6 FT
SPECIFIC VOLUME  VOLUME PER UNIT
WEIGHT
UNITS: CUBIC FEET PER TON
SW = 35 FT3/TON
FW = 36 FT3/TON
DFM = 43 FT3/TON
WT = VOLUME
SP. VOL
WT = 3600FT3 V = 3600 FT3
35 FT3/TON
6 FT
WT = 102.86 TONS
CLASS TOPICS
1. Definitions
2. Stability Reference Points
3. Stability Triangle
4. Conditions of Stability
5. Stability Curve
6. Ship’s Hull Markings
7. Draft Diagram and Cross Curves
STABILITY REFERENCE POINTS
Metacenter
Gravity
Buoyancy
K eel
CL
CENTER OF GRAVITY
• POINT AT WHICH ALL WEIGHTS COULD
BE CONCENTRATED.
METACENTER
B
B1 B2
M20
M45
M
M70
B
B20 B70
B45
METACENTER
B SHIFTS
MOVEMENTS OF THE
METACENTER
THE METACENTER WILL CHANGE
POSITIONS IN THE VERTICAL PLANE WHEN
THE SHIP'S DISPLACEMENT CHANGES
M
GM
G BM
KM
KG B
K
CL
OVERALL STABILITY
External Forces Acting on a Vessel
In this Chapter we will study five areas:
CL
THE STABILITY
TRIANGLE G Z
Sin q = opp / hyp M
Where:
opposite = GZ
hypotenuse = GM
Sin q = GZ / GM
GZ = GM x Sin q
G Z
Growth of GZ a GM
M
G1
G
CL
M
AS GM DECREASES
RIGHTING ARM
ALSO DECREASES
G1 Z1
G Z
M
INITIAL
STABILITY
G
0  7°
CL
M
OVERALL
STABILITY
G Z
B B1
RM = GZ x Wf
CL
Internal Righting Moment
MT
Ds
Righting Arm
G Z WLf
F f
FB
Water resistance
CL
Internal Righting Moment
RM = GZ D s= GZ FB
METACENTRIC HEIGHT
RIGHTING ARM (GZ) IS PROPORTIONAL TO METACENTRIC
HEIGHT (GM)
A SHIP WITH:
LARGE GM IS STIFF AND RESISTS ROLLS
SMALL GM IS TENDER AND ROLLS EASILY AND
SLOWLY
VERY SMALL GM IS APT TO HANG AT THE END OF
EACH ROLL BEFORE STARTING UPRIGHT
SLIGHTLY NEGATIVE GM IS APT TO LOLL (STAYING
HEELED AT ANGLE OF INCLINATION WHERE RIGHTING
AND UPSETTING FORCES ARE EQUAL) AND FLOP FROM
SIDE TO SIDE
NEGATIVE GM WILL CAPSIZE WHEN INCLINED
3 BASIC CONDITIONS WHICH MAY CAUSE THE
SHIP TO TAKE ON A PERMANENT LIST:
G G G2
G G2
M M
Internal Righting Moment
Where:
MT
Wind
Water
Resistance
The forces of wind and the opposing force of the water below the waterline will
cause an external moment couple about the ship’s center of flotation.
The ship reacts to this external moment couple by pivoting about F, causing a
shift in the center of buoyancy.
MT
Wind
B Water
Resistance
The center of buoyancy will shift because the submerged volume will change.
MT
Ds
FB
The displacement force and the buoyant for are no longer aligned. The heeling
over causes the creation of an internal moment couple.
The external moment couple causes the creation of the internal moment couple
to oppose it.
MT
Ds
Wind
F
B Water
Resistance
FB
Ds MT
f
Z
FB
The offset distance of the applied forces, GZ, is called the MOMENT ARM. The
length of this moment arm is a function of the heeling angle, φ.
Remember that a moment is created when a force acts at a
distance from a given point.
In the case of the created internal moment couple, we have the two force, Ds
and FB, acting over the distance GZ.
RM = GZDs = GZFB
This illustrates just one potential moment arm based upon one particular
angle of φ. There are an infinite number of angles possible, therefore, an
infinite number of moment arms that vary with the degree of heel, φ.
