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# STABILITY - THE TENDENCY OF A SHIP TO

## ROTATE ONE WAY OR THE OTHER (TO RIGHT

ITSELF OR OVERTURN)

## INITIAL STABILITY - THE STABILITY OF A

SHIP IN THE RANGE FROM 0° TO 7°/10°

## OVERALL STABILITY - A GENERAL MEASURE OF

A SHIP'S ABILITY TO RESIST CAPSIZING IN A
GIVEN CONDITION OF LOADING

## DYNAMIC STABILITY - THE WORK DONE IN

HEELING A SHIP TO A GIVEN ANGLE OF HEEL
LAWS OF BUOYANCY
• A FLOATING OBJECT HAS THE PROPERTY
OF BUOYANCY
• A FLOATING BODY DISPLACES A VOLUME
OF WATER EQUAL IN WEIGHT TO THE
WEIGHT OF THE BODY.
• A BODY IMMERSED (OR FLOATING) IN
WATER WILL BE BUOYED UP BY A FORCE
EQUAL TO THE WEIGHT OF THE WATER
DISPLACED.
DISPLACEMENT
• THE WEIGHT OF THE VOLUME OF WATER
THAT THE SHIP'S HULL IS DISPLACING
• UNITS OF WEIGHT
LONG TON = 2240 LBS
SHORT TON = 2000 LBS
METRIC TON = 2204.72 LBS
VOLUME - NUMBER OF CUBIC UNITS
IN AN OBJECT
UNITS: CUBIC FEET
CUBIC INCHES
V=LxBxD
V = 30 FT x 20 FT x 6 FT
V = 3600 FT3

6 FT
SPECIFIC VOLUME - VOLUME PER UNIT
WEIGHT
UNITS: CUBIC FEET PER TON
SW = 35 FT3/TON
FW = 36 FT3/TON
DFM = 43 FT3/TON

WT = VOLUME
SP. VOL
WT = 3600FT3 V = 3600 FT3
35 FT3/TON
6 FT

WT = 102.86 TONS
CLASS TOPICS
1. Definitions
2. Stability Reference Points
3. Stability Triangle
4. Conditions of Stability
5. Stability Curve
6. Ship’s Hull Markings
7. Draft Diagram and Cross Curves
STABILITY REFERENCE POINTS

Metacenter

Gravity

Buoyancy

K eel
CL
CENTER OF GRAVITY
• POINT AT WHICH ALL WEIGHTS COULD
BE CONCENTRATED.

## • CENTER OF GRAVITY OF A SYSTEM OF

WEIGHTS IS FOUND BY TAKING
MOMENTS ABOUT AN ASSUMED CENTER
OF GRAVITY, MOMENTS ARE SUMMED
AND DIVIDED BY THE TOTAL WEIGHT
OF THE SYSTEM.
MOVEMENTS IN THE
CENTER OF GRAVITY

## • G MOVES TOWARDS A WEIGHT ADDITION

MOVEMENTS IN THE
CENTER OF GRAVITY

## • G MOVES AWAY FROM A WEIGHT REMOVAL

MOVEMENTS IN THE
CENTER OF GRAVITY

## • G MOVES IN THE DIRECTION OF A WEIGHT

SHIFT
METACENTER
THE
M

METACENTER
B
B1 B2

M20
M45
M
M70
B

B20 B70
B45
METACENTER

B SHIFTS
MOVEMENTS OF THE
METACENTER
THE METACENTER WILL CHANGE
POSITIONS IN THE VERTICAL PLANE WHEN
THE SHIP'S DISPLACEMENT CHANGES

## THE METACENTER MOVES IAW THESE

TWO RULES:
1. WHEN B MOVES UP M MOVES DOWN.
2. WHEN B MOVES DOWN M MOVES UP.
M1
M
M
M1
M
M
M1 M
M1
G
G
G
G
G
B1 B
B
B
B
B
LINEAR MEASUREMENTS IN
STABILITY

M
GM
G BM

KM
KG B

K
CL
OVERALL STABILITY
External Forces Acting on a Vessel
In this Chapter we will study five areas:

## 1. The concept of a ship’s Righting Moment (RM), the

chief measure of stability.
2. KG and TCG changes and their effects on RM.
3. How Stability is effected by Damage to the Hull
using the “Added Weight” method.
4. Effects of a “Free Surface”.
5. Effects of Negative GM on ship stability.
Internal Righting Moment

## EXTERNAL FORCES cause a vessel to heel.

Recall Force x Distance = Moment

## – External Moment can be caused by wind

pushing on one side of the vessel and water
resisting the motion on the other side.

## – Each distributed force can be resolved into a

resultant force vector. The wind acts above
the waterline and the water resistance acts
below the waterline.
M M
G

CL

THE STABILITY
TRIANGLE G Z
Sin q = opp / hyp M
Where:
opposite = GZ
hypotenuse = GM

Sin q = GZ / GM
GZ = GM x Sin q

G Z
Growth of GZ a GM
M

G1
G

CL
M

AS GM DECREASES
RIGHTING ARM
ALSO DECREASES

G1 Z1

G Z
M
INITIAL
STABILITY
G

0 - 7°

CL
M

OVERALL
STABILITY
G Z

B B1

RM = GZ x Wf
CL
Internal Righting Moment

MT

## External upsetting force f

Ds
Righting Arm
G Z WLf
F f

FB
Water resistance
CL
Internal Righting Moment

## The two forces create a couple because they are

equal in magnitude, opposite in direction, and not
aligned.

## The vessel will continue to rotate until it returns to

Static Equilibrium (i.e. an Internal Moment is created
which is equal in magnitude and opposite in
direction). Giving M=0.
Internal Righting Moment

## Internal Forces create a Righting Moment to

counter the Upsetting Moment of the External
Forces.

## The two internal forces are the weight of the

vessel (Ds) and the resultant buoyant force (FB).
Internal Righting Moment

## The perpendicular distance between the Weight

and the Buoyancy Force vectors is defined as the
RIGHTING ARM (GZ).

## The moment created by the resultant Weight and

the resultant Force of Buoyancy is defined as the
RIGHTING MOMENT (RM). It may be calculated
by:

RM = GZ D s= GZ FB
METACENTRIC HEIGHT
RIGHTING ARM (GZ) IS PROPORTIONAL TO METACENTRIC
HEIGHT (GM)
A SHIP WITH:
LARGE GM IS STIFF AND RESISTS ROLLS
SMALL GM IS TENDER AND ROLLS EASILY AND
SLOWLY
VERY SMALL GM IS APT TO HANG AT THE END OF
EACH ROLL BEFORE STARTING UPRIGHT
SLIGHTLY NEGATIVE GM IS APT TO LOLL (STAYING
HEELED AT ANGLE OF INCLINATION WHERE RIGHTING
AND UPSETTING FORCES ARE EQUAL) AND FLOP FROM
SIDE TO SIDE
NEGATIVE GM WILL CAPSIZE WHEN INCLINED
3 BASIC CONDITIONS WHICH MAY CAUSE THE
SHIP TO TAKE ON A PERMANENT LIST:

## • G MOVED OFF CENTERLINE (99%)

• -GM (1%)
• COMBINATION OF -GM AND G OFF CL

G G G2
G G2

M M
Internal Righting Moment

Where:

## GZ is the righting arm in feet.

A ship in static equilibrium is affected by outside forces that will alter its state
of equilibrium.

MT

Wind

Water
Resistance

The forces of wind- and the opposing force of the water below the waterline- will
cause an external moment couple about the ship’s center of flotation.
The ship reacts to this external moment couple by pivoting about F, causing a
shift in the center of buoyancy.

MT

Wind

B Water
Resistance

The center of buoyancy will shift because the submerged volume will change.

## Note that there is no change in weight or it’s distribution so there is NO change

in the location of G!
Because the location of B changes, the location of where the FB is applied also
changes. Because G does not move, the location of the Δs force does not change.

MT
Ds

FB

The displacement force and the buoyant for are no longer aligned. The heeling
over causes the creation of an internal moment couple.
The external moment couple causes the creation of the internal moment couple
to oppose it.

MT
Ds
Wind

F
B Water
Resistance
FB

## As a result, the ship is now back into equilibrium, even as it

heels over due to the wind force.
We are concerned with the created internal moment caused by the offsetting
of the ship’s weight and the buoyant force.

Ds MT

f
Z

FB

The offset distance of the applied forces, GZ, is called the MOMENT ARM. The
length of this moment arm is a function of the heeling angle, φ.
Remember that a moment is created when a force acts at a
distance from a given point.

