N2
7. K2SO4
8. Ca3(PO4)2
9. C6H6
10. NaI
Percent Yield

Example 1
• In an experiment forming ethanol,, the theoretical yield is
50.5g. The actual yield is 46.8g. What is the percent
%yield =Actual/Theoretical x 100
%yield=46.8/50.5 x 100
%yield= 92.7%
Example 2

• The theoretical yield of CaSO4 is 35.5g. Its actual yield is

23.8g. What is the percent yield?

%yield = Actual/Theoretical x 100

%yield=23.8/35.5 x 100
%yield = 67.04%
Example 3

Example 4

Limiting Reactants
• Limiting Reactant
• used up in a reaction
• determines the amount of product
• Excess Reactant
• added to ensure that the other reactant is
completely used up
• cheaper & easier to recycle
Use the steps below to solve the following
problem to determine the limiting reactant.
1. Write a balanced equation.
2. Do a separate mass to mass problem starting with each
reactant. The smaller answer is correct.
To find out how much of the excess reactant is left
1. Start with the initial mass of the limiting reactant and
2. Do a mass to mass problem to determine how much of
the excess reactant was needed.
3. Subtract that value from the initial mass of the excess
1. What mass of hydrogen gas at STP is produced
from the reaction of 50.0g of Mg and 75.0 grams
of HCl? How much of the excess reagent is left
over (in grams)?
Mg(s) + 2 HCl(aq)  MgCl2(s) + H2(g)
Do a standard mass to mass problem starting with each reactant

50.0 gMg 1mol Mg 1mol H2 2.02 g H2= 4.15 gH

24.31g Mg 1mol Mg 1mol H2

75.0 g HCl 1mol HCl 1 mole H2 2.02 g H2= 2.08 g H

36.46 g HCl 2mol HCl 1mol H2

HCl is the limiting reactant!!

How much of the excess reactant is left
• Start with the initial mass of the limiting reactant and do a
mass to mass with the other reactant.

• 75.0g HCl 1mol HCl 1mol Mg 24.31g Mg

36.46g HCl 2mol HCl 1mol Mg

= 25.0 grams Mg needed for the reaction

Thus, 50.0 grams – 25.0 grams =
25.0 grams Mg leftover!
2. What mass of calcium sulfate can be produced
from the reaction of 1000 g calcium phosphate with
980 g H2SO4?
Ca3(PO4) 2 + 3H2SO4 3CaSO4 + 2H3PO4

1000g Ca3(PO4)2 1mol Ca3(PO4)2 3mol CaSO4 136.15g CaSO4

310.18g 1 mol Ca3(PO4)2 1mol CaSO4 = 1316 g

980 g H2SO4 1mol H2SO4 3mol CaSO4 136.15g CaSO4

98.09g H2SO4 3mol H2SO4 1mol CaSO4 = 1360 g

•Calcium phosphate is the limiting reactant.

Limiting reactant problems
• How many grams of HI can be formed from 2.00 g H2
and 2.00 g of I2?
• How many grams of CO2 can be formed from 1.44 g
C3H8 and 2.65 g of O2?
• Sodium Chloride can be prepared by the reaction of
Sodium metal and chlorine gas. Suppose that 6.70 mole
Na reacts with 3.20 mol Cl2. How many moles of NaCl
are produced?