Ds MT
f
Z
FB
If we can plot the heeling angle f versus the created moment arm GZ, we can create
the Intact Statical Stability Curve.
DEFINITIONS
ROLL The action of a vessel involving
a recurrent motion (Longitudinal Axis).
wxd
List =
MH1o
INCLINING EXPERIMENT
Completed upon commissioning, and
following each major overhaul or
shipalt.
It is done to verify the exact location
of the ship's center of gravity (KG).
Basis for updates to Section II(a) of the
DC book and for changes to weight
and moment compensation status
INACCURACIES
1. UNACCOUNTED FOR FSE
2. MOVEMENT OF PERSONNEL
3. INACCURATE WEIGHTS
4. TAUGHT LINES
5. POOR WEIGHT VERIFICATION
WALK THROUGH
MOBD6SF Righting Ship
Conducted: Every 18 Months (SEMI annual
for CG)
• AUTOMATIC
(FUEL OIL COMPENSATION)
• MANUAL SYSTEMS
MANUAL BALLAST SYSTEMS
• INDEPENDENT
G M
B
B1
G
NEUTRAL
M
B
B1
NEGATIVE
POSITIVE STABILITY
CL
NEUTRAL STABILITY
M G
CL
NEGATIVE STABILITY
G
M
CL
CAUSES of GM
1. Removal of low weights
2. Addition of high weights (ice)
3. Moving weights upward
4. Free Surface Effect
5. Free Communication Effect
Curve of Intact Statical Stability
or
The curve is in both the 1st and 3rd quadrants (the 3rd shows a heel to port).
Typically only the curve showing a heel to starboard is shown as it is symmetrical.
Measure of Overall Stability
Range of Stability
Slope is a measure of tenderness or stiffness.
Righting Arm  Dynamical Stability
GZ (feet) Maximum Righting Arm
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
ANGLE OF HEEL (DEGREES)
60°
40°
20°
G Z G Z G Z
B B B
GZ = 1.4 FT GZ = 2.0 FT GZ = 1 FT
ANGLE OF
MAXIMUM RIGHTING MAXIMUM
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
ANGLE OF HEEL (DEGREES)
60°
40°
20°
G Z G Z G Z
B B B
GZ = 1.4 FT GZ = 2.0 FT GZ = 1 FT
Intact Statical Stability
4.5
3.5
Moment Arm GZ
2.5
1.5
0.5
0
0 25 50 75 85
Heeling Angle f
The above chart plots the data presented in the text on p. 46 an 47.
Intact Statical Stability
4.5
3.5
Moment Arm GZ
2.5
1.5
0.5
0
0 25 50 75 85
Heeling Angle f
With φ at 0 degrees, the moment arm is also is 0. The buoyant force and the ship’s
weight are aligned. No moment is created.
Intact Statical Stability
4.5
3.5
Moment Arm GZ
2.5
1.5
0.5
0
0 25 50 75 85
Heeling Angle f
As the angle of heel increases, the moment arm also increases. At 25 degrees,
shown here, GZ is 2.5ft.
Intact Statical Stability
4.5
3.5
Moment Arm GZ
2.5
1.5
0.5
0
0 25 50 75 85
Heeling Angle f
As the angle increases, the moment arm increases to a maximum… here it is 4ft.
As φ increases beyond this point the moment arm begins to decrease and the ship
becomes in danger of capsizing…
Intact Statical Stability
4.5
3.5
Moment Arm GZ
2.5
1.5
0.5
0
0 25 50 75 85
Heeling Angle f
...Remember, the internal moment couple created here is in response to the external
couple created by outside forces. At GZ max the ship is creating its maximum
internal moment. If the external moment is greater than the internal moment,
then the ship will continue to heel over until capsized.
Intact Statical Stability
4.5
3.5
Moment Arm GZ
2.5
1.5
0.5
0
0 25 50 75 85
Heeling Angle f
The angle of heel continues to increase, but the moment arm GZ, and thus
the internal moment couple, decreases.
