1

K.S. MAHESH LOHITH
Assistant Professor,
Center for emerging technologies,
SBM Jain College of Engineering,
BANGALORE-562 112.
2
PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT

OBSERVED BY HENRICH HERTZ IN THE YEAR 1887

ALBERT EINSTEIN EXPLAINED PHOTOELECTRIC
EFFECT ON THE BASIS OF PHOTON THEORY
PHYSICAL SIGNIFICANCE: PARTICLE NATURE OF LIGHT
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DUAL NATURE OF LIGHT
INTERFERENCE DIFFRACTION POLARIZATION

PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT COMPTON EFFECT
HENCE LIGHT POSSES DUAL NATURE
Light behaves a particle under certain circumstances
4
Historically, the electron was thought to behave like a
Particle and then it was found that in many respects it
behaved like a wave. So it really behaves like neither. Now
we have given up.We say: It is like Neither.
Richard Feynman
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DE BROGLIE HYPOTHESIS
LOUIS DE BROGLIE
“ If radiation which is basically a wave
can exhibit particle nature under certain
circumstances, and since nature likes
symmetry, then entities which exhibit
particle nature ordinarily, should also
exhibit wave nature under suitable
circumstances”
In the Year 1924 Louis de Broglie
made the bold suggestion
The reasoning used might be paraphrased as follows
3. Nature loves symmetry
4. Therefore the two great entities, matter and
energy, must be mutually symmetrical
5. If energy (radiant) is undulatory and/or
corpuscular, matter must be corpuscular
and/or undulatory
6
nm
Volts V for thus
nm
V
V
get we e and m h for ng substituti
meV
h
mE
h
Then
V difference Potential a by d accelerate
E Energy Kinetic with electron an for
mv
h
p
h
wavelength Broglie de
1226 . 0
100
226 . 1
100
226 . 1
10 602 . 1 10 11 . 9 2
10 625 . 6
, ,
2 2
' '
' '
particle the of velocity the is v
particle the of mass the is m
Constant s Planck' is h
19 31
34
· ·
·
·
× × × × ×
×
·
· ·
· ·
− −

λ
λ
λ
λ
DE BROGLIE WAVELENGTH
The Wave associated with the matter particle is called Matter Wave.
The Wavelength associated is called de Broglie Wavelength.

7
G P THOMSON’S EXPERIMENT
Diffraction of electrons from the Gold foil
suggests dual nature of Electrons
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PHASE VELOCITY
Phase velocity: The velocity with which a wave travels is
called Phase velocity or wave velocity. It is denoted by v
p.
It
is given by
v
c
v
p
2
·
Where c = velocity of light and v = is velocity of the particle.
The above equation gives the relationship between the
phase velocity and
particle velocity.
It is clear from the above equation that, Phase velocity is not only
greater than the velocity of the particle but also
greater than the velocity of light,
which can never happen. Therefore phase velocity has no physical
meaning in case of matter waves. Thus a concept of group
velocity was
introduced.
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GROUP VELOCITY
Since phase velocity has no meaning, the concept of group
velocity was introduced as follows.
“ Matter wave is regarded as the resultant of the superposition of
large number of component waves all traveling with different
velocities. The resultant is in the form of a packet called wave packet
or wave group. The velocity with which this wave group travels is
called group velocity.” The group velocity is represented by v
g.
V
g
Particle
V
p
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PROPERTIES OF MATTER WAVES
p
h
mv
h
· · λ
p
h
mv
h
· · λ

Properties of Matter Waves


Matter waves are associated with moving particle.

They are not Electromagnetic waves.

Wavelength of the matter wave is given by
p
h
mv
h
· · λ


The amplitude of the matter wave at the given point
determines the probability of finding the particle at that
point.

There is no meaning for Phase velocity in case of matter
waves. Only group velocity has meaning.

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HEINSENBERG’S UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE
“It is impossible to determine both position and
momentum of a particle simultaneously and accurately.
The product of uncertainty involved in the determination of
position and momentum simultaneously is greater or equal
to h/2Π ”
π 2
h
p x
x
≥ ∆ × ∆
π 2
h
t E ≥ ∆ × ∆
Significance: “Probalility” replaces “Exactness”
An event which is impossible to occur according to classical physics has a finite probability
of occurrence according to Quantum Mechanics
Heisenberg - 1927
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GAMMA RAY MICROSCOPE EXPERIMENT
Imaginary Experiment
B
Incident gamma ray
Scattered gamma ray
Recoiled electron
X-axis
A
O
To determine both position and momentum of the electron
Limit of resolution Δx is the measure of
uncertainty involved in the measurement
of position
θ
λ
Sin
x
2
· ∆
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During the collision, photon transfers momentum to the
electron. The momentum transferred to the electron is of the
order h/λ
the momentum transferred to the electron is of the order If
photon enters the microscope along the path OA and OB are
of the order ,
Since photon can enter the microscope anywhere between the
paths OA or OB, there exist uncertainty in the determination
of momentum of the electron given by
 

