AIDS TO CONSTRUCTION

BY: Miss Jover N. Laurio

are those aids within the statute EXAMPLE: ‡ The Title ‡ the Preamble ‡ Context or body ‡ Chapter and section headings ‡ Punctuation.INTRINSIC AIDS  The term intrinsic means internal or within. and interpretation. .  Intrinsic aids. therefore.

EXAMPLE: ‡ history of the enactment of the statute ‡ opinions and rulings of officials of the government called upon to execute or implement administrative laws ‡ contemporaneous construction by executive officers ‡ actual proceedings of the legislative body ‡ individual statements by members of congress ‡ the author of the law.EXTRINSIC AIDS  These are existing aids from outside sources. . meaning outside of the four corners of the statute.

WHEN THE TEXT OF THE STATUTE IS CLEAR AND FREE FROM DOUBT. An aid when there is doubt as to the meaning of the law. 3. It serves as aid in case of doubt in its language. to its construction and ascertaining legislative will. 2. IT IS IMPROPER TO RESORT TO ITS TITLE TO MAKE IT OBSCURE. Used by the court to clear the obscurity. .TITLE 1.

which states the purpose.  In its place.  It may clarify ambiguities  It may express the legislative intent to make the law apply retroactively.  Expressed in the Whereas Clause  Usually omitted in statutes made by the congress.PREAMBLE  That part of the statute written immediately after its title. reason or justification for the enactment of the law. these legislative bodies used the explanatory note to explain the reasons for the enactment of statutes. so as to carry out such intent . in which case the law has to be given retroactive effect.

.CONTEXT OF WHOLE TEXT  Legislative intent should accordingly be ascertained from a consideration of the whole context of the statute and not from an isolated part of particular provision  The best source from which to ascertain the legislative intent is the statute itself .the words. phrases. sentences. provisions taken as a whole and in relation to one another. clauses. sections.

may be used to clear ambiguities Punctuation marks are aids of low degree & can never control against the intelligible meaning of written word. nor are they part of the English language ´ . The reason is that punctuation marks are not part of a stature.PUNCTUATION MARKS  aids of low degree and can never control the intelligible meaning of written words.

Period used to indicate the end of a sentence. Comma also separates the parts & sentences. Semi-colon indicates a separation in the relation of the thought. a degree greater than that expressed by a comma. but less pronounced than the comma. C. . Makes the difference being that the semi-colon makes the division a little more pronounced B.EXAMPLE A.

and the courts will not hesitate to change the punctuation when necessary. oppression. to give the statute the effect intended by the legislature .EXAMPLE If the charge against such subordinate or employee involves dishonesty. or grave misconduct or neglect in the performance of duty NOTE: An argument based upon punctuation alone is not persuasive.

HEADNOTES OR EPIGRAPHS  convenient index to the content of its provisions. they can never control the plain terms of the enacting clauses. .  They are not part of the law thus.

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