In the case of the created internal moment couple, we have the two force, Ds
and FB, acting over the distance GZ.

## The created moment is called the internal

RM = GZDs = GZFB
This illustrates just one potential moment arm based upon one particular
angle of φ. There are an infinite number of angles possible, therefore, an
infinite number of moment arms that vary with the degree of heel, φ.

Ds MT

f
Z

FB

If we can plot the heeling angle f versus the created moment arm GZ, we can create
the Intact Statical Stability Curve.
DEFINITIONS
ROLL -The action of a vessel involving
a recurrent motion (Longitudinal Axis).

## HEEL - Semi-permanent angle of

inclination, caused by external
forces.
LIST - Permanent angle of inclination
caused by a shift in the center of
gravity so as to cause G off CL, a
-GM, or a combination of the two.
MH1o = GM x Wf x 0.01746

wxd
List =
MH1o
INCLINING EXPERIMENT
Completed upon commissioning, and
following each major overhaul or
shipalt.
It is done to verify the exact location
of the ship's center of gravity (KG).
Basis for updates to Section II(a) of the
DC book and for changes to weight
and moment compensation status
INACCURACIES
1. UNACCOUNTED FOR FSE
2. MOVEMENT OF PERSONNEL
3. INACCURATE WEIGHTS
4. TAUGHT LINES
5. POOR WEIGHT VERIFICATION
WALK THROUGH
MOB-D-6-SF Righting Ship
Conducted: Every 18 Months (SEMI annual
for CG)

## Purpose: To train the damage control

organization in correcting a list.

## Requirements: Condition 1 and zebra set.

Liquid loading may be varied to put an
actual list or trim on the ship if desired.
REASONS FOR BALLASTING
• INCREASE WEIGHT LOW TO IMPROVE
STABILITY
• ELIMINATE EXCESSIVE LIST / TRIM
• COUNTERFLOOD FOLLOWING DAMAGE
TO OFF CENTER COMPARTMENT
• EXPLOSION ABSORPTION (CV & CVN)
• WET WELL OPERATIONS (AMPHIBS)
• GROUNDING “Weigh the ship down hard”
• SUPPRESS FREE SURFACE EFFECT
DEFINITION
• BALLASTING is the process of filling low
compartments from the sea to improve
ship stability or control list / trim.

## • BALLASTING systems may be

independent (clean ballast) or they may
incorporate sections of the fuel and
drainage systems (dirty ballast).
LIQUID BALLAST SYSTEMS

• AUTOMATIC
(FUEL OIL COMPENSATION)

• MANUAL SYSTEMS
MANUAL BALLAST SYSTEMS

• INDEPENDENT

## • FUEL TANK SYSTEMS

ARGUMENTS AGAINST
BALLASTING
• "It Will Destroy My Tanks"- MPA
• "I've Never Seen It Done Before. It Must
Not Be Necessary." - CHENG
• "When We Pump Out The Ballast Tanks, It
Will Pollute The Water." - CO
BALLASTING RESPONSIBILITIES OF DCA

## • Maintain Awareness Of Ship's Liquid Loading

Condition. (Full Load - Min Ops)
• Determine The Risks Associated With Violating
LLI And Report To CHENG If Necessary.
– HOGGING AND SAGGING STRESSES.
– SUBMERGING LIMITING DRAFT MARKS.
– SURVIVABILITY OF BEAM WINDS AND SEAS.
– MAINTAIN ADEQUATE METACENTRIC HEIGHT.
• Ensure Most Current Fuel And Water Report Is
Posted Daily At Each Repair Locker and DC
Central.
M

## G Z THE THREE CONDITIONS

B1
OF STABILITY
POSITIVE

G M

B
B1

G
NEUTRAL
M

B
B1

NEGATIVE
POSITIVE STABILITY

CL
NEUTRAL STABILITY

M G

CL
NEGATIVE STABILITY
G
M

CL
CAUSES of -GM
1. Removal of low weights
2. Addition of high weights (ice)
3. Moving weights upward
4. Free Surface Effect
5. Free Communication Effect
Curve of Intact Statical Stability

or

## – Shows the Heeling Angle (f) versus the

righting arm (GZ).

## – Assumes the vessel is heeled over quasi-

statically in calm water (i.e. external moments
are applied in infinitely small steps).
This is a typical curve. Notice that it plots the angle of heel on the x-axis and the
righting arm on the y-axis.

The curve is in both the 1st and 3rd quadrants (the 3rd shows a heel to port).
Typically only the curve showing a heel to starboard is shown as it is symmetrical.
Measure of Overall Stability

## Curve of Statical Stability

Range of Stability
Slope is a measure of tenderness or stiffness.
Righting Arm - Dynamical Stability
GZ -(feet) Maximum Righting Arm

## Angle of Maximum Righting Arm

Angles of Inclination: f (Degrees)
RIGHTING ARM CURVE
RIGHTING ARMS (FT)

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
ANGLE OF HEEL (DEGREES)

60°
40°
20°
G Z G Z G Z
B B B

GZ = 1.4 FT GZ = 2.0 FT GZ = 1 FT
ANGLE OF
MAXIMUM RIGHTING MAXIMUM

## RIGHTING ARMS (FT)

ARM RIGHTING
ARM
MAXIMUM
DANGER RANGE OF
ANGLE STABILITY

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
ANGLE OF HEEL (DEGREES)

60°
40°
20°
G Z G Z G Z
B B B

GZ = 1.4 FT GZ = 2.0 FT GZ = 1 FT
Intact Statical Stability

4.5

3.5
Moment Arm GZ

2.5

1.5

0.5

0
0 25 50 75 85
Heeling Angle f

The above chart plots the data presented in the text on p. 4-6 an 4-7.
Intact Statical Stability

4.5

3.5
Moment Arm GZ

2.5

1.5

0.5

0
0 25 50 75 85
Heeling Angle f

With φ at 0 degrees, the moment arm is also is 0. The buoyant force and the ship’s
weight are aligned. No moment is created.
Intact Statical Stability

4.5

3.5
Moment Arm GZ

2.5

1.5

0.5

0
0 25 50 75 85
Heeling Angle f

As the angle of heel increases, the moment arm also increases. At 25 degrees,
shown here, GZ is 2.5ft.
Intact Statical Stability

4.5

3.5
Moment Arm GZ

2.5

1.5

0.5

0
0 25 50 75 85
Heeling Angle f

As the angle increases, the moment arm increases to a maximum… here it is 4ft.
As φ increases beyond this point the moment arm begins to decrease and the ship
becomes in danger of capsizing…
Intact Statical Stability

4.5

3.5
Moment Arm GZ

2.5

1.5

0.5

0
0 25 50 75 85
Heeling Angle f

...Remember, the internal moment couple created here is in response to the external
couple created by outside forces. At GZ max the ship is creating its maximum
internal moment. If the external moment is greater than the internal moment,
then the ship will continue to heel over until capsized.
Intact Statical Stability

4.5

3.5
Moment Arm GZ

2.5

1.5

0.5

0
0 25 50 75 85
Heeling Angle f

The angle of heel continues to increase, but the moment arm GZ, and thus
the internal moment couple, decreases.
Intact Statical Stability

4.5

3.5
Moment Arm GZ

2.5

1.5

0.5

0
0 25 50 75 85
Heeling Angle f

The angle has now increased to the point that G and B are now aligned again,
but not in a good way. GZ is now at 0 and no internal moment couple is
present. Beyond this point the ship is officially capsized, unable to right itself.
MP
CFD

LCF

## LCF - The Longitudinal Center of

Flotation
DRAG - A design feature having
the draft aft greater than
the draft fwd. Primarily
done to increase plant
effectiveness.

DWL
16' 0" 14' 0"
DRAG = 2 FT By the Stern
TRIM - The difference between
the forward and after
drafts in excess of drag.

DRAG = 0

16' 14'
TRIM = 2 FT By the Stern
Trimming Moment = w x TA

AP MP FP
TA
w
LCF

Change in Trim(CT) = TM
MT1"
Trimming Moment = w x TA

AP MP FP
AP MP FP

LCF CT
LCF

Change in Trim(CT) = TM
MT1"
df CT
df = CT
LBP/2 + LCF = LBP
LBP
LBP/2 + dfLCF CT
=
(LBP/2
LBP/2 dfLCF + LCF)
+ LBP
CT
df = = x CT
LBP/2 + dfLCFLBP LBP CT
=
LBP/2 +dfLCF LBP
CT
CT = d=f + da
LBP/2 + dfLCF LBP
CT
=
LBP/2da+d=fLCF
CT - LBPdCTf
=
LBP/2 + LCF LBP
w
PARALLEL SINKAGE =
TPI
Parallel Sinkage (PS) is the distance
that the drafts fore and aft increase due
to a weight addition.