Taking the product of equations 1 and 2 we get
From more sophisticated theory it can be shown that
Which is nothing but HUP.
θ
λ
Sin
h
− θ
λ
Sin
h
θ
λ
θ
λ
θ
λ
Sin
h
Sin
h
Sin
h
p
x
2
·

,
`

.
|
− −

,
`

.
|
· ∆
h Sin
h
Sin
p x
x
· × · ∆ × ∆ θ
λ θ
λ 2
2
π 2
h
p x
x
· ∆ × ∆
GAMMA RAY MICROSCOPE EXPERIMENT
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SCHRODINGER’S CAT

Y
o
u

w
i
l
l

s
e
e

m
e

t
h
e
r
e
,


s
a
i
d

t
h
e

c
a
t
,

B
u
t

v
a
n
i
s
h
e
d
L
e
w
i
s

C
a
r
r
o
l
l
I
n

A
l
i
c
e

i
n

W
o
n
d
e
r

L
a
n
d
A Paradox
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TWO SLIT EXPERIMENT
The only mystery
Double slit
Interference pattern Experiment conducted with
Bullets, Light and electrons
No matter how many times we repeat the experiment for
electrons we get consistent results-”Interference it there are no
observers, and No interference pattern if there are observers”-
This is confirmed.
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Never in human history had such a thing been encountered before. I
mean who ever heard of Nature behaving one way when you are
looking and completely different way when you are not looking? And
yet that is precisely what happens, at least in the world of electrons. It
seems that when we observe we disturb whenever it is that we are
trying to observe
Heisenberg’s Comment on two slit experiment
This is a very strange result, since it seems to indicate that the
observation plays a decisive role in the event and that reality
varies, depending upon whether we observe it or not
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TIME INDEPENDENT SCHROEDINGER EQUATION
Erwin Schroedinger
Consider a particle of mass ‘m’, moving
with a velocity ‘v’ along + ve X-axis.
Then the according to de Broglie
Hypothesis, the wave length of the wave
associated with the particle is given by
mv
h
· λ
A wave traveling along x-axis can be represented by the
equation
( )
( ) x k t i
e A t x
− −
· Ψ
ω
,
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Where Ψ(x,t) is called wave function. The differential
equation of matter wave in one dimension is derived as
( ) 0
8
2
2
2
2
· − + ψ
π ψ
V E
h
m
dx
d
The above equation is called one-dimensional
Schroedinger’s wave equation in one dimension.In three
dimensions the Schroedinger wave equation becomes
( )
( ) 0
8
0
8
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
· − + ∇
· − +


+


+


ψ
π
ψ
ψ
π ψ ψ ψ
V E
h
m
V E
h
m
z y x
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According to Max Born’s interpretation of the wavefunction, the only
quantity that has some meaning is
2
ψ
2
ψ
PHYSICAL INTERPRETATION OF WAVE FUNCTION
2
ψ
2
ψ
The state of a quantum mechanical system can be completely
understood with the help of the wave function ψ. But wave function ψ
can be real or imaginary. Therefore no meaning can be assigned to
wavefunction ψ as it is.
which is called as probability density.
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dv
We know that electron is definitely found somewhere in the space.
The wavefunction ψ, which satisfies the above condition, is called
normalized wavefunction.
Thus if ψ is the wavefunction of a particle within a small region of
volume dv, then
dV
2
ψ
gives the probability of finding the particle within
the region dv at the given instant of time.

·
V
1 dv
2
ψ
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ature of Eigenvalues and Eigenfunctions
A physical system can be completely described with the help of
the wave function ψ. In order to get wavefunction, first we have
to set up a Schrodinger wave equation representing the system.
Then, Schrodinger wave equation has to be solved to get
wavefunction ψ as a solution. But Schrodinger wave equation,
which is a second order differential equation, has multiple
solutions. All solutions may not represent the physical system
under consideration. Those wavefunction, which represent the
physical system under consideration, are acceptable, and are
called Eigenfunctions.
A wavefunction ψ can be acceptable as wavefunction if it satisfies
the following conditions.
. ψ should be single valued and finite everywhere.
. ψ and its first derivatives with respect to its variables are
continuous everywhere.
The solution of the Schrodinger wave equation gives the
wavefunction ψ. With the knowledge of ψ we can determine the
Energy of the given system. Since all wavefunctions are not
acceptable, all the values of energies are not acceptable. Only
those values of energy corresponding to the Eigenfunctions are
acceptable, and are called Eigenvalues.
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MOTION OF AN ELECTRON IN ONE DIMENSIONAL
POTENTIAL WELL (PARTICLE IN A BOX)
Consider an electron of mass m, moving along positive x-axis
between two walls of infinite height, one located at x=0 and another
at x=a. Let potential energy of the electron is assumed to be zero in
the region in-between the two walls and infinity in the region beyond
the walls.
a x x for V
a x for V
> < ∞ ·
≤ ≤ ·
& 0
0 0
X-axis
X=0 X=a
V=∞ V=0 V=∞
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Region beyond the walls:
The Schrodinger’s wave equation representing the motion of the particle in
the region beyond the two walls is given by
( ) 0
8
2
2
2
2
· ∞ − + ψ
π ψ
E
h
m
dx
d
The only possible solution for the above equation is ψ=0.
Since ψ=0 , the probability of finding the particle in the region x<0
and x>a is Zero . i.e., particle cannot be found in region beyond the
walls.
Region between the two walls:
The Schrodinger’s wave equation representing the motion of the
particle in the region between the two walls is given by

