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"Democracy is one of the most important

principles for a better world. In its truest
sense, a democracy is a community in which
all members have an equal say in the running
of that community. Unfortunately in reality,
democratic societies have fallen short of this
ideal. Nevertheless, because of its very
nature, once a democracy is established, its
citizens can work together to make their
society more and more democratic, if they
choose to do so."
– Robert Alan Silverstein
DEMOCRATIC
INTERVENTIONS
DEMOCRACY:
Models and Elements
DEMOCRACY
• One of the forms of the government followed by many countries
around the world
• Derived from two Greek words “demos” (people) and “kratos”
(rule)
• It adheres to the rule of the people
• It provides people the right to exercise some form of genuine
control over the government
• Under a democratic government, the protection of individual
liberties, the conduct of free elections, and the assurance of
political equality are safeguarded by the state.
• In a democracy, people collectively exercise equal rights to
participate in the decision-making processes.
DEMOCRACY MODELS
• Helena Catt (1999, 5-19) identifies
three models of democracy.

PARTICIPATORY DEMOCRACY
DIRECT DEMOCRACY
REPRESENTATIVE/LIBERAL
DEMOCRACY
PARTICIPATORY DEMOCRACY
• People rule through the collective discussion of issues that need to be
debated.
• They discuss and take into considerations as well as the possible
solutions to the problem until such time that an arrangement on the
best solution or option for the group is achieved.
• In this model of democracy, decisions and solutions are agreed upon
and made by all the members without resorting to a vote.

Examples:
Members of the cooperative resolving an issue related to the
organization
Philippine political parties organizing conventions to select their
presidential candidate.
MAJOR COMPONENTS OF PARTICIPATORY
DEMOCRACY
• All members has the opportunity to raise an issue,
provide possible solutions to the problem and take
part in the crafting of the final decision.
• The issues are discussed during face-to-face
meetings.
• There is much discussion involved in addressing
the problem and anyone who wants to join can
contribute to the discussion.
• Members want consensus.
DIRECT DEMOCRACY

It has an element of proximity because people
assemble in a particular venue.
It has an element of directness because people
decide for their community together and directly
without the use of formal mediation.

Examples:
Sports club or condominium owners who vote on the
new sports club or condominium regulations.
DIRECT DEMOCRACY
• It is also shown in referendums
• Political scientists call it referendum democracy.

REFERENDUM – refers to a particular vote on a particular
issue in which outcome or decision is reached directly
through people’s vote. It is conducted by the electorate to
approve or reject a particular legislation though an election
called for that purpose.

2 kinds: REFERENDUM ON STATUTES and REFERENDUM
ON LOCAL LAW
DIRECT DEMOCRACY
RA 6735 People’s Initiative and Referendum Act (1989)
- People can directly propose, enact, approve or
reject, in whole or in part, the Constitution, laws,
ordinances, resolutions, passed by any legislative
body upon compliance with the requirements.
- At least 10% of the total number of registered voters,
of which every legislative district is represented by at
least 3% of the registered voters thereof, shall sign a
petition for the purpose and register the petition with
the Commission on Elections.
REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY

• It requires the election of a few members who
are responsible for the people. These people
are chosen by the electorate as their
representatives in government and thus
answerable to the people by making such
decisions.
Examples:
Election of members of Senate or House of
Representatives
REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY

• It is the most common model of
democracy followed by governments
• People vote during election time in
order to choose a new set of national
and local leaders
• The newly-elected government leaders
exercise political power
ELEMENTS OF REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY
1. Popular support of government
2. Political competition
3. Alternation of power
4. Popular representation
5. Majority rule
6. Recognition of rights to dissent and disobedience
7. Political equality
8. Popular consultation
9. Free press
DEMOCRACY AND THE EXERCISE OF CIVIL AND
POLITICAL RIGHTS

Civil and political rights are valued in
democratic institutions.
People enjoy freedom of religion,
movement, assembly, association,
expression, and information. They also
exercise their rights to personal security,
protection against arbitrary detention, and
right to fair trial.
COMPONENTS OF A DEMOCRATIC
GOVERNMENT

1.RULE OF LAW
2.BASIC RIGHTS AND
FREEDOM
3.ELECTIONS
4.DIVISION OF POWER
CIVIL SOCIETY
• Defined as intermediate organizations in
between the primary units of society that
includes individuals, families, clans, ethnic
groups, and the governmental agencies and
institutions.
• The network of private organizations
including political parties and the different
private organizations are part of civil
society.
RISE OF GLOBAL CIVIL SOCIETY
• This rise is attributed to the
following:
Increasing threats of
nuclear, biological and
chemical warfare to
humanity
PRIMARY REASONS
The worldwide dangers of
disasters, diseases, political and
social injustice, discrimination,
environmental degradation and
poverty
POLITICAL CORRUPTION
• There is an increase disenchantment of the state of society
in our globalized world. In a study about democratic
participation in different countries in the globe, 44 out of 47
countries that took part in the study asserted that the
conditions of a good society were not met (Barry Knight: 2002,
p. 107)
• Undemocratic practices breed social ills that haunt
societies in the planet. Dissatisfaction of citizens with their
governments include: a. failure to meet their basic needs that
create profound insecurities ,b. failure to protect them from the
sweeping winds of economic change where they lose their
customs and traditions, andc. failure to involve its citizens in
its policies and programs.
POLITICAL CORRUPTION

Basic Needs
• Failure to meet basic needs is a
common complaint among many
societies in the world today. There
was a growing gulf between rich
and poor droving the former to
extra-legal activities such as theft
and prostitution.
POLITICAL CORRUPTION
Association
• Undemocratic practices undermine the
traditional bonds of family and kinship
threatened by the pressures of work,
urbanization and migration. The distancing
of government concerns from the lives of
ordinary people weakened customary
forms of accountability and led to a highly
corrupt, self-seeking, inefficient, and
partisan state.
Participation
• Citizens play they part by (1)
engaging in collective action to perform
voluntary work with others in order to
tackle problems and (2) participating in
political processes to play an active
role in relation to the state in order to
ensure that the state opened itself up
to the influence of citizens.
ACTIVITY

• Using any form of presentation, explain
creatively the ill effects of undemocratic
practices related to factors such as
gender biases, poverty, political
marginalization, racial inequality,
cultural domination, crisis of
representation and politics of
recognition.