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A Project on

Effect Of Additives On Blending Of Fuels

Guided by, Presented by,

Melvinraj C R Anto Baby

Assistant Professor Albin Anto
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Don Davis
JECC Aybel Joy
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“To provide quality education of international standards in
Mechanical Engineering and promote professionalism with ethical
values, to work in a team and to face global challenges."
➢ To provide an education that builds a solid foundation in
Mechanical Engineering.
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enable a lifelong growth in their profession.
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• Most fuels such as gasoline, kerosene (jet fuel), gas oil (diesel
fuel) and fuel oil have drawbacks which do not allow their
long term storage, make difficult transportation and even
• About 20 properties of fuels can be improved, maintained or
imparted new beneficial characteristics by the adding of
small amounts of certain chemicals named fuel additives.
• Fuel additives are added in very small concentrations: from
several ppm to several thousands ppm. It is important that
additives which improve some properties should not
deteriorate other properties of fuels and its quality in
• Fuel additives are organic substances soluble in fuels:
antifoams, anti-icing additives, anti-knock additives,
antioxidants, antistatic additives, anti-valve seat recession
additives, biocides, cetane improvers, combustion chamber
deposit modifiers, corrosion inhibitors, demulsifiers, deposit
control additives, detergents, diesel fuel stabilizers, drag
reducing agents, dyes and markers, leak detector additives,
lubricity improvers, metal deactivators, and wax anti-settling
• Additives to fuel oil also are described: demulsifiers, sludge
dispersants, combustion improvers, and additives for
prevention oil-ash and cold-end corrosion in boilers. Action
of fuel additives, their application, risks and benefits are


• Fuel additives can help improve fuel efficiency and also avoid problems
such as weak acceleration, rough idling, cold-start problems, stalling and
stumbling. They play an important role in the deposit reduction on the
combustion chamber and valves of the automobile. Fuel additive is a
liquid added into the fuel supply of vehicles either through the filter cap or
other fuel system parts. Supplementing your fuel with additives gives
better performance over the standard fuel.

• Most of the fuel additives fall into seven categories and are given below.

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• Fuel line antifreeze: Generally water condensation occurs in
the fuel (gasoline) storage tank and often causes the fuel line to
freeze during cold conditions. One of the historic remedy is to
add alcohol based anti- freezes that will mix with water and
prevent the fuel line to freeze up. But, the water dispersant fuel
line anti- freeze will absorb and transfer the water from the
fuel to the engine, where it is vaporized into the exhaust
• Gasoline stabilizers: Loss of fuel's volatility is a major
problem in vehicles such as boats, electric generators and lawn
care equipment. By using gasoline stabilizers, the difficulty in
starting is reduced which is usually caused by the propensity
of more gaseous components in the gasoline to evaporate into
the atmosphere. Also, corrosion inhibitors prevent the
corrosion of the fuel system from ethanol based fuel.

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• Fuel injector cleaners: The symptoms of a clogged fuel
injector are poor engine performance, sluggish acceleration
and hard-starting. These symptoms are caused when the fuel
injector nozzles are clogged by the carbon deposits. Some of
the fuel injector cleaners are designed as maintenance
additives, while the others help to remove the carbon deposits
from valves, cylinder heads and pistons

• Octane boosters: Octane booster additives increase the octane

ring of gasoline for lubricating the valve seats in high
compression engines. Mostly, a valve seat lubricant is
constituted in an octane booster to reduce wear on collector
and antique car engines that are equipped with cast iron valve

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• Diesel exhaust liquid (DEF): This fuel additive is metered
from separate tank directly into the diesel exhaust gas stream
where it breaks down the nitrogen oxide compounds into basic
forms of water and nitrogen. In case if the DEF level becomes
low the diesel power-train control module limits the vehicle's
speed until its required level is restored.

• Upper cylinder lubricants: High detergent, light viscosity

upper cylinder oils were designed to be added to the fuel tank
to help lubricate and clean the sticking valves that are caused
by insufficient oil clearance in the valve assembly.
Nevertheless, modern fuel additives contain certain type of
upper cylinder lubricant to grease seats, valve guides and
piston rings.

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• Anti-gelling additives: These additives are added to liquefy
the solidified gel or paraffin wax that forms in the fuel and
clogs the fuel filters during freezing temperatures. While the
modern diesel engines use heated fuel filters and lines to
prevent gelling, the anti- gelling additives will help to
improve the cold starting performance i.e., during cold
temperatures. Also, many of the anti-gelling additives include
solvents that remove water, clean the fuel systems and grease
the fuel injectors. Many professional automotive technicians
often categorize these additives as “mechanical in a can” to
discrete fuel delivery problems

Test Process
• The engine was started and allowed to warm up to reach a
constant coolant water outlet temperature. The engine was
first allowed to run with base fuel alone and the performance
of the engine, Specific fuel consumption and Break thermal
efficiency were calculated.
• The exhaust emission from the engine such as Oxides of
Nitrogen, Hydrocarbon, Carbon Monoxide, smoke and
particulate exhaust gas were measured. HC, CO and NOx
were measured by using DI Gas Analyser. Smoke was
measured by using AVL 437C Smokemeter.


• Addition of additives in diesel, biodiesel and their blends has a

great effect on fuel properties such as viscosity, ash point, re
point, pour point, caloric value etc. which inturns inuences the
combustion parameters.
• Most of the oxygenated additives showed improved
combustion phases, decrease in in-cylinder temperature due to
high latent heat of evaporation.
• Multifunctional fuel additives in fuel blends decreases the
ignition delay, improved premixed combustion duration and
combustion stability. Ignition promoter additives improved the
ignition attributes and the conditions should be further be

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• Various types of antioxidants and cold ow improver additives
will also need to be studied to ensure better combustion
• Combustion parameters such as ignition delay, heat release
rate, rate of fuel burn, combustion phases will critically need
to be analyzed with several potential additives such as ve-
carbon structure oxygenated additives, metal-based additives,
cetane improver additives etc.
• Fuel properties of various proportions of additives used in
diesel and biodiesel to produce blends must be investigated
intensively to reduce the existing problems aer incorporating

1. RC Tupe and CJ Dorer, “Gasoline and
Diesel Fuel additives for performance /
distribution quality-II” SAE 861179.

2. Sheldon Herbatman and Kashmir Virk,

“Effect of Fuel Composition and
additives and Build up of injectors
deposits”, SAE 892119