## Parallel Rise (PR) is the distance that

the drafts fore and aft decrease due to
a weight removal.

PARALLEL RISE = -w
TPI
ABILITY TO REFLOAT

## “IF THE PROPS ARE REVERSED AND THERE IS

NO TENDENCY OF THE SHIP TO BACK AWAY
FROM THE BEACH, NO FURTHER ATTEMPTS TO
MOVE THE SHIP BY MEANS OF THE PROPELLERS
SHOULD BE USED.”

## NSTM 079 VOL 1

REPAIR PARTY MANUAL
NTTP 3-20.31
Curve of Intact Statical Stability Caveats!

## Predictions made by the Curves of Intact Statical

Stability are not accurate for dynamic seaways
because additional external forces and momentum
are not included in the analysis. ”Added Mass”
However, it is a simple, useful tool for comparison
and has been used to develop both intact and
damaged stability criterion.
Curve of Intact Statical Stability

## – Vessel is upright when no external forces are

applied and the Center of Gravity is assumed on
the centerline. (Hydrostatics)

## – As an external force is applied, the vessel

heels over causing the Center of Buoyancy to
move off the centerline. The Righting Arm (GZ) is
no longer zero.
Curve of Intact Statical Stability

## – As the angle of heel increases, the Center of Buoyancy

moves farther and farther outboard (increasing the
Righting Arm).

## – The max Righting Arm will happen when the Center of

Buoyancy is the furthest from the CG. This is max
stability.

## – If the vessel continues to heel, the Center of Buoyancy

will move back towards the CG and the Righting Arm
will decrease.
Curve of Intact Statical Stability

## – Since stability is a function of displacement,

there is a different curve for each displacement
and KG. These are called the Cross Curves.
For all ships, there exists the CROSS CURVES OF STABILITY.
Like the Curves of Form, they are a series of curves presented on a common axis.

## • The x-axis is the ship’s displacement, Δs, in LT

• The y-axis is the righting arm, GZ, in ft
• A series of curves are presented, each representing a different angle of heel f

## By plotting the data from the Cross Curves of Stability for a gi

displacement, you can create an Intact Statical Stability Curve
In the Cross Curves of Stability, the data is presented assuming that:

## KG = 0 (on the keel)

This is, of course, not realistic. It is done this way so that the curves may be
generalized for all drafts.

Once the curve data is recorded and plotted, a sine correction factor
must be applied, shifting the KG to its correct position in order to get the

## TRUE MOMENT RIGHTING ARM VALUE.

Stability at Large Angles of Inclination

## The transverse metacenter height is a measure of the

stability under ‘initial stability’ (aka small angle
stability).

## When the angle of inclination exceeds 5 degrees, the

metacenter can be no longer regarded as a fixed point
relative to the ship. Hence, the transverse metacenter
height (GM) is no longer a suitable criterion for measuring
the stability of the ship and it is usual to use the value of the
righting arm GZ for this purpose.
•The Derivation of Atwood’s Formula
W0 L0 : W.L. when the ship is at upright position.
W1 L1 : W.L. when the ship is inclined at an angle θ.
If the ship section is not vertically sided, the two W.L.,
underneath which there must be the same volume, do not
intersect on the center line (as in the initial stability) but at S.

v  he hi
B0 R 

GZ  B0 R  GB0  sin q
v  he hi
  GB0  sin q

Atwood Formula
v  he hi
B0 R  Atwood Formula

v  he hi
GZ  B0 R  GB0  sin q   GB0  sin q

• GZ vs. q

## The ship is unstable beyond B. (even if the upsetting moment

is removed, the ship will not return to its upright position).
From 0 to B, the range of angles represents the range of
stabilities.
Ex. Righting arm of a ship vertically sided (A special
example to compute GZ at large angle inclinations)

## Transverse moment of volume shifted =

L 1  4  L 2 2 L 3
  q   q  dx  I x tan q I x   y dx
3
 y y tan   y  dx tan y
0
 2   3  0 3
3 0
Volume arm

## Transverse shift of C.B.

I x tan q
  B0 M tan q

Ex. Righting arm of a ship vertically sided (A special
example to compute GZ at large angle inclinations)

## Similarly, vertical moment of volume shifted =

L 1  2 L1 1
  q  q  q   q
2 3 2
 y y tan  y tan dx tan y dx I x tan
0
2  3 0 3 2

Volume Arm

## Vertical shift of C.B.

1
 I x tan 2 q / 
2
Ex. Righting arm of a ship vertically sided (A special
example to compute GZ at large angle inclinations)

Ix 1 Ix
B0 R   cos q   sin q  sin q  tan 2 q sin q
 2
Ix  1 
 sin q 1  tan 2 q 
 2 
when q 1 small angle inclination, B0 R  sin q I x /   q  I x /    q B0 M

 1 
GZ  B0 R  B0G  sin q  sin q  B0 M  B0G  B0 M tan 2 q 
 2 
 1 2  Ix
 sin q GM  B0 M tan q  , where B0 M  .
 2  
This formula is called 'walled sided formula' or the 'box formula'.
when q 1 small angle inclination, GZ  q  GM
• Cross Curves of Stability
It is difficult to ascertain the exact W.L. at which a ship would
float in the large angle inclined condition for the same
displacement as in the upright condition. The difficulty can be
avoided by obtaining the cross curves of stability (see p44).

How to Computing
them
•Assume the position
of C.G. (not known
exactly)
•W.L. I - V should
cover the range of
various displacements
which a ship may
have.
Cross Curves Example

Righting
Arm 30 degrees heel
(feet) 5

10 degrees heel
2.5
At 2000 LT, the ship
Has a RA of 2.5’ @10o
0 Heel and 5’ @30o
1000 2000 3000
Displacement (LT)
Curve of Intact Statical Stability / “Righting Arm Curve”
Assumes:
– Quasi-static conditions
– Given Displacement
– Given KG

## Cross Curves of Stability

– Since MT moves as a function of φ, Righting Arms
are calculated for each φ at regular intervals
– Assumes a value of KG
Measure of Overall Stability

## From the Curves of Intact Stability the following

Measures of Overall Stability can be made:

– Range of Stability

## – Angle of Maximum Righting Moment

– Dynamical Stability

## – Measure of Tenderness or Stiffness

Measure of Overall Stability

Range of Stability

## – The range of angles for which there exists a

positive righting moment.

## – The greater the range of stability, the less

likely the ship will capsize.

## – If the ship is heeled to any angle in the range

of stability, the ship will exhibit an internal
righting moment that will right the ship if the
external moment ceases.
Measure of Overall Stability

produce.

## – Calculated by multiplying the displacement of

the vessel times the maximum Righting Arm.

## – The larger the Maximum Righting Moment, the

less likely the vessel is to capsize.
Measure of Overall Stability

## – The angle of inclination where the maximum

Righting Arm occurs. Beyond this angle, the
Righting Arm decreases.

## – It is desirable to have a larger maximum angle

so that at large angles of heel in a rolling ship
the righting moment will continue to increase.
Measure of Overall Stability

Dynamical Stability:

## – The work done by quasi-statically rolling the ship

through its range of stability to the capsizing angle.

## – Can be calculated by the equation: D s  GZ df . This is

equal to the product of the ship’s displacement with
the area under the Curve of Intact Statical Stability.

Stability.

## – Does not account for the actual dynamics, because it

neglects the impact of waves and momentum.
Measure of Overall Stability

## – The initial slope of the intact statical stability curve

indicates the rate at which a righting arm is developed as
the ship is heeled over. This slope is GM!

## – A steep initial slope indicates the rapid development of a

righting arm and the vessel is said to be stiff. Stiff vessels
have short roll periods and react strongly to external
heeling moments.

## – A small initial slope indicates the slower development of a

righting arm and the vessel is said to be tender. Tender
vessel have longer roll periods and react sluggishly to
external heeling moments.
Example: Plot the Intact Statical Stability Curve for an FFG-7 displacing 5000LT

Step #1. From the Cross Curves of Form, find the 5000LT displacement value
on the x-axis.

