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A bridge is a structure built to span a valley, road, body of water, or other physical obstacle such as a canyon, for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle. Bridges have been built by man in order to overcome obstacles to travel caused by, for example, straits, rivers, valleys or existing roads. The purpose of a bridge is to carry a service such as a roadway or a railway. Bridges.
D. Renaissance .C. Romans 1300 A. Asia Clapper Bridge Great Stone Bridge in China Tree trunk Stone Low Bridge Shallow Arch Strength of Materials Roman Arch Bridge Mathematical Theories Development of Metal The Arch Natural Cement 100 B.D.History of Bridge Development Natural Bridges 700 A.
First Cast-Iron Bridge Coalbrookdale.History of Bridge Development 1800 A. 1900 A.D.D.D. England Truss Bridges Mechanics of Design Prestressed Concrete Steel Britannia Tubular Bridge Wrought Iron Suspension Bridges Use of Steel for the suspending cables . 2000 A.
The drawings are not to scale. pony. this Spotter's Guide shows only the most common fixed (nonmovable) bridge types. . The four main factors are used in describing a bridge. cantilever). continuous. placement of the travel surface in relation to the structure (deck.Bridge Basics Because of the wide range of structural possibilities. Other types are listed in the Bridge Terminology page. By combining these terms one may give a general description of most bridge types. Additional related info is found on the other Terminology pages which are linked to the left. span (simple. through).
with individual spans of 56 feet (17 m). Weight on top of the beam pushes straight down on the piers at either end of the bridge.83 miles (38. The earliest beam bridges were simple logs that sat across streams and similar simple structures.35 km). Beam bridges typically do not exceed 250 feet (76 m) long. .form (beam. The world's longest beam bridge is Lake Pontchartrain Causeway in southern Louisiana in the United States. Beam bridges Beam bridges are horizontal beams supported at each end by piers. beam bridges are large box steel girder bridges. arch.). etc. They are made up mostly of wood or metal. The longer the bridge. In modern times. at 23. the weaker. truss.
Most cantilever bridges use two cantilever arms extending from opposite sides of the obstacle to be crossed. supported on only one end. Canada A cantilever bridge is a bridge built using cantilevers. as it can span distances of over 1. The largest cantilever bridge is the 549-metre (1. structures that project horizontally into space.801 ft) Quebec Bridge in Quebec. and can be more easily constructed at difficult crossings by virtue of using little or no false work.500 feet (460 m).Cantilever bridges Cantilever bridges are built using cantilevers²horizontal beams that are supported on only one end. . meeting at the center. however. large cantilever bridges designed to handle road or rail traffic use trusses built from structural steel. or box girders built from prestressed concrete. For small footbridges. The steel truss cantilever bridge was a major engineering breakthrough when first put into practice. the cantilevers may be simple beams.
. and through. Dubai in the United Arab Emirates is currently building the Sheikh Rashid bin Saeed Crossing which is scheduled for completion in 2012. The placement of the deck in relation to the superstructure provides the descriptive terms used in all bridges: deck.counting the number of hinges which allow the structure to respond to varying stresses and loads. it will be the largest arch bridge in the world. The weight of the bridge is thrust into the abutments at either side. When completed. Also the type of connections used at the supports and the midpoint of the arch may be used .Arch bridges Arch bridges have abutments at each end. . The earliest known arch bridges were built by the Greeks and include the Arkadiko Bridge. pony. but this applies to all type of arch bridges. There are several ways to classify arch bridges. A through arch is shown.
Examples of solid-ribbed. A solid-ribbed arch is commonly constructed using curved girder sections. brace-ribbed (trussed arch) and spandrelbraced arches are shown. . A spandrel-braced arch or open spandrel deck arch carries the deck on top of the arch. A brace-ribbed arch has a curved through truss rising above the deck.Another method of classification is found in the configuration of the arch.
