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Dr janu

UMM
Kontrak perkuliahan
 Tujuan : mhs farmasi mampu mengetahui anatomi
dan fisiologi tubuh manusia terkait dengan
farmakokinetik dan farmakodiamik obat dalam tubuh
manusia.
Metode Pembelajaran
 Kuliah
 Penugasan
Materi perkuliahan
 Dalam 7 kali pertemuan
 Pengantar anfis manusia
 Homeostasis
 Sistem integumen
 Sistem skeletal
 Sistem muskuler
 Sistem saraf
 Sistem endokrin
 Sistem pernafasan
 Sistem pencernaan
 Sistem kardiovaskular
 Sistem urinarius
 Sistem reproduksi
Pengantar anfis
 Anatomi adalah ilmu yang mempelajari susunan
tubuh manusia dan hubungan bagian-bagiannya satu
sama lain.
 Anatomi regional ialah mempelajari bagiantubuh
manusia menurut letak geografis bagian tubuh,mis:
bagian region atau
daerah:lengan,tungkai,kepala,dada,otot,pembuluh
darah,dst.
 Anatomi fungsional ialah hubungan yang tak
terpisahkan antara satu bagian tubuh dengan bagian
yang lain yang bertalian erat dengan fisiologi atau
ilmu faal.
Anatomi dibagi atas 2 bagian:
- Anatomi makroskopik
- Anatomi Mikroskopik
Bertalian erat dengan antomi ialah Histologi ( ilmu
tentang struktur halus dari tubuh ),dan Sitologi (
Ilmu tentang Sel )
 Fisiologi adalah ilmu yang mempelajari tentang fungsi
atau kerja tubuh dalam keadaan normal.
Homeostasis
 Definition: Keeping the internal environment in a Steady
state

It is controlled by Negative
Feedback Mechanism
 metabolic reactions are controlled by enzymes
 enzymes work best in a narrow range of temperature &
pH only
 ∴important to keep internal environment as steady as
possible
Rise above Corrective
normal value Mechanism negative
feedback

NEGATIVE
normal normal
value FEEDBACK value
MECHANISM
negative
Fall below Corrective feedback
normal value Mechanism
Parts of Body involved
 kidneys :
 regulate water & skin

mineral salts tissue cells

concentration
 skin :
 regulate body kidney

temperature liver blood
 liver & pancreas :
 regulate blood glucose +
pancreas
level
Osmoregulation
(Water & Mineral salts)
Regulate water potential in
Tissue Fluid
Organ involved: KIDNEYS
After Sweating

Concentrated
Blood Concentrated
Normal Water Urine is
Content in Blood produced

Larger
proportion of
water is
reabsorbed
Osmoregulation
(Water & Mineral salts)
 After having a very salty meal
 produce concentrated urine to remove
excess salts in solution form
 extra water is needed to be excreted along
with the excess salts
 sensation of thirst (drink more water to
compensate for the water loss)
Thermoregulation
(Regulation of Body Temperature)
 poikilotherms (cold-blooded animals)
 body temperatures vary with that of the
environment
 e.g. reptiles, fish, amphibians
Thermoregulation
(Regulation of Body Temperature)
 Homoiotherms (warm-blooded animals)
 keep body temperature constant even in
winter by increasing metabolic rate
 e.g. birds, mammals
Maintenance of Body Temperature
Hair follicle Sebaceous Erector muscle Receptors Outermost
gland layer

Middle layer
Epidermis

Innermost
Dermis layer

Sweat gland

Subcutaneous fat
Blood capillaries
Nerve fibres

Structure of Mammalian Skin
Functions of Our Skin
 protect the body (epidermis)
 to provide mechanical protection

 to prevent bacterial entry

 to reduce water loss
 temperature regulation (hair)
Functions of Our Skin
 excretion of sweat (sweat gland)
 store fats (subcutaneous fat)
 sensation (numerous receptors )
 production of vitamin D under ultra-violet light
(inner epidermis)
More sweat is produced by sweat glands
 evaporation of sweat takes away heat which
produces a cooling effect
Vasodilation of skin arterioles
 arterioles near the surface of the skin dilates
 to let more blood flows near the skin surface
 to have more heat lost by conduction &
radiation.
Erector muscles relax
 hairs lie flat on the skin
 reduce thickness of air trapped among
the hairs (not effective in human
because human’s hairs are short)
 Develop thinner subcutaneous fat &
shed their fur
 as long term responses
 increase heat loss
 Decrease metabolic rate & muscle
contraction
 gain less heat
Control Body
Temperature in
Cold Conditions
 Vasoconstriction of skin arterioles
 arterioles near the surface of the
skin constrict
 to let less blood flows near the skin
surface
 to have less heat lost by conduction
& radiation
 Erector muscles contract
 pull hairs erect for trapping more air
 thicker layer of air acts as a good
insulator of heat
 Less sweat is produced by sweat glands
 reduce heat loss by evaporation
Regulation of
Blood Glucose Level
 controlled by Negative feedback
mechanism
 controlled by insulin secreted from the
islets of Langerhans in pancreas
 Diabetes - malfunction of pancreas
(does not secrete enough insulin)
Pancreas
secretes
insulin
Liver
Too coverts Blood glucose
Soon
after a
High glucose to level falls
meal glycogen

normal blood normal blood
glucose level glucose level
Pancreas
Long
secretes less Liver
after a insulin
meal Too converts
Low Blood glucose
glycogen to
level rises
glucose
~END~