Intact Statical Stability
4.5
3.5
Moment Arm GZ
2.5
1.5
0.5
0
0 25 50 75 85
Heeling Angle f
The angle has now increased to the point that G and B are now aligned again,
but not in a good way. GZ is now at 0 and no internal moment couple is
present. Beyond this point the ship is officially capsized, unable to right itself.
MP
CFD
LCF
DWL
16' 0" 14' 0"
DRAG = 2 FT By the Stern
TRIM  The difference between
the forward and after
drafts in excess of drag.
DRAG = 0
16' 14'
TRIM = 2 FT By the Stern
Trimming Moment = w x TA
AP MP FP
TA
w
LCF
Change in Trim(CT) = TM
MT1"
Trimming Moment = w x TA
AP MP FP
AP MP FP
LCF CT
LCF
Change in Trim(CT) = TM
MT1"
df CT
df = CT
LBP/2 + LCF = LBP
LBP
LBP/2 + dfLCF CT
=
(LBP/2
LBP/2 dfLCF + LCF)
+ LBP
CT
df = = x CT
LBP/2 + dfLCFLBP LBP CT
=
LBP/2 +dfLCF LBP
CT
CT = d=f + da
LBP/2 + dfLCF LBP
CT
=
LBP/2da+d=fLCF
CT  LBPdCTf
=
LBP/2 + LCF LBP
w
PARALLEL SINKAGE =
TPI
Parallel Sinkage (PS) is the distance
that the drafts fore and aft increase due
to a weight addition.
PARALLEL RISE = w
TPI
ABILITY TO REFLOAT
This is, of course, not realistic. It is done this way so that the curves may be
generalized for all drafts.
Once the curve data is recorded and plotted, a sine correction factor
must be applied, shifting the KG to its correct position in order to get the
v he hi
B0 R
GZ B0 R GB0 sin q
v he hi
GB0 sin q
Atwood Formula
v he hi
B0 R Atwood Formula
v he hi
GZ B0 R GB0 sin q GB0 sin q
• GZ vs. q
I x tan q
B0 M tan q
Ex. Righting arm of a ship vertically sided (A special
example to compute GZ at large angle inclinations)
Volume Arm
1
I x tan 2 q /
2
Ex. Righting arm of a ship vertically sided (A special
example to compute GZ at large angle inclinations)
Ix 1 Ix
B0 R cos q sin q sin q tan 2 q sin q
2
Ix 1
sin q 1 tan 2 q
2
when q 1 small angle inclination, B0 R sin q I x / q I x / q B0 M
1
GZ B0 R B0G sin q sin q B0 M B0G B0 M tan 2 q
2
1 2 Ix
sin q GM B0 M tan q , where B0 M .
2
This formula is called 'walled sided formula' or the 'box formula'.
when q 1 small angle inclination, GZ q GM
• Cross Curves of Stability
It is difficult to ascertain the exact W.L. at which a ship would
float in the large angle inclined condition for the same
displacement as in the upright condition. The difficulty can be
avoided by obtaining the cross curves of stability (see p44).
How to Computing
them
•Assume the position
of C.G. (not known
exactly)
•W.L. I  V should
cover the range of
various displacements
which a ship may
have.
Cross Curves Example
Righting
Arm 30 degrees heel
(feet) 5
10 degrees heel
2.5
At 2000 LT, the ship
Has a RA of 2.5’ @10o
0 Heel and 5’ @30o
1000 2000 3000
Displacement (LT)
Curve of Intact Statical Stability / “Righting Arm Curve”
Assumes:
– Quasistatic conditions
– Given Displacement
– Given KG
– Range of Stability
– Dynamical Stability
Range of Stability
Dynamical Stability:
Step #1. From the Cross Curves of Form, find the 5000LT displacement value
on the xaxis.
