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**The Bernoulli Equation
**

5.1. Newton¶s Second Law along a Streamline of a Steady Flow 5.2. Alternative Forms of the Bernoulli Equation 5.3. Applications 5.4. Pressure Variation Perpendicular to Streamlines

Experimental Thermo and Fluid Mechanics Lab.

5.5. The Bernoulli Equation in Rotating Reference system 5.6. The Bernoulli Equation for Unsteady Flow 5.7. The Bernoulli Equation from Energy conservation Principle

5.1. Newton¶s Second Law along a streamline of a Steady Flow

**T 5.1.1. The acceleration of a steady flow at a given location r
**

on a streamline

Fig. 5.1 Experimental Thermo and Fluid Mechanics Lab.

xv as ! v : acceleration tangent to the streamline.T a TT dv (r ) dt T xv dr i x ri dt (5. xs v2 an ! R : acceleration normal to the streamline.2) where.1) T xv v2 Ö Ö Ö Ö s n a ! as s a n n ! v xs R (5. .

5.2 .5.1.2. Applying Newton¶s second law to a small fluid particle of Hs HnHy along a streamline Fig.

s.4) ª xs º ! From Eq. (5.3) and Eq.4) we obtain the equation of motion along the streamline. (5.§ H s ! Hm as ! V HV ! H F ps H W s xv xs (5.5) dp dz dv Vg ! Vv ds ds ds .3) § HF s xp H s H n H y V g sin U H s H n H y xs ¨ xp ¸ V g sin U ¹ H V ! © (5. where xp xs ! dp ds and xv xs ! dv ds and using sin U ! dz ds (5.

5) along a streamline ´ dp 1 v 2 gz ! C . the Eq. Attention for the limitation of applicability of the Bernoulli equation! .1.6) where C is an integration constant to be determined by conditions at some point on the streamline. inviscid. incompressible Flow : p 1 2 v gz ! const [ N m / kg ] V 2 (5. (5.7) along a streamline. V 2 (5. For incompressible flow.6) becomes the Bernoulli equation for steady. = constant.(5.5.3. By integrating the Eq.

Static.5. The pressure Form . The Head Form .1. Dynamic. .2. Stagnation.2. and Elevation Head Experimental Thermo and Fluid Mechanics Lab.2. Pressure. and Total Pressure 5. Velocity.2. Alternative Forms of the Bernoulli Equation 5.

5. [ N / m 2 ] 2 (5.7) can be written with terms in pressure dimension [N/m2] p 1 2 V v V g z ! const.1.3 .5.8) Fig.2. The Pressure Form The Bernoulli equation (5.

measured by a pitot-static tube. . measured by a piezometer tube. p 1 2 Vv 2 1 2 p Vv Vgz ! C 2 : Total pressure is constant along a streamline. : Stagnation pressure on stagnation streamline measured by a Pitot-tube. p : Static pressure.Where. 1 2 Vv 2 : Dynamic pressure.

: Elevation head : Velocity head : The head is constant along a streamline .5.2.9) : Pressure head. The Head Form Equation (5. [ m ] V g 2 g (5.7) can be written in the head form : p v2 z ! const .2.

Vpg 2v g is represented by the Hydraulic Grade Line (HGL). measured by piezometer tube.4 The total head can be represented by the Energy Line (EL).Fig. 5. The sum of the pressure and elevation head. 2 . measured by Pitot-tube.

3. .3.3. Flow along a Solid Wall 5.2.1.3. Flow around a Body 5.3. Pitot and Pitot-Static Tube Experimental Thermo and Fluid Mechanics Lab. Torricelli¶s Discharge (Free jet) 5. Applications 5.5.3.4.

Torricelli¶s Discharge (Free jet) Fig.5.1.10) (5.3.10) .5 V 2 V 2 p0 0 V g h ! p0 U V g 0 2 2 (5. 5.

12) .Emptying Time : (t ? (5.

13) Fig.2. Flow around a Body Bernoulli constant for different streamlines? p1g V g z1g ! p2 g V g z2g ! .5..3.14) (5.6 (5.. (5..15) (5.. 5.17) V 2 V 2 p1g g V g z1g ! p2 g g V g z 2 g ! . ! C 2 2 V V 2 2 pE U E V g z E ! p 2 g U g V g z 2 g 2 2 pF V V 2 2 U F V g z F ! p4g U g V g z4g 2 2 pE V 2 V 2 U E V g zE ! p F U g V g z F 2 2 .16) (5.

5.3.3. Flow along a Solid Wall p1i ! p1 V g .

h z1 pre ! p2 V g .

20) (pM ! .h z 2 (5.18) (5.19) (5.

p1 V g z1 .

7 .p2 V g z2 (pM ! V 2 U 2 U 12 2 Fig. 5.

(5.21) .

5.3.8 V 2 ps ! pg U g ! pt 2 (5. Pitot and Pitot-Static Tube 1) Pitot-Tube Fig. 5.4.22) .

23) .2) Pitot-Static Tube Fig. 5.9 Fig.10 Ug ! 2 ( pM V (5. 5.

4. (5.2) 2 an ! v R Newton¶s second law in this normal direction : § § H n v2 ! Hm R v2 ! V HV R (5.5.24) (5. . Pressure Variation Perpendicular to Streamlines Using the acceleration normal to a streamline from Eq.25) xp ¸ ¨ H F n ! H W n H F pn ! © V g cos U ¹ HV xn º ª Experimental Thermo and Fluid Mechanics Lab.

for gas or if the flow is in a horizontal plane Eq. (5. (5.26 ) becomes xp v2 ! V xn R (5.g.26) If gravity is neglected.27) For R (parallel streamlines) p = const. across the streamline.Putting Eq.24) and using cos U ! dz dn we obtain dz V g dn xp v2 ! V xn R (5.25) into Eq. e. . (5.