The caissons or cofferdams are implanted deep into the floor of a lake or river. Though Pittsburgh has been a pioneer in bridge design and fabrication. A similar structure still stands at Minnisink Ford. the cable-stayed bridge. PA. The deck is hung from suspenders of wire rope. and self-anchored suspension bridge. The longest suspension bridge in the world is the 12. The Pennsylvania Mainline Canal entered the city on John Roebling's first wire-rope suspension bridge in 1845 (replacing a failing 1829 wooden structure). eyebars or other materials. stressed ribbon bridge. it has had few suspension bridges. began their work in Saxonburg. The longest bridges in the world are suspension bridges or their cousins. Seesimple suspension bridge.826 feet (3. In modern bridges. suspended-deck suspension bridge. later famous in building the Brooklyn Bridge. underspanned suspension bridge. the deck may be made of girders or trussed. A tied arch resists spreading (drift) at its bearings by using the deck as a tie piece. crossing the Delaware River. The earliest suspension bridges were made of ropes or vines covered with pieces of bamboo. . NY.Suspension bridges Suspension bridges are suspended from cables. north of Pittsburgh.909 m) Akashi Kaikyo Bridge in Japan. Roebling and his son Washington Roebling. Materials for the other parts also vary: piers may be steel or masonry. the cables hang from towers that are attached to caissons or cofferdams.
Inside the anchorages. can support over half a ton without breaking. suspension bridges used iron chains for cables. The high tensile cables used in most modern suspension bridges were introduced in the late nineteenth century. Today. the cables are made of thousands of individual steel wires bound tightly together. Most of the weight or load of the bridge is transferred by the cables to the anchorage systems. Modern suspension bridges use a box section roadway supported by high tensile strength cables. and strong. suspension bridges can span distances from 2. which is very strong under tension. a single steel wire. only 0. The towers enable the main cables to be draped over long distances. In the early nineteenth century. Suspension bridges tend to be the most expensive to build. which extend from one end of the bridge to the other.1 inch thick. Light. These cables rest on top of high towers and have to be securely anchored into the bank at either end of the bridge. the cables are spread over a large area to evenly distribute the load and to prevent the cables from breaking free.Suspension bridges in their simplest form were originally made from rope and wood. They are ideal for covering busy waterways. .000 feet far longer than any other kind of bridge. A suspension bridge suspends the roadway from huge main cables. With any bridge project the choice of materials and form usually comes down to cost. is an ideal material for cables.000 to 7. Steel. These are imbedded in either solid rock or huge concrete blocks.
Bridge-fan-cable-stayed Bridge-harp-cable-stayed . with cables supporting the bridge deck. the cable-stayed is optimal for spans longer than typically seen in cantilever bridges and shorter than those typically requiring a suspension bridge. the cables are made nearly parallel by attaching them to various points on the tower(s) so that the height of attachment of each cable on the tower is similar to the distance from the tower along the roadway to its lower attachment.Cable-stayed bridge A cable-stayed bridge is a bridge that consists of one or more columns (normally referred to as towers or pylons). the cables all connect to or pass over the top of the tower(s). This is the range in which cantilever spans would rapidly grow heavier if they were lengthened. Compared to other bridge types. and in which suspension cabling does not get more economical were the span to be shortened. In a fan design. There are two major classes of cable-stayed bridges: In a harp design.
but the center panel tends to be less rigid due to its lack of diagonal bracing. mentioned above as a cantilever bridge.Truss bridges Truss bridges are composed of connected elements. the queen post truss adds a horizontal top chord to achieve a longer span. and later of wood with iron tensile rods. . and later including iron tension members. Early truss bridges were made of wood. Types of truss bridges are also identified by the terms deck. most truss bridges are built of metal. The king post truss is the simplest type. ponyand through which describe the placement of the travel surface in relation to the superstructure (see drawings above). is also the world's longest truss bridge A truss is a structure made of many smaller parts. but modern truss bridges are made completely of metals such as wrought iron and steel or sometimes of reinforced concrete. Once constructed of wooden timbers. The Quebec Bridge. They have a solid deck and a lattice of pin-jointed or gusset-joined girders for the sides.