Step #2. Record the righting arm value for each curve, from φ = 0 to 80 degrees
f GZ
0 0.00
5 2.00 Intact Statical Stability, FFG7
10 3.80 25
15 5.80
20 7.75 20
Moment arm GZ
25 9.75
30 11.75 15
35 13.30
40 14.75 10
45 16.10
50 17.20 5
55 18.00
60 18.60 0
65 19.00 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90
70 19.30 Heeling Angle
80 19.50
0
The ship is being 1
10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
pulled sideways 2
RM=GZΔ=1.2ft×3600LT=4320ftLT
FTug=4320ftLT/10ft=432LT
4.5 Effect of a Vertical Shift in the Center of
Gravity on the Righting Arm
In the Cross Curves of Stability, the data is presented assuming that:
Once the curve data is recorded and plotted, a sine correction factor
must be applied,shifting the KG to its correct position in order to get the
TRUE MOMENT RIGHTING ARM VALUE.
– Must Apply a Sine Correction if:
• Using the Curve of Intact Statical Stability to correct for G not being
located at K
• Correcting the Curve of Intact Statical Stability for vertical
movements of G
The external moment couple causes the creation of the internal moment couple
to oppose it.
MT
Ds
Wind
B Water
Resistance
FB
MT
Z0
B1
MT
B1
Z0
G0Z0 = Moment Arm
MT
B1
KG forms a similar
triangle that gives the Z0
value for the SINE
correction
Sin f = opp
hyp
hyp = KG
B1
Z0
Zv
B1
Z0
– Typically, G0GV=KGfinal
Effect of a Vertical Shift in the Center of
Gravity on the Righting Arm
MT
Sine Correction: Ds
F

GvZv = G0Z0 G0Gv sin F
G Z
B0
B
Fb
Effect of Increased Displacement on the Righting Arm
Gv G t cos F MT
F
Gv
F
Gt
Port Starboard
Ds
W1 F L1
Gv ZV
F Gt Zt
B1
Fb
The red line indicates the COSINE Correction factor for a transverse
change in G.
f
Zv
GT ZT
Note that GvGT is the TCG value and is the hypotenuse of this correction triangle...
f
Zv
GT ZT
15
Righting Arm from Cross Curves
10 With Sine Correction
With Cosine Correction
Righting Arm (GZ)(ft)
5
10
15
Angle of Heel (degrees)
Various Righting Arm Conditions
D D
G
B G Z D
B G Z
FB B
FB
F=0 F=30 FB
F=RAMax
D D
G G
B B
FB FB
F=Capsize Angle F= >Capsize Angle
LIMITATIONS
• GfZf=G0Z0G0GVsin φ GVGtcosφ
• From Curves of Form:
Draft of 13.5ft> Δ =100×30LT=3000LT
These curves show that the righting arm (GZ) changes with the
change of displacement given the inclination angle of the ship.
For the sake of understanding ‘cross curves of stability’ clearly,
here is a 3D plot of ‘cross curves of stability.’
The curved
surface is
GZ f (q , )
• Curve of Static Stability
‘Curve of static stability’ is a curve of righting arm GZ as a
function of angle of inclination for a fixed displacement.
wh
GG1
1 radian
The maximum righting arm & the range of stability are to a
large extent a function of the freeboard.
M kAhV 2 cos 2 q
k  an empirical coeff.
A  projected area of the
ship above the W.L
V  nominal wind velocity
h  distance from the half
draft to wind pressure
center.
q  the angle of inclination
w.r.t. the beam
When the ship is in upright position, the steady beam wind starts to
blow and the ship begins to incline. At point A, the M(wind) =
M(righting), do you think the ship will stop inclining at A? Why?
If at x x1 , R kx1 F No Friction
X
the work done by the X=
0
X = X1
spring force R,
x1 x1 1 2
WR Rdx kxdx kx1
0 0 2
1 2 1 2
The total work WF WR Fx1 kx1 mv ER
2 2
Hence, the block will continue to move to the right. It will not
stop until
ER WF WR 0, at x x2
In a shiprolling case:
a
Work done by the upright moment
Wup w GM dq
0
Wind
Standards for USN warships:
1) q =30 , AGZ 0.055m rad
q =45 or q max , AGZ 0.09m rad
30 q 45 , AGZ 0.03m rad
2) GZ 0.2m, at q =30
3) GZ MAX occurs at q 30
4) GM 0.15m
Standards of Stability: ships can withstand
• BODILY SINKAGE
LOSS OF BUOYANCY
B
• CAPSIZING
LOSS OF TRANSVERSE STABILITY
• PLUNGING
LOSS OF LONGITUDINAL
STABILITY
• BREAKING UP
LOSS OF SHIP'S GIRDER
How Does a Ship Sink?
