You are on page 1of 42

# 4.

Random Variables
A random variable is a way of recording a
quantitative variable of a random experiment.
4. Random Variables
A random variable is a way of recording a
quantitative variable of a random experiment.

## In particular Chapter 4 talks about discrete

random variables.
4. Random Variables
A random variable is a way of recording a
quantitative variable of a random experiment.

## In particular Chapter 4 talks about discrete

random variables.

## If a random variable has a particular

distribution (such as a binomial distribution)
then our work becomes easier. We use
formulas and tables.
5. Continuous Random Variables

## A random variable is a way of recording a

quantitative variable of a random experiment.

## In particular Chapter 4 talks about discrete

random variables.

## If a random variable has a particular

distribution (such as a binomial distribution)
then our work becomes easier. We use
formulas and tables.
5. Continuous Random Variables

## A random variable where X can take on a

range of values, not just particular ones.

Examples:
Heights
Distance a golfer hits the ball with their driver
Time to run 100 meters
Electricity usage of a home.
Continuous probability
distribution functions
For a discrete random variable,
probabilities are given as a table of values,
and the distribution can be graphed as a
bar graph.

## For a continuous random variable,

probabilities are specified by a continuous
function. The graph of the probability
distribution function is a curve.
Figure 5.1 A probability f(x) for a
continuous random variable x

Pearson Education, Inc..
Definition

Pearson Education, Inc..
Figure 5.2 Density Function for Friction
Coefficient, Example 5.1

Pearson Education, Inc..
Find probability friction is less than 10.

Pearson Education, Inc..
Find probability friction is less than 10.
triangle = (1/2)(5)(0.2)=0.5

Pearson Education, Inc..
Uniform Distribution
A Uniform Distribution has equally likely
values over the range of possible
outcomes.
Uniform Distribution
A Uniform Distribution has equally likely
values over the range of possible
outcomes.

## A graph of the uniform probability

distribution is a rectangle with area equal
to 1.
Example
The figure below depicts the probability distribution for
temperatures in a manufacturing process. The
temperatures are controlled so that they range
between 0 and 5 degrees Celsius, and every possible
temperature is equally likely.
P(x)

0.2

0
x
0 1 2 3 4 5
Temperature (degrees Celsius)
Example
Note that the total area under the
“curve” is 1.

P(x)

0.2

0
x
0 1 2 3 4 5
Temperature (degrees Celsius)
P(x)
Example
0.2

0 x
0 1 2 3 4 5
Temperature (degrees Celsius)

## What is the Probability that the temperature is

exactly 4 degrees?
P(x)
Example
0.2

0 x
0 1 2 3 4 5
Temperature (degrees Celsius)

## What is the Probability that the temperature is

exactly 4 degrees?
Explanation
Since we have a continuous random variable
there are an infinite number of possible
outcomes between 0 and 5, the probability of
one number out of an infinite set of numbers is
0.
Example
What is the probability the temperature is
between 10C and 40C?
P(x)

0.2

0 x
0 1 2 3 4 5
Temperature (degrees Celsius)
Example
What is the probability the temperature is
between 10C and 40C?
P(x)

0.2

0 x
0 1 2 3 4 5
Temperature (degrees Celsius)
What is the probability the temperature is
between 10C and 40C?
P(x)

0.2

0 x
0 1 2 3 4 5
Temperature (degrees Celsius)
We know that the total area of the rectangle
is 1, and we can see that the part of the
rectangle between 1 and 4 is 3/5 of the total,
so P(1  x  4) = 3/5*(1) = 0.6.
Review: Probabilities and Area
For a density curve depicting the
probability distribution of a continuous
random variable,
– the total area under the curve is 1,
– there is a direct correspondence between
area and probability.
– Only the probability of an event occurring
in some interval can be evaluated.
– The probability that a continuous random
variable takes on any particular value is
zero.
General Uniform Distribution
A Uniform Distribution has equally likely
values over the range of possible
outcomes, say c to d.
1
Height of the density function : f(x) 
d c
cd
Mean   
2
d c
Standard Deviation   
12
Normal Distributions
This is the most common observed
distribution of continuous random variables.
A normal distribution corresponds to bell-
shaped curves.
Normal Distributions
This is the most common observed
distribution of continuous random variables.
A normal distribution corresponds to bell-
shaped curves.

e ( x   ) 2 / 2 2
y 
 2
Reminder: Mu is the mean, sigma is the standard deviation.
Examples
The following are examples of normally
distributed everyday data.
– How many chips are in a small bag of potatoe
chips.
– The measurements of distance between two
points.
– The heights of students in this class.
Normal Distributions
Normal Distributions

## Shape of this curve is determined by µ and σ

– µ it’s centered, σ is how far it’s spread out.
Standard Normal Distribution
The Standard Normal Distribution is a
normal probability distribution that has a
mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1.

  0, 1
In this way the formula giving the heights of
the normal curve is simplified greatly.
Z-score
Standard Normal Probabilities

## P(0  z  1) represents the probability that

z takes on values between 0 and 1, which
is represented by the area under the
curve between 0 and 1.
P(0  z  1) = 0.3413
P(0  z  1) = 0.341

Revelation!
Since the mean is 0 and the standard
deviation is 1, this tells us that the
probability that z is within one standard
deviation of the mean (either below or
above) is (2)(0.341)= 0.682.
P(0  z  1) = 0.341

Revelation!
Since the mean is 0 and the standard
deviation is 1, this tells us that the
probabiity that z is within one standard
deviation of the mean (either below or
above) is (2)(0.341)= 0.682.
Agrees with Empirical Rule: 68% of
data lies within one standard deviation
of the mean
Finding Probabilities when given
z-scores.
For a given z-score, the probability can be
found in a table in the back of the text
(Table IV), also see inside front cover.

## Note: The table only gives the areas under

the curve to the right between 0 and z. To
find other intervals requires some tricks.
Table 5.1

Pearson Education, Inc..
Find probability z is between -
1.33 and +1.33.

Pearson Education, Inc..
Want probability z is between -1.33 and +1.33.
Solution: Locate 1.33 in the row labeled 1.3 and the column
labeled .03. By symmetry, ans = 2(0.4082) = .8164

Pearson Education, Inc..
Find probability z exceeds 1.96 in absolute
value.

Pearson Education, Inc..
Areas under the standard normal curve for
z exceeding 1.96 in absolute value

Pearson Education, Inc..
Areas under the standard normal curve for
z exceeding 1.96 in absolute value
Revelation!
It follows that the area of the un-
shaded region is 0.95. Agrees with
Empirical Rule which states that,
for data sets having a mound
shaped distribution, 95% of the
values lie within approximately 2
standard deviations of the mean
Keys to success

use it.

the course.