With the use of iron in bridge construction. theHowe truss .in its simplest form . The enclosing roof protected the timbers from weathering and extended the life of the bridge. A simple..Covered bridge types (truss)Covered bridges are typically wooden truss structures. One of the more common methods used for achieving longer spans was the multiple kingpost truss.appears to be a type of multiple kingpost truss. wooden. kingpost truss forms the center and panels are added symmetrically. ..
such as the San Francisco ± Oakland Bay Bridge. A truss work between the roadway levels provides stiffness to the roadways and reduced movement of the upper level when installed. and the lower level is used for road traffic. and on their lower decks there are two lanes and a pair of tracks for MTR metro trains. Some double-decker bridges only use one level for street traffic. The George Washington Bridge between New Jersey and New York has two roadway levels. completed in 1849. Likewise. Another example is Craigavon Bridge in Derry.Double-decked bridges Double-decked or double-decker bridges have two levels. Tsing Ma Bridge and Kap Shui Mun Bridge in Hong Kong have six lanes on their upper decks.Northern Ireland. the Washington Avenue Bridge in Minneapolis reserves its lower level for automobile traffic and its upper level for pedestrian and bicycle traffic (predominantly students at the University of Minnesota). Robert Stephenson's High Level Bridge across the River Tyne in Newcastle upon Tyne. It was built with only the upper roadway as traffic demands did not require more capacity. The upper level carries a railway. The Oresund Bridge between Copenhagen and Malmö consists of a fourlane highway on the upper level and a pair of railway tracks at the lower level. with the central section consisting of a low level bascule span and a high level footbridge. the Prince Edward Viaduct has four lanes of motor traffic on its upper deck and a pair of tracks for the Bloor±Danforth subway line. is an early example of a double-deck bridge. Tower Bridge is different example of a double-decker bridge. with two road levels. . in Toronto.
but is sometimes too tall to fit. Bascule One or two sections not supported by piers Balanced on one end by counterweights Section jackknifes up to allow passage of ships Most common type of highway drawbridge Vertical Lift Central span extends between two towers Balanced by counterweights Bailey Small truss bridge made in sections Assembled on shore Pushed out from shore to cover span Transportable to new sites Bailey bridge Vertical lift bridge Lifting bridge .Rotating bridge Movable bridges Some bridges are not fixed crossings. but can move out of the way of boats or other kinds of traffic which. ideally. These are generally electrically powered. moves under them.
Normal span ranges of bridge system LOADS ON BRIDGESThe following are the various loads to be considered for the purpose of computing stresses. Dead load Live load Impact load Longitudinal force Thermal force Wind load Seismic load Racking force Forces due to curvature. wherever they are applicable. Forces on parapets Frictional resistance of expansion bearings .
HOWRAH BRIDGE .
built inthe year 1943. which they agreed to do. but the following observations were made : The foundations for a bridge at Calcutta would be at a considerable depth because of the depth of the mud there.A proposal to build a bridge over the Hooghly was made by the government of Bengal. and engineers felts that Cantilever bridges were more rigid than suspension bridge. at four different shops in Calcutta.The Rabridra Setu or more famously called the Howrah Bridge over the Hooghly is primarily a cantilever truss bridge. Rendel Palmer & Tritton came up with a design for a Cantilever bridge of 1500 feet. and a need for bridging the Hooghly River arose. hydraulics.500 tons of steel used.500 tons of steel and fabrication was done by Braithwaite. The contract was awarded to Cleveland Bridge & Engineering Co. Burn and Jessop Co. with a 71 feet wide roadway and two 15 feet wide cantilever footways. . tidal conditions of the river and the projected traffic conditions. The bridge is completely made up of steel. Construction of the New Howrah Bridge was started on 1937. Considering various aspects like navigational. Ltd of Darlington with a strong recommendation that they use Indian-made steel. This bridge is one of the finest Cantilever bridges in the world -left to India by the British engineers. Out of the total 26. Tata Iron and Steel Company supplied 23. the structure would cause considerable hindrance to the shipping on the river The only feasible site was at a great distance. Calcutta and Howrah had grown to be the most important economic and cultural centres. By the 19th century. The Cantilever Era was prevailing at that time.
After completing the steel work of the deck and concreting of roadway. The two halves of the suspended span. 16 hydraulic jacks.The two huge caissons which was sunk (on the first stage of construction) is still the biggest ever sunk caisson on land.000 tons. To keep the water out at depth of around the foundations so that construction can be done. By the end of 1940 the erection of the cantilever arms was commenced and was completed in mid-summer of 1941.. each long and weighing 2. the New Howrah Bridge was finally opened to traffic onFebruary 1943 .8 bar). each of 800 ton capacity were pressed in to service for joining the two halves of the suspended span. The air pressure maintained was about 40 lbs per square inch (2. were built in December 1941. around 500 people were employed onthe compressed air operation.