Step #2. Record the righting arm value for each curve, from φ = 0 to 80 degrees

## Step #3. Draw the curve, using φ as x-axis, and GZ as y-axis

Intact Statical Stability Curve for FFG-7 @ Ds = 5000LT

f GZ
0 0.00
5 2.00 Intact Statical Stability, FFG-7
10 3.80 25
15 5.80
20 7.75 20
Moment arm GZ
25 9.75
30 11.75 15
35 13.30
40 14.75 10
45 16.10
50 17.20 5
55 18.00
60 18.60 0
65 19.00 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90
70 19.30 Heeling Angle
80 19.50

## … But a correction must still be made!!

Example Problem
The Statical
Stability curve
applies to a ship Curve of Intact Statical Stability
with D=3600LT. 5

## Righting Arm (GZ)(ft)

3

0
The ship is being -1
-10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

pulled sideways -2

## tug attached to the

ship 10ft above the
Waterline. How
much force is the
tug applying to the
tow line?
Example Answer
F=10°
FTug
10ft
F
G B Water
FB
D Resistance

RM=GZΔ=1.2ft×3600LT=4320ft-LT

## Upsetting Moment from Tug=FTug×10ft=RM

(in static equilibrium)

FTug=4320ft-LT/10ft=432LT
4.5 Effect of a Vertical Shift in the Center of
Gravity on the Righting Arm
In the Cross Curves of Stability, the data is presented assuming that:

## KG = 0 (on the keel)

This is, of course, not realistic. It is done this way so that the curves may be
generalized for all drafts.

Once the curve data is recorded and plotted, a sine correction factor
must be applied,shifting the KG to its correct position in order to get the
TRUE MOMENT RIGHTING ARM VALUE.
– Must Apply a Sine Correction if:
• Using the Curve of Intact Statical Stability to correct for G not being
located at K
• Correcting the Curve of Intact Statical Stability for vertical
movements of G
The external moment couple causes the creation of the internal moment couple
to oppose it.

MT
Ds
Wind

B Water
Resistance
FB

## External Moment Couple = Internal Moment Couple

When the ship heels over, the center of buoyancy, B, shifts. The shift creates a
distance or “moment arm”.

MT

Z0

B1

## G0Z0 = Moment Arm

For values taken from the Cross Curves of Stability, G0 is at the keel...

MT

B1

Z0
G0Z0 = Moment Arm

## This value is recorded as G0Z0, the Initial Moment Arm.

The KG value for the ship is given… this is the ACTUAL G position from the keel...

MT

B1

KG forms a similar
triangle that gives the Z0
value for the SINE
correction
Sin f = opp
hyp

hyp = KG

MT

B1

Z0

MT

Zv
B1

Z0

## GvZv = G0Z0 - KG sinf

Effect of a Vertical Shift in the Center of
Gravity on the Righting Arm
As KG rises the righting arm (GZ) decreases.

Where:

## – G0 is the initial location of KG.

– Typically, G0GV=KGfinal
Effect of a Vertical Shift in the Center of
Gravity on the Righting Arm

MT
Sine Correction: Ds
F
-
GvZv = G0Z0 G0Gv sin F
G Z

## Go, Zo=initial locations G0 P Z

0
Gv, Zv=final positions WL

B0
B

Fb
Effect of Increased Displacement on the Righting Arm

## A higher displacement should increase the Righting

Moment as RM= Displacement * RA

## But, if the added weight is high, then the KG increase

could cause a reduction in GZ

## Weight added low down usually increases stability

Effect of a Vertical Shift in the Center of
Gravity on the Righting Arm
4.6 Stability Change for Transverse Shift in CG

## So far we have only considered the case where the

Center of Gravity is on the centerline (TCG=0).

## The center of gravity may be moved off the

centerline by weight additions, removals, or shifts
such as cargo loading, ordnance firing, and
movement of crew.
Stability Change for Transverse Shift in the CG

Gv G t cos F MT
F
Gv
F

Gt
Port Starboard

Ds
W1 F L1
Gv ZV
F Gt Zt
B1

Fb
The red line indicates the COSINE Correction factor for a transverse
change in G.

f
Zv

GT ZT

Note that GvGT is the TCG value and is the hypotenuse of this correction triangle...

## Cosine Corr = GvGT cosf

The final moment arm, GTZT, is the correct moment arm

f
Zv

GT ZT

## GTZT = GvZv - GvGT cosf

Stability Change for Transverse Shift in the CG

## The new righting arm created by a shift in TCG may be

computed at each angle from the Cosine Correction:

## GtZt = GvZv - GvGt cos F

...Typically, GVGt=TCGfinal
Stability Change for Transverse Shift in the CG

## The new righting arm (GtZt) created due to the shift in

the transverse center of gravity is either shorter or longer
than the righting arm created if TCG=0.

## The range of stability has decreased on the side that the

transverse center of gravity has shifted to but has
increased on the side it shifted from.
Combining both the vertical and horizontal corrections by
GZ
substituting for v v you can get a final general formula for
determining moment arms:

## GTZT = G0Z0 - KG sinf - GvGT

cosf
Example Curves
ine Correction
Statical Stability Curve and Corrections

15
Righting Arm from Cross Curves
10 With Sine Correction
With Cosine Correction
Righting Arm (GZ)(ft)

-5

-10

-15
Angle of Heel (degrees)
Various Righting Arm Conditions
D D
G
B G Z D
B G Z
FB B
FB
F=0 F=30 FB
F=RAMax

D D
G G
B B
FB FB
F=Capsize Angle F= >Capsize Angle
LIMITATIONS

## • Follow Liquid Loading Instructions

• No Abnormal Topside Weights
• Don’t Submerge Limiting Draft Marks
• Maintain Watertight Integrity
Example Problem
FFG-7, with draft 13.5ft , which would
otherwise be on an even keel, is heeling
15° to starboard in a gale. KG is 17ft.
What is the Righting Moment?
Example Answer
• RM=GZΔ
• GVZV=G0Z0-G0GVsinF
• From Curves of Form:
Draft of 13.5ft-> Δ =100×30LT=3000LT
• From Cross Curves for Δ =3000LT, φ=15°,
G0Z0=6ft
• G0GV=KG=17ft
• GVZV=6ft-17ft×sin(15°)=1.6ft
• RM=1.6ft×3000LT=4800ft-LT
Example Problem
• FFG-7, with draft 13.5ft, which would
otherwise be on an even keel, is heeling
15° to port in a gale. KG is 17ft. While
in this condition, 50LTs of unsecured
stores shift from 20 ft starboard of
centerline to 20ft port of centerline.

## • What would the Righting Moment be if

the weight had shifted the other way?
Example Answer
• RM=GZ Δ

• GfZf=G0Z0-G0GVsin φ -GVGtcosφ
• From Curves of Form:
Draft of 13.5ft-> Δ =100×30LT=3000LT

• G0GV=KG=17ft

## • GVGt= TCGf=(TCG0 Δ 0+STcgawa-STcgrwr)/ Δ f

=(0ft×3000LT+(-)40ft×50LT)/3000LT=(-).67ft
• GfZf=(-)6ft-17ft×sin(-15°)-(-.67ft)×cos(-15°)=(-).953ft
• RM=(-).953ft×3000LT=(-)2860ft-LT vice (-)4800ft-LT in the case
without the weight shift (~40% reduction)
• GfZf=(-)6ft-17ft×sin(-15°)-(+.67ft)×cos(-15°)=(-)2.247ft
• RM=(-)2.247ft×3000LT=(-)6741ft-LT vice (-)4800ft-LT in the case
without the weight shift (~40% improvement)
• Cross Curves of Stability
Computation Procedures

## 3. By longitudinal integration along the length, we obtain the

displacement volume, the distances from the B.C. to y-axis
(i.e. the righting arm GZ) under the every W.L.

## 5. Plot the cross curves of stability.

Cross Curves of Stability

These curves show that the righting arm (GZ) changes with the
change of displacement given the inclination angle of the ship.
For the sake of understanding ‘cross curves of stability’ clearly,
here is a 3-D plot of ‘cross curves of stability.’

The curved
surface is

GZ  f (q , )
• Curve of Static Stability
‘Curve of static stability’ is a curve of righting arm GZ as a
function of angle of inclination for a fixed displacement.

## 1. How to determine a curve of statical stability from a 3-D of

‘cross curves of stability.’ (C.C.S.), e.g., the curve of static
stability is the intersection of the curved surface and the plane
of a given displacement.