• 3 of the 6 Degrees of Freedom can sink a ship
• Foundering(heave): Ship fills up with water from the
bottom up and simply sinks on a relatively even keel
(Loss of Buoyancy)
• Overwhelm and Capsize: Ship still floats and is stable
but has insufficient Righting Arm and Dynamical
Stability for weather and sea conditions, which
eventually roll the ship past range of stability
• Plunging: Pitch angle becomes excessive causing
the ship to sink bow or stern first
• Progressive Flooding: Excessive list and/or trim angle
and/or failure of bulkheads adjacent to flooded
compartments resulting in one or more of the loss
modes above.
Damage Stability
• Increase in draft
• Change in trim
• Permanent angle of list
The vessel’s draft will increase because an amount of the buoyancy was lost...
Lost buoyancy considers the amount of buoyancy “lost” as a result of the hole,
and determines the value based upon the change in parallel sinkage that results.
Original draft
The change in the draft reflects the amount of buoyancy lost. The ship sinks until
the available submerged volume is again equal to the ship’s displacement
Lost Buoyancy Method
Original draft
A flooded compartment does not fill completely with water, however. Compartments
contain equipment, furniture, structural components, and cargo. A correction factor
must be added to the volume of the compartment to accurately reflect conditions...
This correction factor is called:
– KG
– TCG
• “LIST”
What is the Righting Moment for a 15° port list and how
could the resulting problem have been prevented?
Example Answer
• wice=ρgV=55lb/ft³×.5ft×20,500ft²×1LT/2240lb =252LT(@Kg=40ft)
• wffwater= ρ gV=64lb/ft³×40ft×40ft×10ft×.97×1LT/2240lb
=443LT(@Kg=45ft)
• Δ(Curves of Form[T=13.5ft])=100×30LT=3000LT
• KGf=(KG0 Δ 0+KgawaKgrwr)/ Δ f
• KGf=(19ft×3000LT+40ft×252LT+45ft×443LT) /(3000LT+252LT+443LT)
• KGf=23.5ft
• TCGf=(TCG0 Δ 0+TcgawaTcgrwr)/ Δ f
• TCGf=(0ft×3000LT+0ft×252LT+()2.5ft×443LT) /(3695LT)
• TCGf=()0.3ft
• G0Z0(Cross Curves[Δ =3695LT; φ =()15°])=()6ft
• GfZf=G0Z0KGfsinφTCGfcosF
• GfZf=()6ft23.5ft×sin(15°)(.3ft)×cos(15°)=(+).372ft
Example Answer
• R.M.=Δ×GfZf=3695LT×0.372ft=(+)1375ftLT to port for a
port list: The ship capsizes!
• KMt(Curves of Form[Δ=3695LT;T=15.25ft])=112*.2ft=22.4ft
(GMt=KMtKGf=22.4ft23.5ft=()1.1ft; Stable?)
G
G 1
GG1 G
G 1
1
G
G 1
1
G
G11
KG1
KGo B
KG1 = (Wo x KGo) ± (w x kg)
Wf
WHERE;
w = Weight Shifted
kg = Distance Shifted
Wo = Original Displacement
KGo = Original Height of G
Wf = Final Displacement
± = + if shift up/ if shift down
KGA = 19 FT KG1 = 19.8 FT
5
GT = GG1 x Sin O Sin 0° = 0
4 GT0°= .8FT x 0 = 0 FT Sin 30°= 0.5
RIGHTING ARMS (FT)
2
FINAL CURVE .8 FT
1 .4 FT X
X
0X
1
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
ANGLE OF INCLINATION  DEGREES
Horizontal Weight Shifts
G G
G
GG
G
G
2G
222222
GG2
B
GG2 = w x d
Wf
WHERE;
w = Weight Added or Removed
d = Distance Added/Removed
from Centerline
Wf = Final Displacement
KGA = 19 FT KG1 = 19.0 FT GG2 = .9 FT
5
GP = GG2 x Cos O Cos 0° = 1.0
4
GP0°= .9FT x 1 = 0.9 FT Cos 60°= 0.5
RIGHTING ARMS (FT)
2
.9 FT FINAL CURVE
1X
.45 FT
X
0 X
Angle of List
1
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
ANGLE OF INCLINATION  DEGREES
FREE SURFACE EFFECT
B3 x L
GG3 =
12 x 35 x Wf
B = BREADTH OF COMPT
L = LENGTH OF COMPT
Wf = SHIP'S DISPLACEMENT
FREE SURFACE EFFECT
• Greater with increased length and width
of the compartment
B = BREADTH OF COMPT
L = LENGTH OF COMPT
Y = DIST FM SHIP C/L TO COMPT
COG.