28) across the streamline For incompressible Flow v2 p V ´ dn V g z ! const . inviscid.26) can be integrated across the streamline : dp v2 ´ V ´ R dn gz ! const. (5.29) R valid again for steady. incompressible flow across the streamline.Equation (5. For a complete integration v. (5.

s. n and R.

s. n must be known. .

(5. 5.27) xp U 2 c2 ! V ! V xR R R3 (5. Application to the Free Vortex (Potential Vortex) For a flow of concentric streamlines with a velocity distribution : U ! c R where c = constant and R is the radial coordinate.4.30) Fig.5. the pressure gradient normal to the streamlines is : xp xp ! xn xR Putting this into Eq.1.10 .

we obtain : V c2 2 ¨ 1 1 © 2 © R R2 ª 0 ¸ ¹ ¹ º p (R ) ! p0 or (5. 2 2 This shows that the Bernoulli constant for all streamlines are the same.31) V 2 V 2 p( R) U ( R ) ! p0 U 0 ! const .* * more in the lecture Thermo-Fluid . It means the flow is irrotational.Integrating it with an initial condition p ( R0 ) ! p0 .

Centrifugal force : .Coriolis force : no component tangential to the streamline 2 T V [ r er Experimental Thermo and Fluid Mechanics Lab. Bernoulli Equation in Rotating Reference System Considering a reference system rotating with a constant angular velocity around an axis and observing a steady flow from this rotating reference system. .5.5. additional body forces due to the rotation besides the gravity force are acting : .

32) ds ds ds Integrating along the streamline.Fig. 5.11 The equation of motion for the rotating reference system along a streamline : dv dp dz Vv ! Vg V [ 2 r cos U (5. using dr = ds · cos : V 2 V [ 2 r2 p v Vgz ! const .33) along a streamline . 2 2 (5.

6. v.5. The Bernoulli Equation for unsteady flow The acceleration along a streamline of an unsteady flow.

r . t : xv xv v as ! xt xs T The equation of motion for unsteady flow : xv xv xp xz V Vv ! Vg xt xs xs xs (5.33) Integrating along an unsteady streamline of incompressible flow between point (1) and (2) : Experimental Thermo and Fluid Mechanics Lab. .

where v. t ) V 2 V 2 p1 v1 V g z1 ! V ´ ds p2 v2 V g z2 s1 xt 2 2 (5.33) Simplification for an unsteady pipe flow.s2 xv( s.

36) .33) becomes xv(t ) (s2 s1 ) p2 V g z2 xt xv(t ) ( p1 p2 ) V g ( z1 z2 ) ! V (s2 s1 ) xt p1 V g z1 ! V (5.t : with V ´ s2 s1 xv(s. t ) xv(t ) ds ! V (s2 s1 ) xt xt and v2 ! v1 . (5.35) or Unsteady Bernoulli Equation in Rotating Reference System : s2 xv V 2 V [ 2 r1 V 2 V [ 2 r2 p1 v1 V g z1 ! V´ ds p2 v2 V g z2 s1 xt 2 2 2 2 2 2 (5.34) (5. the Eq.

.7.5. The Bernoulli Equation from Energy Conservation Principle The first law of thermodynamics in words time rate of increase of the total stored energy of the system : 2 ~ d¨u v g z¸ / dt ¹ dE © Ö © ¹ 2 ª º ! net time rate of energy addition by heat transfer into the system : dQ net time rate of energy addition by works transfer into the system : dW ! Wnormal stress Wshaft Experimental Thermo and Fluid Mechanics Lab.

Adiabatic system : Heat transfer is zero 3. Inviscid flow : no dissipation of mechanical energy into the internal energy 2.The following assumptions simplify the energy equation derived from the first law of thermodynamics : 1. One-dimensional steady flow and incompressible flow .

The time rate of increase of the total stored energy or the system. dE in Fig.37) ith ! u1 1 ! u2 2 Fig.12 . (5-12) is composed of the time rate of the difference of kinetic energy and the elevation(potential) energy between the cross section 2 and1 respectively : 2 ¨ u 22 u1 ¸ dE ! © V V ¹ V (V g z 2 V g z1 ) V © 2 2 ¹ ª º (5. 5.

The net time rate of energy addition by work transfer is composed of the time rate of work difference done by the normal stress (pressure) and the time rate of mechanical shaft works done to the flow system. e. by a pump : dW ! Wshaft ( p2 A2 u2 p1 A1 u1 ) According to the first law of thermodynamics dE ! dW dQ 2 ¨ u2 u12 ¸ V ©V V ¹ V ( V g z2 V g z1 ) ! Wshaft ( p2 p1 )V © 2 2¹ ª º 2 «¨ ¸ ¨ ¸» u2 u12 ¬© p V !V © 2 V g z2 ¹ © p1 V V g z1 ¹¼ ¹ © ¹ 2 2 º ª º½ ª Wshaft (5.g.38) .

If no shaft work has been done Wshaft ! 0 . we obtain the Bernoulli Equation for incompressible steady flow along a streamline from Eq.39) .38) : u1 2 u 22 p1 V V g z1 ! p 2 V V g z2 2 2 (5. (5. Wshaft is the needed powers of a pump to deliver the flow rate of V from cross section 1 to 2.

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