## 2. Determining a C.S.S. from 2-D ‘C.C.S.’ is to let displcement

= const., which intersects those cross curves at point A, B,…,
see the figure.
GZ
• Influences of movement of G.C on ‘curve of static
stability’

## 1. Vertical movement (usually due to the correction of G.C

position after inclining experiment.)

## G1Z1  GZ  GG1 sin q

• Influences of movement of G.C on ‘curve of static
stability’

## 2. Transverse movement (due to the transverse movement of

some loose weight)

wh
GG1 

## Weight moving from the

left to the right
• Features of A Curve of Static Stability
1. Rises steadily from the origin and for the first few degrees is
practically a straight line.
Near the origin GZ = θ * slope & slope = ?, why?

## 2. Usually have a point of inflexion, concave upwards and

concave downwards, then reaches maximum, and afterwards,
declines and eventually crosses the base (horizontal axis).

1 radian
The maximum righting arm & the range of stability are to a
large extent a function of the freeboard.

stability

## Using the watertight superstructures Larger GZmax &

the range of stability
4.10 Dynamic Stability

## Static stability: we only compute the righting arm (or

moment) given the angle of inclination. A true measure of
stability should considered dynamically.

## • Dynamic Stability: Calculating the amount of work done by

the righting moment given the inclination of the ship.
a a max
W    w  GZ  dq Wmax    w  GZ  dq
0 0
Influence of Wind on Stability: Upsetting moment due to
beam wind

M  kAhV 2 cos 2 q
k - an empirical coeff.
A - projected area of the
ship above the W.L
V - nominal wind velocity
h - distance from the half
draft to wind pressure
center.
q - the angle of inclination
w.r.t. the beam
When the ship is in upright position, the steady beam wind starts to
blow and the ship begins to incline. At point A, the M(wind) =
M(righting), do you think the ship will stop inclining at A? Why?

## The inclination will usually not stop at A. Because the rolling

velocity of a ship is not equal to zero at A, the ship will continue to
incline. To understand this, let’s review a simple mechanical
problem
The external force
F = constant
The work done by it
WF  Fx1 F
R F

If at x  x1 , R  kx1  F No Friction
X
the work done by the X=
0
X = X1

spring force R,
x1 x1 1 2
WR    Rdx    kxdx   kx1
0 0 2
1 2 1 2
The total work WF  WR  Fx1  kx1  mv  ER
2 2
Hence, the block will continue to move to the right. It will not
stop until
ER  WF  WR  0, at x  x2
In a ship-rolling case:

a
Work done by the upright moment
Wup    w   GM  dq
0

## Work done by the wind force a

Wwind   M wind  dq
0
It will stop rolling (at E) Wup  Wwind

## or simply, AreaODA  Area AEF

• Consideration in Design (The most sever case
concerning the ship stability)
Suppose that the ship is inclining at angle q 0 and begins to
roll back to its upright position. Meanwhile, the steady
beam wind is flowing in the same direction as the ship is
θ
going to roll. 0

Wind
Standards for USN warships:
1) q =30 , AGZ  0.055m  rad
q =45 or q max , AGZ  0.09m  rad
30  q  45 , AGZ  0.03m  rad
2) GZ  0.2m, at q =30
3) GZ MAX occurs at q  30
4) GM  0.15m
Standards of Stability: ships can withstand

## M turning  MV 2 h / r , h - distance between C.G to the half draft

r - radius of turning circle, M - mass, V - velocity of ship.

## 4. lifting weights over one side (the C.G. of the

weight is acting at the point of suspension);

## 5. the crowding of passengers to one side.

Flooding & Damaged Stability

## So far we consider the stability of an intact ship. In the event of

collision or grounding, water may enter the ship. If flooding is
not restricted, the ship will eventually sink. To prevent this, the
hull is divided into a number of watertight compartments by
watertight bulkheads. (see the figure)

## • Minimize the loss of stability

SHIP SINKINGS WATER
G LEVEL

• BODILY SINKAGE
LOSS OF BUOYANCY
B

• CAPSIZING
LOSS OF TRANSVERSE STABILITY

• PLUNGING
LOSS OF LONGITUDINAL
STABILITY

• BREAKING UP
LOSS OF SHIP'S GIRDER
How Does a Ship Sink?
• 3 of the 6 Degrees of Freedom can sink a ship
• Foundering(heave): Ship fills up with water from the
bottom up and simply sinks on a relatively even keel
(Loss of Buoyancy)
• Overwhelm and Capsize: Ship still floats and is stable
but has insufficient Righting Arm and Dynamical
Stability for weather and sea conditions, which
eventually roll the ship past range of stability
• Plunging: Pitch angle becomes excessive causing
the ship to sink bow or stern first
• Progressive Flooding: Excessive list and/or trim angle
and/or failure of bulkheads adjacent to flooded
compartments resulting in one or more of the loss
modes above.
Damage Stability

## “Flooding” - Water ingression such that the

vessel has sinkage and trim but no list. May be
intentional.

## “Damage” - Water ingression such that the vessel

has sinkage, trim and list.
When a vessel is damaged, creating a a gap or hole in the hull,
water will breech the ship. This results in:

• Increase in draft
• Change in trim
• Permanent angle of list

## • Lost Buoyancy Method

• Added Weight Method
Consider a vessel that has been damaged such that a portion of the bottom
is now open to the sea...

The vessel’s draft will increase because an amount of the buoyancy was lost...
Lost buoyancy considers the amount of buoyancy “lost” as a result of the hole,
and determines the value based upon the change in parallel sinkage that results.

Original draft

The change in the draft reflects the amount of buoyancy lost. The ship sinks until
the available submerged volume is again equal to the ship’s displacement
Lost Buoyancy Method

## Analyzes damage by changes in buoyancy versus

changes in the Center of Gravity.

## Premise is that the ship’s CG does not move. Since

weight does not change, total buoyant volume must
also be constant.

## Therefore, the ship makes up any lost buoyancy

volume from damage by listing, trimming, and draft
changes.
The Added Weight Method considers the resulting flooding as though it was a
weight added to the ship. This is the method that will be used in this course.

Original draft

A flooded compartment does not fill completely with water, however. Compartments
contain equipment, furniture, structural components, and cargo. A correction factor
must be added to the volume of the compartment to accurately reflect conditions...
This correction factor is called:

TOTAL VOLUME

## Some typical factors are:

Watertight compartment (warship) 97%
Watertight compartment (merchant) 95%
Accommodation spaces 95%
Machinery spaces 85%
Dry cargo spaces 70%
Bunkers, stores, cargo holds 60%
Added Weight Method
“The One We Will Use”

Filled Spaces.

## Average Distances of Space from Keel, Midships, and

Centerline Known & Water Density Known.

## Therefore Can Solve for Shifts in “G” as a Weight

Addition Problem
Added Weight Method

– KG

– TCG

## Must know compartment contents to find Total of

(Water Weight) Added. This involves a
“Permeability” factor.
Permeability

## Compartments are rarely 100% flooded during

damage, due to trapped air, equipment, etc.

## – Ratio of volume occupied by water to the total

gross volume is defined as “permeability”.

## Permeability = Volume Available for Flooding

Total Gross Volume

## – Permeability is always < or = to 100%!

Damage Stability Design Criteria

## Note that criteria used in static analysis will

neglect the impact of dynamic forces such
as wind and waves.
Damage Stability Design Criteria

• “MARGIN LINE”

• “LIST”

## • “EXTENT OF DAMAGE TO HULL”

MARGIN LINE LIMIT

## • Highest permissible location of any

damaged waterplane.

## • Must be at least 3 inches (0.075 m) below

top of the bulkhead deck at the side.
LIST LIMIT

## • Naval machinery to operate indefinitely at a

permanent list  15 degrees (most will function
up to ~25 degrees for a few hours).

## • Assumes personnel can continue damage control

efforts effectively at a permanent list of 20
degrees.

## • Ship must possess adequate stability against

weather to be towed when at 20 degree list.
EXTENT OF DAMAGE TO THE HULL LIMIT

space.

compartments.

## Warships, troop transports and hospital ships over

300 ft LOA: hull opening up to 15 % of Lpp.

## Others  300 ft: hull opening up to 12.5% of Lpp.

Foundering and Plunging

## A vessel as result of “damage” or other events can

be lost several ways:

## Insufficient transverse stability. It rolls over.

– (Could be static or dynamic.)

## If insufficient buoyancy. It sinks. “Foundering”

Example Problem
An FFG-7 with a draft of 13.5ft and a KG of 19ft on an
even keel inport sails into the North Atlantic during
Winter.
– While there, topside becomes coated with a 6in thick coating of ice
of density of 55lb/ft³. The topside area covered is 20,500ft² and
has a Kg of 40ft.