Wf = SHIP'S DISPLACEMENT
FREE COMMUNICATION
EFFECT
MT geff
B0 g0
Bf gf
Free Surface Correction
The Big Picture
MT
GM
eff
Gv F
FSC
F WL1
G
Z F
G1 Z1
WL
B
B1
g
.
g1
K
Free Surface Effect
t it
FSC = s s
where:
t is the density of the fluid in the tank in lb s2/ft4
s is the density of the water the ship is floating in lb s2/ft4
it is the transverse moment of area of the tank's free
surface area in ft4 .
s is the underwater volume of the ship in ft3.
Free Surface Correction
Tank C
L
3
(L) (B) X
it =
12 L
Y B
Effect on Ship “G” and Stability
GZeff=G0Z0G0GvsinφGvGtcos φ FSCsin φ
GMeff=GMFSC=KMKGFSC
– A large FSC has exactly the same effects on list and
stability as a higher KG.
How do we minimize adverse
effects of free surface effect?
• Compartmentalization
• Pocketing (Keep tanks >95% full)
• Empty Tanks
• Compensated Fuel Oil Tanks
• Dewater quickly after a casualty  flooding
or fire
4.9 Metacentric Height
• Range of Stability
• Dynamical Stability
__ __
GZ = GM sin f
As f 0, if the angle is given in radians the
equation becomes:
__ __
GZ = GM
f
Initial Slope of the Curve of Intact Stability
__ __ __
GZ GZ
GM = = f (radians) (for small Angles)
sin f
__ __
GM = GZ (if f = 1 radian )
Initial Slope of the Curve of Intact Stability
To find the slope either:
– Find the change in the yaxis over a given change in the xaxis.
– Draw a straight line with the initial slope and read the value of GZ
at an angle of 57.3 degrees (i.e. one radian).
Metacentric Height
– GM Positive (G < M)
– GM Negative (G > M)
Metacentric Height
Positive Stability
Metacentric Height
Neutral Stability
Metacentric Height
Negative Stability
Metacentric Height
SUMMARIZING GM CONDITIONS
Weight Margin
Adequate Inadequate
• KGf=(17ft×3000LT+45ft×443LT) /(3000LT+443LT)
• KGf=20.6ft
• TCGf=(TCG0 Δ 0+TcgawaTcgrwr)/ Δ f
• TCGf=(0ft×3000LT+2.5ft×443LT) /(3443LT)
• TCGf=0.32ft
Example Answer
• KMt(Curves of Form[Δ =3443LT;T=14.6ft]) =114×.2ft=22.8ft
• GMt=KMtKGf=22.8ft20.6ft=2.2ft
• tan(φ)=TCGf/GMt=0.32ft/2.2ft; φ =8.3°
• R.M.= Δ ×GfZf=3443LT×0.36ft=1240ftLT
Example Answer
CIC Overhead Blown Off:
• it=lb³/12=40ft×(40ft)³/12=213,333ft4
• VS=Δ/(ρg)=3443LT×2240lb/LT/(64lb/ft³)=120,505ft³
• FSC=(ρtit)/(ρSVS)=it/VS=1.77ft (ρt=ρS)
• GMeff=KMtKGFSC=22.8ft20.6ft1.77ft=0.43ft
• GfZf=G0Z0KGfsinφTCGfcos φ FSCsin φ
• GfZf=6ft20.6ft×sin(15°)(.32ft)×cos(15°)1.77ft×sin(15°)=()0.1ft
• R.M.= Δ ×GfZf=3443LT×()0.1ft=()344.3ftLT(vice +1240ftLT)
G
G
G
M
Example Answer
G
G
M G
M
1) hydrostatic properties
2) and stability
• Trim when a compartment is open to Sea
If W1L1 is higher at any point than the main deck at which the
bulkheads stop (the bulkhead deck) it is usually considered
that the ship will be lost (sink) because the pressure of water
in the damaged compartments can force off the hatches and
unrestricted flooding will occur all fore and aft.