( ) 0 0 0
8
2
2
2
2
· · − + V E
h
m
dx
d
ψ
π ψ
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a
h
mE
where
dx
d
h
mE
dx
d
1
8
1 0
0
8
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
π
α
ψ α
ψ
ψ
π ψ
·
· +
· +
Solution of the equation 1 is of
the form
2 cos sin x B x A α α ψ + ·
Where A and B are unknown constants to be determined. Since
particle cannot be found inside the walls
II a x at and
I x at
0 ,
0 , 0
· ·
· ·
ψ
ψ
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The equations are called boundary conditions. Using the I boundary
condition in equation 2, we get
0
0 cos 0 sin 0
· ∴
+ ·
B
B A
Therefore equation 2
becomes

3 sin x A α ψ ·
a
n
n where
n a
a A
a A
π
α
π α
α
α
· ∴
·
· ∴
· ≠
·
,...... 2 , 1 , 0
0 sin 0
sin 0
Using condition II in equation 3 we get
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Therefore correct solution of the equation 1 can be
written as
4 sin x
a
n
A
n
π
ψ ·
The above equation represents Eigenfunctions. Where n=1,2,3,..
(n=0 is not acceptable because, for n=o the wavefunction ψ
becomes zero for all values of x. Then particle cannot be found
anywhere)
Substituting for α in equation 1a we get
2
2
2
8
h
E m
a
n π π
·

,
`

.
|
Therefore energy Eigenvalues are represented by the
equation
5
8
2
2 2
ma
h n
E
n
·
5
8
2
2 2
ma
h n
E
n
·
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Where n=1,2,3,..
It is clear from the above equation that particle can have only
desecrated values of energies. The lowest energy that particle can
have corresponds to n=o , and is called zero-point energy. It is given
by
6
8
2
2
int
ma
h
E
po zero
·

Normalization of wave function:
We know that particle is definitely found somewhere in
space

·
a
n
dx
0
2
1 ψ
x
a
n
a
n
π
ψ sin
2
·
Therefore Normalised wavefunction is given by
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( ) ( ) [ ]
a
A or
a
A
a
A
x
a
n
n
a
x
A
dx
a
n
A
dx x
a
n
A
a
a
a
2 2
1 0 0 0
2
1
2
sin
2 2
1
2
cos 1
2
1
1 sin
2
2
0
2
0
2
0
2 2
· ·
· − − −
·
]
]
]



·
]
]
]



·
π
π
π
π
Therefore Normalized wave function is given by
x
a
n
a
n
π
ψ sin
2
·
x
a
n
a
n
π
ψ sin
2
·
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Wavefunction, Probability density and energy of
the particle in different energy levels and at
different positions
For n=1 energy is
given by
K
ma
h
E
n
· ·
2
2
8
Wavefunction and probability density for different
values of x is given by
0 0 0
0 0 0
x
x
a
n
a
n
π
ψ sin
2
· x
a
n
a
p
n
π
ψ
2
2
sin
2
· ·
2
a
a
2
a
2
30
Similarly for n=2
K
ma
h
E
n
4
8
4
2
2
· ·
 
x
0 0 0
0 0
a
0 0
x
a
n
a
n
π
ψ sin
2
·
x
a
n
a
p
n
π
ψ
2
2
sin
2
· ·
4
a
a
2
a
2
4
3a
a
2
2
a
a
2
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Wavefunctions, probability density and energies are as
shown in the figure.
n=
1
n=
2
ψ
1
P
1
ψ
2
P
2
x=0 x=a/2
x=a
 
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Free Particle
 
 
Consider a particle of mass m moving along positive x-axis.
Particle is said to be free if it is not under the influence of any field
or force. Therefore for a free particle potential energy can be
considered to be constant or zero. The Schrodinger wave equation
for a free particle is given by.
( ) 0 0
8
2
2
2
2
· − + ψ
π ψ
E
h
m
dx
d
2
8
1 0
0
8
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
h
mE
where
dx
d
h
mE
dx
d
π
α
ψ α
ψ
ψ
π ψ
·
· +
· +
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The solution of the equation 1 is of the
form
3 cos sin x B x A α α ψ + ·
Where A and B are unknown constants to be determined. Since
there are no boundary conditions A, B and α can have any
values.
Energy of the particle is given by
4
8
2
2 2
m
h
E
π
α
·
Since there is no restriction on α there is no restriction on E.
Therefore energy of the free particle is not quantised. i.e., free
particle can have any value of energy.
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