## – In this condition, a space heater in CIC shorts generating a fire

which is only extinguished by completely filling the 97% permeable
40ft×40ft×10ft space with firefighting (sea) water. The space is
centered 45ft above the keel and 2.5ft port of centerline.

What is the Righting Moment for a 15° port list and how
could the resulting problem have been prevented?
Example Answer
• wice=ρgV=55lb/ft³×.5ft×20,500ft²×1LT/2240lb =252LT(@Kg=40ft)
• wffwater= ρ gV=64lb/ft³×40ft×40ft×10ft×.97×1LT/2240lb
=443LT(@Kg=45ft)
• Δ(Curves of Form[T=13.5ft])=100×30LT=3000LT
• KGf=(KG0 Δ 0+Kgawa-Kgrwr)/ Δ f
• KGf=(19ft×3000LT+40ft×252LT+45ft×443LT) /(3000LT+252LT+443LT)
• KGf=23.5ft
• TCGf=(TCG0 Δ 0+Tcgawa-Tcgrwr)/ Δ f
• TCGf=(0ft×3000LT+0ft×252LT+(-)2.5ft×443LT) /(3695LT)
• TCGf=(-)0.3ft
• G0Z0(Cross Curves[Δ =3695LT; φ =(-)15°])=(-)6ft
• GfZf=G0Z0-KGfsinφ-TCGfcosF
• GfZf=(-)6ft-23.5ft×sin(-15°)-(-.3ft)×cos(-15°)=(+).372ft
Example Answer
• R.M.=Δ×GfZf=3695LT×0.372ft=(+)1375ft-LT to port for a
port list: The ship capsizes!

• KMt(Curves of Form[Δ=3695LT;T=15.25ft])=112*.2ft=22.4ft
(GMt=KMt-KGf=22.4ft-23.5ft=(-)1.1ft; Stable?)

## • Center of Gravity is above Metacenter; ship rolls to port

due to offset of flooded compartment and capsizes.

## • Prevent by keeping topside clear of ice and dewatering fire

spaces as soon as possible.
Free Surface Correction
(Small Angles of Heel)
Free Surface - A “fluid” that moves freely.

## Fluid Shift is a weight and causes the CG to shift

in both the vertical and horizontal directions.

usually ignored.

## – Horizontal shift always causes a reduction in

the righting arm (GZ).
Vertical Weight Shifts
GG1 = KG1 - KGo
M

G
G 1
GG1 G
G 1
1
G
G 1
1
G
G11
KG1
KGo B
KG1 = (Wo x KGo) ± (w x kg)
Wf

WHERE;
w = Weight Shifted
kg = Distance Shifted
Wo = Original Displacement
KGo = Original Height of G
Wf = Final Displacement
± = + if shift up/- if shift down
KGA = 19 FT KG1 = 19.8 FT
5
GT = GG1 x Sin O Sin 0° = 0
4 GT0°= .8FT x 0 = 0 FT Sin 30°= 0.5
RIGHTING ARMS (FT)

## GT30°= .8FT x .5 = .4 FT Sin 90°= 1.0

3
GT90°= .8FT x 1 = .8 FT

2
FINAL CURVE .8 FT
1 .4 FT X
X
0X

-1
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
ANGLE OF INCLINATION - DEGREES
Horizontal Weight Shifts

G G
G
GG
G
G
2G
222222
GG2

B
GG2 = w x d
Wf
WHERE;
w = Weight Added or Removed
d = Distance Added/Removed
from Centerline
Wf = Final Displacement
KGA = 19 FT KG1 = 19.0 FT GG2 = .9 FT
5
GP = GG2 x Cos O Cos 0° = 1.0
4
GP0°= .9FT x 1 = 0.9 FT Cos 60°= 0.5
RIGHTING ARMS (FT)

## GP60°= .9FT x .5 = .45 FT Cos 90°= 0

3
GP90°= .9FT x 0 = 0 FT

2
.9 FT FINAL CURVE
1X
.45 FT
X
0 X
Angle of List
-1
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
ANGLE OF INCLINATION - DEGREES
FREE SURFACE EFFECT

B3 x L
GG3 =
12 x 35 x Wf

B = BREADTH OF COMPT
L = LENGTH OF COMPT
Wf = SHIP'S DISPLACEMENT
FREE SURFACE EFFECT
• Greater with increased length and width
of the compartment

(de-ballasting)

## • Can be reduced by pocketing

FREE COMMUNICATION
EFFECT
B x L x Y2
G3G5 =
35 x Wf

B = BREADTH OF COMPT
L = LENGTH OF COMPT
Y = DIST FM SHIP C/L TO COMPT
COG.
Wf = SHIP'S DISPLACEMENT
FREE COMMUNICATION
EFFECT

## • COMPARTMENT OPEN TO THE SEA

• COMPARTMENT PARTIALLY FLOODED
• COMPARTMENT OFF-CENTERLINE
OR ASYMMETRICAL ABOUT THE
CENTERLINE
Free Surface Correction

## Free Surface Correction (FSC)

The distance the center of gravity would have to
rise to cause a reduction in the righting arm equivalent to
that caused by the actual transverse shift.

## "Virtual" center of gravity (Gv)

The effective position of this new VCG.

## Effective Metacentric Height (GMeff)

The distance from the virtual center of gravity (Gv)
to the metacenter.

## Note: Dynamic effects are neglected.

Free Surface Effect
Static effects for small angles (F<=7°)
– Effective “g” for tank is above tank g
analogous to relationship between M and B

MT geff

B0 g0
Bf gf
Free Surface Correction
The Big Picture
MT

GM
eff
Gv F
FSC
F WL1
G
Z F
G1 Z1
WL
B
B1
g
.
g1

K
Free Surface Effect

## The new, effective VCG is Gv, so a sine correction is

applied to get the statical stability curve

## G1Z1 = GtZt - GGv sin f

or
G1Z1 = GtZt - FSC sin f
Free Surface Correction

## The free surface correction to GM for small angle

hydrostatics is:

t it
FSC = s s

where:
t is the density of the fluid in the tank in lb s2/ft4
s is the density of the water the ship is floating in lb s2/ft4
it is the transverse moment of area of the tank's free
surface area in ft4 .
s is the underwater volume of the ship in ft3.
Free Surface Correction

## The dimensions are for the free surface!

Tank C
L
3
(L) (B) X
it =
12 L

Y B
Effect on Ship “G” and Stability

GZeff=G0Z0-G0Gvsinφ-GvGtcos φ -FSCsin φ

## – Calculation of KG, etc. is already accounted for in this

equation
– Free Surface Correction (FSC) already accounts for size of
ship.

GMeff=GM-FSC=KM-KG-FSC
– A large FSC has exactly the same effects on list and
stability as a higher KG.
How do we minimize adverse
effects of free surface effect?
• Compartmentalization
• Pocketing (Keep tanks >95% full)
• Empty Tanks
• Compensated Fuel Oil Tanks
• Dewater quickly after a casualty - flooding
or fire
4.9 Metacentric Height

## Recall that Overall Stability is measured by:

• Range of Stability

• Dynamical Stability

## • The angle at which the maximum righting

moment occurs.
Initial Slope of the Curve of Intact Stability

## At small angles, a right triangle is formed between

G, Z, and M. The righting arm may be computed:

__ __
GZ = GM sin f
As f  0, if the angle is given in radians the
equation becomes:
__ __
GZ = GM
f
Initial Slope of the Curve of Intact Stability

## Metacentric height can then be found from the initial

slope of the Curve of Intact Statical Stability:

__ __ __
GZ GZ
GM = = f (radians) (for small Angles)
sin f
__ __
GM = GZ (if f = 1 radian )
Initial Slope of the Curve of Intact Stability
To find the slope either:
– Find the change in the y-axis over a given change in the x-axis.
– Draw a straight line with the initial slope and read the value of GZ
at an angle of 57.3 degrees (i.e. one radian).
Metacentric Height

## LET’S EXAMINE EACH GM CONDITION

– GM Positive (G < M)

## – GM Zero (Neutral Stability) (G = M)

– GM Negative (G > M)
Metacentric Height

Positive Stability
Metacentric Height

Neutral Stability
Metacentric Height

Negative Stability
Metacentric Height

SUMMARIZING GM CONDITIONS

## Metacentric Height only a good indicator of

stability over small angles.