• (1) Lost buoyancy method
w1 L1
w0
L0
l0 = 8 m
1)v T l0 B 3 8 10
2) Parallel sinkage
240m 3
Aw L B 60 10 600m 2 y0
v 240
0.46m
A 520
a l0 B 8 10 80m 2
A Aw a 520m 2
y
3) Draft at midway between W0L0 – W1L1 : T 3.23m
2
A 520m2 , y1 0.46m, same as y0 ,
no iteration is necessary in this case.
4) Computing Aw a, , I MFC .
A Aw a 520m 2 ,
New (damaged) W .L's. C.F. 4m & x 30m
1
I MFC (52)3 10 m4 longitudinal moment of inertia
12
I MFC I MFC
GM L Z B ZG
I MFC
Because Z G Z B
Moment for Trim per meter:
1m I MFC w
MTI(m) GM L w
L(m) L
1 (52)3 10 3 kN
m 1.025 9.81 3
12 60 m
19, 637 kNm
TF T y
L
2
wvx 34 w 30 240 60
3 0.46
L MTI 60 w 121 52 3 10
3 0.46 2.09 5.55m
TA T y
L
2
wvx
1.86m
L MCT
v, x , Aw(0) a (0)
v
y (())
Aw(0) a (0)
d 12 d
(0) y ( 0)
2
(0)
Am(0) am
v
y (1)
Am(0) am(0)
if y
(0)
y (1)
MTI ( at d y (1)
2 )
I mfc
MTI
420 L
TF d y (1)
L
2 xv
L MTI
TA d y
(1) L
2 xv
L MTI
• (2) Added Weight Method (considering the loss
of buoyancy as added weight)
also a Trial – error (iterative) method
328 212
HEELING EFFECTS OF BEAM WINDS
RIGHTING ARMS (FT)
FULL LOAD
AREA A = AREA B
RESERVE
B DYNAMIC
STABILITY
A ANGLE OF
MAX ROLL
ANGLE OF
SEMIPERMANENT ANGLE OF HEEL (DEG)
HEEL
HEELING EFFECTS OF BEAM WINDS
RIGHTING ARMS (FT)
FULL LOAD
DAMAGED
FULL LOAD
53440J 53280J
+4 3 +3 2 0.5
20 1.0 8 0.4 9
53281W 53081W
+2 52923W
1 +1 0 +1
0
POTABLE WATER
COMPARTMENT NUMBER
For example, if F is 0.5, the ship will still float at a W.L. under
the margin line when any two adjacent compartments of the
ship are flooded. If F is 1.0, the ship will still float at a
W.L. under the margin line when any one compartment of
the ship is flooded.
HW
LW
K
Remember: G moves faster than
M!!
M
G
K
M
G
B
K
IMMEDIATE STEPS
STEP ONE 
ESTABLISH FLOODING BOUNDARIES
STEP TWO 
DEWATER ANY SPACE COLORED PINK
ON THE FLOODING EFFECTS DIAGRAM.
IMMEDIATE STEPS
STEP THREE 
SIZE UP THE SITUATION TO
DETERMINE WHETHER STABILITY
IS CRITICAL BEFORE ANY FURTHER
ACTION IS TAKEN.
CRITICAL STABILITY
1. The ship has a negative GM
STEP FOUR 
ELIMINATE OR REDUCE LIST
Don’t forget about:
ACTIONS
SHIFT CENTER OF GRAVITY
TOWARDS "HIGH" END.