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Regression

1

Introduction to Linear Regression

• The Pearson correlation measures the

degree to which a set of data points form a

straight line relationship.

• Regression is a statistical procedure that

determines the equation for the straight

line that best fits a specific set of data.

2

Introduction to Linear Regression (cont.)

equation of the form Y = bX + a, where b

and a are constants.

• The value of b is called the slope constant

and determines the direction and degree

to which the line is tilted.

• The value of a is called the Y-intercept and

determines the point where the line

crosses the Y-axis.

3

Introduction to Linear Regression (cont.)

can be measured by calculating the distance

between the data points and the line.

• The total error between the data points and the

line is obtained by squaring each distance and

then summing the squared values.

• The regression equation is designed to produce

the minimum sum of squared errors.

5

Introduction to Linear Regression (cont.)

6

Introduction to Linear Regression (cont.)

• The ability of the regression equation to

accurately predict the Y values is

measured by first computing the

proportion of the Y-score variability that is

predicted by the regression equation and

the proportion that is not predicted.

8

Introduction to Linear Regression (cont.)

compute the standard error of estimate

which is a measure of the average

distance between the actual Y values and

the predicted Y values.

9

Introduction to Linear Regression (cont.)

equation can be evaluated by computing an F-

ratio.

• A significant F-ratio indicates that the equation

predicts a significant portion of the variability in

the Y scores (more than would be expected by

chance alone).

• To compute the F-ratio, you first calculate a

variance or MS for the predicted variability and

for the unpredicted variability:

10

Introduction to Linear Regression (cont.)

11

Introduction to Multiple Regression

with Two Predictor Variables

• In the same way that linear regression

produces an equation that uses values of

X to predict values of Y, multiple

regression produces an equation that

uses two different variables (X1 and X2) to

predict values of Y.

• The equation is determined by a least

squared error solution that minimizes the

squared distances between the actual Y

values and the predicted Y values.

13

Introduction to Multiple Regression

with Two Predictor Variables (cont.)

• For two predictor variables, the general form of

the multiple regression equation is:

Ŷ= b1X1 + b2X2 + a

accurately predict the Y values is measured by

first computing the proportion of the Y-score

variability that is predicted by the regression

equation and the proportion that is not predicted.

15

Introduction to Multiple Regression

with Two Predictor Variables (cont.)

and df) can be used to compute a standard error of

estimate that measures the standard distance between the

actual Y values and the predicted values.

16

Introduction to Multiple Regression

with Two Predictor Variables (cont.)

• In addition, the overall significance of the

multiple regression equation can be

evaluated with an F-ratio:

17

Partial Correlation

• A partial correlation measures the

relationship between two variables (X and

Y) while eliminating the influence of a third

variable (Z).

• Partial correlations are used to reveal the

real, underlying relationship between two

variables when researchers suspect that

the apparent relation may be distorted by

a third variable.

18

Partial Correlation (cont.)

• For example, there probably is no

underlying relationship between weight

and mathematics skill for elementary

school children.

• However, both of these variables are

positively related to age: Older children

weigh more and, because they have spent

more years in school, have higher

mathematics skills.

19

Partial Correlation (cont.)

• As a result, weight and mathematics skill

will show a positive correlation for a

sample of children that includes several

different ages.

• A partial correlation between weight and

mathematics skill, holding age constant,

would eliminate the influence of age and

show the true correlation which is near

zero.

20

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