## GM is initial slope of Curve Intact Stability

Stability Status

Weight Margin
Adequate Inadequate

## Adequate Status Status

Stability 1 4
Margin
Inadequate Status Status
3 2
Example Problem
An FFG-7 with a draft of 13.5ft and a KG of 17ft on an
even keel inport goes to sea.
A space heater in CIC shorts generating a fire which is
extinguished by completely filling the 97% permeable
40ft×40ft×10ft space with firefighting (sea) water. The flooded
volume is centered 45ft above the keel and 2.5ft starboard of
centerline.

## 2. A large wave hits and forces the ship to a temporary 15°

starboard list. What is the Righting Moment?

## 3. The CIC overhead, weakened by the heat of the fire, is blown

off by a gale force wind, making the compartment now a free
surface. What is the equilibrium list angle and Righting Moment
for a temporary 15° starboard list?
Example Answer
• wffwater=ρgV=64lb/ft³×40ft×40ft×10ft×.97
×1LT/2240lb =443LT(@Kg=45ft)

## • Δ(Curves of Form[T=13.5ft]) =100×30LT=3000LT

• KGf=(KG0 Δ 0+Kgawa-Kgrwr)/ Δ f

• KGf=(17ft×3000LT+45ft×443LT) /(3000LT+443LT)
• KGf=20.6ft

• TCGf=(TCG0 Δ 0+Tcgawa-Tcgrwr)/ Δ f
• TCGf=(0ft×3000LT+2.5ft×443LT) /(3443LT)
• TCGf=0.32ft
Example Answer
• KMt(Curves of Form[Δ =3443LT;T=14.6ft]) =114×.2ft=22.8ft

• GMt=KMt-KGf=22.8ft-20.6ft=2.2ft

• tan(φ)=TCGf/GMt=0.32ft/2.2ft; φ =8.3°

## • G0Z0(Cross Curves[Δ =3443LT; φ =15°])=6ft

• GfZf=G0Z0-KGfsin φ -TCGfcos φ
• GfZf=6ft-20.6ft×sin(15°)-(.32ft)×cos(15°)=0.36ft

• R.M.= Δ ×GfZf=3443LT×0.36ft=1240ft-LT
Example Answer
CIC Overhead Blown Off:
• it=lb³/12=40ft×(40ft)³/12=213,333ft4

• VS=Δ/(ρg)=3443LT×2240lb/LT/(64lb/ft³)=120,505ft³

• FSC=(ρtit)/(ρSVS)=it/VS=1.77ft (ρt=ρS)

• GMeff=KMt-KG-FSC=22.8ft-20.6ft-1.77ft=0.43ft

## • tan(φ)=TCGf/GMeff=0.32ft/0.43ft; f=36.7°(vice 8.3°)

• GfZf=G0Z0-KGfsinφ-TCGfcos φ -FSCsin φ
• GfZf=6ft-20.6ft×sin(15°)-(.32ft)×cos(15°)-1.77ft×sin(15°)=(-)0.1ft
• R.M.= Δ ×GfZf=3443LT×(-)0.1ft=(-)344.3ft-LT(vice +1240ft-LT)

## • At 15°, ship lists starboard but wants to list further starboard to

reach 36.7°
Example Problem
Below are body plan views of three
proposals for outriggers. Sketch the
respective curves of Intact Statical
Stability and comment on the stability
and ride characteristics for each option.

G
G
G
M
Example Answer
G

G
M G
M

## StaticalGZ StaticalGZ StaticalGZ

Stability Stability Stability
F F F

## Positively stable: Unstable at Zero List: Neutrally Stable:

Very stiff roll characteristic Very likely to Loll and settle until deck hits water
on one of the outriggers Very tender roll characteristic
Too many watertight bulkheads will increase cost & weight of the
ship. It is attempted to use the fewest watertight bulkheads to
obtain the largest possible safety (or to satisfy the
requirement of rule).

## Forward peak bulkhead (0.05 L from the bow)

After peak bulkhead
Engine room: double bottom
Tanker: (US Coast Guard) Double Hull (anti pollution)

## This section studies the effects of flooding on the

1) hydrostatic properties
2) and stability
• Trim when a compartment is open to Sea

## W0 L0  W.L. before the damage

W1 L1  W.L. after the damage

If W1L1 is higher at any point than the main deck at which the
bulkheads stop (the bulkhead deck) it is usually considered
that the ship will be lost (sink) because the pressure of water
in the damaged compartments can force off the hatches and
unrestricted flooding will occur all fore and aft.
• (1) Lost buoyancy method

## 1) Computing the parallel sinkage y0  v

( A  a)
v - volume of lost buoyancy up to W0 L0
A - intact W .L. area; a - area of the damage
2) Find the midway W.L. (excluding damage
aera a ) area Am , C.F., I y ( mcf ) at draft d  0.5 y0
(d - draft before the damage).
3) Update the sinkage y1  v .
Am
I mfc  w v x
4) Find the trim MTI d  y  , Trim  (in)
2
420 L MTI d  y
2

## x  distance between the C.F. of mean W .L

& centroid of lost buoyancy of v.
v (0.5 L   )
5) Draft aft  d    Trim
Am L
v (0.5 L   )
Draft forward  d    Trim
Am L
 is the distance between C.F. & midship
Aassuming that C.F. is aft of midship & the
damage takes place of forward.
Second iteration: update the midway W .L.
d  0.5v / Am , then find new Am , and
repeat the procedures given in the previous
page.

## The iteration may be stopped if the results are

convergent, e.g. the midway W .L. of the
previous iteration & present iteration are
different by an amount smaller than a
prescribed tolerance error.
Ex. p121-123

## A vessel of constant rectangular cross-section L = 60 m, B = 10 m,

T = 3 m. ZG = 2.5 m l0 = 8 m.

w1 L1
w0
L0

l0 = 8 m
1)v  T  l0  B  3  8  10
2) Parallel sinkage
 240m 3

Aw  L  B  60 10  600m 2 y0 
v 240
  0.46m
A 520
a  l0  B  8 10  80m 2
A  Aw  a  520m 2
y
3) Draft at midway between W0L0 – W1L1 : T  3.23m
2
A  520m2 , y1  0.46m, same as y0 ,
no iteration is necessary in this case.
4) Computing Aw  a,  , I MFC .
A  Aw  a  520m 2 ,
New (damaged) W .L's. C.F.   4m & x  30m
1
I MFC  (52)3 10 m4 longitudinal moment of inertia
12
I MFC I MFC
GM L   Z B  ZG 
 
I MFC
Because  Z G  Z B

Moment for Trim per meter:

1m I MFC   w
MTI(m)  GM L    w 
L(m) L
1 (52)3 10 3 kN
 m  1.025  9.81 3
12 60 m
 19, 637 kN-m

TF  T  y 
 L 
2  
 wvx 34  w 30  240  60
 3  0.46  
L MTI 60  w 121  52 3 10
 3  0.46  2.09  5.55m

TA T  y
 L 
2  
 wvx
 1.86m
L MCT
v, x , Aw(0) a (0)

v
y (()) 
Aw(0)  a (0)

d 12  d 
(0) y ( 0)
2
(0)
Am(0) am

v
y (1) 
Am(0)  am(0)
if y
(0)
 y (1)  

## y (1) Find trim.

MTI ( at d y (1)
2 )
I mfc
MTI 
420 L

TF  d  y (1)

 L 
2    xv
L MTI

TA  d  y 
(1)  L 
2    xv
L MTI
• (2) Added Weight Method (considering the loss
of buoyancy as added weight)
also a Trial – error (iterative) method

## 2.) According to hydrostatic curve , determine W1L1 (or T) &

trim (moment caused by the added weight & MTI).

## 3.) Since we have a larger T, and v will be larger, go back to

step 1) re-compute v.