Central span 1500 ft between centres of main towers Anchor arm 325ft each Cantilever arm 468ft each Suspended span 564ft Main towers are 280ft high above the monoliths and 76 ft apart at the top Bridge deck width 71 ft with two footpaths of 15 ft either side Foundation 15 ft wide footpath on either sides of the bridge The main tower is founded with single monoliths which are 55.41 m and 26.8 m Freeboard for river traffic is 8.31 x 24. Minimum headroom in carriageway is 5.8 m .8m in plan with 21 chambers Monoliths at Calcutta and Howrah side are founded31.53 m in below ground level respectively.
They support a continuous pressed steel troughingsystem. . Six rows of longitudinal stringer girdersspan between cross girder.More about the Bridge The deck system consists of cross girders hung between pairs of hungerswith pinned connection. Over which deck concrete is laid out. Floor joists supported transversely on top of stringers.Other features of the Bridge All members of the super structure comprise built up riveted sections with a combination of high tensile and mild steel Between towers bridge deck hangs from panel points in the lower chord of the main trusses with a series of hungers (39 pairs) Road way beyond the tower is supported on ground leaving anchor arm free from deck loads Bridge deck comprises 71 ft carriage way and 15 ft footway projecting either side of the trusses and braced by a longitudinal fascia girder.
1. storms. These awe-inspiring bridges alone balance the forces of tension and compression. Despite their seeming fragility. The catenary is slowly becoming a parabola Up close. The History . From a distance they look fragile.F. suspension bridges are very. 2. 3. managing to stay up through hurricanes. Farrington traveling the length of the newly installed cable of the Brooklyn Bridge. curving under the weight of itself (the weight of Farrington is insignificant). very strong thanks to their design and the materials used to build them. the suspension bridge is an amazing and beautiful structure that can span rivers and connect cities hundreds of miles apart. This is a picture of the master mechanic E. This picture shows the deck being added to the cables of the Brooklyn Bridge. This example of ropes that are spanning two cliffs shows what basically is a catenary. and earth-quakes. The cable is an example of a catenary. hanging from almost transparent threads.
989 feet (1825 m) Width 85 feet (26 m) Longest span 1.Carries Motor vehicles (cars only) Elevated trains (until 1944) Streetcars (until 1950) Pedestrians. 1883 .3 m) Clearance below 135 feet (41 m) at mid-span Opened May 24.595 feet 6 inches (486. and Bicycles Crosses East River Locale New York City (Manhattan±Brooklyn) Maintained by New York City Department of Transportation Designer John Augustus Roebling Design Suspension/Cable-stay Hybrid Total length 5.
 Most history books cite Washington Roebling's father John Roebling and Washington Roebling as the bridge¶s builders. bridge specifications. Washington Roebling (the Chief Engineer). Washington Roebling suffered a paralyzing injury as well. Andrew Smith.With both men out of commission. The Brooklyn Bridge might not have been built had it not been for the assistance of Emily Warren Roebling. This badly crushed his toes. The actual construction started under the younger Roebling. 1870. Under her husband¶s guidance. in different capacities. and engineers on-site.Construction began on January 3. the calculations of catenary curves. however. the result of decompression sickness. This condition plagued many of the underwater workers. leaving him incapacitated. in charge of the bridge. he later died of an infection related to his injury and leaving his son. Washington Roebling. . and the intricacies of cable construction. Not long after taking charge of the bridge. causing those toes to be amputated.   She spent the next 11 years assisting Washington Roebling in the supervision of the bridge¶s construction. John Roebling¶s foot slipped into a group of pylons from the shake of an incoming ferry. Early into construction. the strengths of materials. Emily had studied higher mathematics. The Brooklyn Bridge was completed thirteen years later and was opened for use on May 24. Emily Warren Roebling provided critical assistance in providing the communications between her husband and the engineers onsite. who provided the critical written link between her husband. as the condition was relatively unknown at the time and in fact was first called "caisson disease" by the project physician Dr. 1883.
wikipedia.org/wiki/Bridge http://www.htm .com/basics.http://en.pghbridges.
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