## The iterative computation continues until the difference

between two added weights v obtained from the two
consecutive computation is smaller than a prescribed error
tolerance.
• Stability in damaged condition
Increase in draft increases Z B ,
 vbb1
 ZB 

where b is the C.G of the lost buoyancy,
b1 is the C.G of the buoyancy recovered on
above the original W.L,  the porosity coeff.
of the damaged compartment.
The loss of the moment of inertia w.r.t to the
longitudinal axis I d , thus
I  Id
 KM 

 vbb1 Id Id
GM  GM (intact)    GM (intact) 
  
• Asymmetric flooding

## 1. If the inclination angle is large,

then the captain should let the
corresponding tank flooding.
Then the flooding is
symmetric.
2. If the inclination angle is small,
Lost buoyancy : v w
Heeling moment: v w y
 w GM sin q  v w y,
vy
sin q  q  ,
GM
q is the inclination angle.
•Floodable length and its computation

## Floodable Length: The F.L. at any point within the length of

the ship is the maximum portion of the length, having its center
at the point which can be symmetrically flooded at the
prescribed permeability, without immersing the margin line.
FLOODABLE LENGTH
A LIST OF FLOODABLE COMPARTMENT GROUPS IS
OFTEN FOUND. FOR EXAMPLE, FOR A FFG-7:

## STEM - FRAME 100

FRAMES - 32-140
FRAMES - 64-180
FRAMES - 100-212
FRAMES - 140-250
FRAMES - 180-292
FRAMES - 212-328
FRAMES - 250-368
FRAMES - 292-STERN

## GENERAL RULE: SHIP'S LBP > 300 FT  15% LBP

< 300 FT  2 SPACES
<100 FT  1 SPACE
FLOODABLE LENGTH DAMAGE

## First Platform Second Deck (DC Dk)

Main Deck Second Platf

328 212
HEELING EFFECTS OF BEAM WINDS
RIGHTING ARMS (FT)

FULL LOAD
AREA A = AREA B

RESERVE
B DYNAMIC
STABILITY
A ANGLE OF
MAX ROLL

ANGLE OF
SEMI-PERMANENT ANGLE OF HEEL (DEG)
HEEL
HEELING EFFECTS OF BEAM WINDS
RIGHTING ARMS (FT)

FULL LOAD

DAMAGED

## ANGLE OF HEEL (DEG)

HEELING EFFECTS OF BEAM WINDS
RIGHTING ARMS (FT)

FULL LOAD

## ANGLE OF HEEL (DEG)

Limitations to Ship’s Design Criteria
In order to maintain a satisfactory condition with regard to
stability and reserve buoyancy, the following guidelines must
be adhered to:

## • Limiting Draft Marks not Submerged Prior to

Damage
• No Abnormal Topside Weights
• Liquid Loading Instructions are Followed
• Watertight Integrity is Maintained
Bulkhead deck: The deck tops the watertight bulkhead

## Margin line: is a line 75 mm (or 3”) below the bulkhead

at the side of a ship

the margin line.

## Floodable length (in short) The length of (part of) the

ship could be flooded without loss of the ship.

## • Determine Floodable length is essential to determine

1. How many watertight compartments (bulkheads) needed
2. Factor of subdivision (How many water compartments
flooded without lost ship)
Steps for computing the F.L. given  0 , B0 , or W0 L0
1) Obtain a limit W.L.: W1 L1 ,
2) using the Bonjean Curves to obtain 1 and B1 under W1 L1.
3) 1   0  v, v is the loss of buoyancy due to the flooding.
1  B0 B1
4) 1  B0 B1  v  x   1   0   x , x
1   0
x is the distance of the center of the lost buoyancy from B0 .
5) 1   0  v  A0l , A0 is the area of the cross section, l is the F.L.
Setting a half of l on either side
of the center of lost Buoyancy.
Near the ends of a ship, A0 is
changing rapidly then using the
iterative process to determine l.
6) Repeating (1) to (5) for
a series of W .L.s tangent to
the margin line at different
positions in the length of the
ship. Then a series of values
of the F.L. can be obtained
for different positions along
the ship.
7) Considering the different
permeability coefficients 
at different positions along
the ship.
9 894
8
20 5-308-2-W 5-292-2-W
5-328-2-W
201 83
35 84
40 436 5-276-0-F
5-292-0-E 5-292-1-W 6
5-344-0-J 5-328-0-J
5-321-1-F 3-292-2-E 1
0
1
5 100P
20 8 9
5-328-1-W 5-250-0-E
5-308-1-W 5-292-3-W
201 83
84
215S
(GREEN) - FLOODING OF GREEN SPACES WILL
IMPROVE STABILITY, EVEN THOUGH FREE
SURFACE EXISTS.
(YELLOW) - FLOODING OF YELLOW SPACES WILL IMPROVE CAPACITY-TONS SW
STABILITY IF NO FREE SURFACE EXISTS. IF SPACE IS NOT
100% FULL STABILITY WILL BE IMPAIRED.

## (PINK) - FLOODING OF PINK SPACES WILL COMPARTMENT NUMBER

DECREASE STABILITY BECAUSE OF ADDED HIGH
WEIGHT, FREE SURFACE EFFECT OR BOTH.

## (WHITE) - FLOODING OF WHITE SPACES HAS NO INCLINING MOMENTS FT-T

APPPRECIABLE EFFECT ON STABILITY.
0.5
1.0 8 0.4 9
20 5-308-2-W 5-292-2-W
5-328-2-W
+2 -1 +1 0
30 0 27 0 +1 0

5-344-0-J 5-328-0-J

+4 -3 +3 -2 0.5
20 1.0 8 0.4 9
5-328-1-W 5-308-1-W
+2 5-292-3-W
-1 +1 0 +1
0

## CLEAN BALLAST CAPACITY-TONS LIST

POTABLE WATER
COMPARTMENT NUMBER

## JP-5 CHANGE IN DRAFT CHANGE IN DRAFT

AFT - INCHES FWD - INCHES
WEIGHT AND MOMENT
COMPENSATION PROGRAM
• Status I: No displacement or
Stability problems

## • Status IV: Deficient in displacement

margin
8) Factor of Subdivision F

## Factor of subdivision is the ratio of a permissible length to

the F.L.

For example, if F is 0.5, the ship will still float at a W.L. under
the margin line when any two adjacent compartments of the
ship are flooded. If F is 1.0, the ship will still float at a
W.L. under the margin line when any one compartment of
the ship is flooded.

## Rules and regulations about the determination of F are set by

many different bureaus all over the world (p126-127)
"IF PERSONNEL WAIT UNTIL CATASTROPHE IS
ACTUALLY IMPENDING BEFORE STARTING TO
LEARN THEIR SHIP BY MEANS OF THE
FOREGOING PREPARATORY MEASURES, THE
SHIP AND ITS COMPANY MAY BE LOST."

BRIDGE ACTIONS

HW

LW

## • RIG GROUND TACKLE & KEDGE ANCHORS (IF

POSSIBLE)
• COORDINATE LIGHTENING SHIP WITH HIGH TIDE
• TAKE A STRAIN ON GROUND TACKLE
• REQUEST SALVAGE ASSISTANCE
DCA ACTIONS

## • WEIGH THE SHIP DOWN HARD

AGROUND: DCA ACTION
WEIGH THE SHIP DOWN HARD

## INVESTIGATE FOR DAMAGE

• SOUND ALL TANKS & VOIDS
• CHECK FUEL TANKS FOR LEAKAGE
• STRUCTURAL DAMAGE?
• EXTENSIVE SOUNDINGS (LOWER SMALL BOATS)
 ABOUT THE SHIP
 SEAWARD
AGROUND: DCA ACTION
DETERMINE AMOUNT OF TONS AGROUND
• FM KNOWN DRAFTS, DETERMINE ORIGINAL DISPLACEMENT
• READ DRAFTS AFTER AGROUND
• DETERMINE NEW DISPLACEMENT
• DIFFERENCE EQUALS TONS AGROUND

## CALCULATE CRITICAL DRAFT

• IF STABILITY IS CRITICAL, LOWER G & ESTIMATE TIME
• ELIMINATE HIGH WEIGHT
• FLOOD LOW COMPARTMENTS
M

K
Remember: G moves faster than
M!!

M
G

K
M
G

B
K
IMMEDIATE STEPS
STEP ONE -
ESTABLISH FLOODING BOUNDARIES

STEP TWO -
DEWATER ANY SPACE COLORED PINK
ON THE FLOODING EFFECTS DIAGRAM.
IMMEDIATE STEPS
STEP THREE -
SIZE UP THE SITUATION TO
DETERMINE WHETHER STABILITY
IS CRITICAL BEFORE ANY FURTHER
ACTION IS TAKEN.
CRITICAL STABILITY
1. The ship has a negative GM

## 2. The ship is listing to the danger

angle (1/2 angle of max GZ)

## 3. The extent of flooding exceeds

floodable length.

## 4. High winds or rough seas combined

with flooding
IMMEDIATE STEPS

STEP FOUR -
ELIMINATE OR REDUCE LIST
Don’t forget about:

## EXCESSIVE TRIM (> 1% LBP)

ACTIONS
SHIFT CENTER OF GRAVITY
TOWARDS "HIGH" END.