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REASONING – Accdg.

To
Merriam-Webster Dictionary,
reasoning is an act of
giving statements for
justification and
explanation. It is the
ability of someone to
defend something by giving
out reasons.
FORMULATING EVALUATIVE STATEMENTS
Evaluative statements about a
text are formulated after having
read the text carefully and
critically, grasping the essence
of the text and checking for
possible fallacies in the
argument.
Evaluative statement is used in
giving a sound judgement – a
judgement that can be backed up
or supported by valid reasons
or proofs. It is the writer’s
way of explaining why a
strength is a strength and a
weakness a weakness based on
the evidences gathered.
You may compose your
evaluative statements in
two steps:
1. Formulating assertions
about the content and the
properties of a text
2. Formulating a meaningful
counterclaim in response to
a claim made in the text
1. FORMULATING ASSERTIONS ABOUT THE
CONTENT AND THE PROPERTIES OF A TEXT
In this step, you have to examine which
ideas are facts or opinions , make
inferences or conclusions, and assess the
overall quality of the text.
ASSERTIONS – are declarative sentences
that claim something is either true or
false.
Example:
- The sampaguita’s roots are used for
medical purposes, such as an aesthetic and
a sedative.
- The sampaguita belongs to the genus
Jasminum of the family Oleaceace.
*Four Common Types of Assertion
1. Fact – statement that can be proven objectively by
direct experience, testimonies of witnesses,
verified observations, or the results of research.
2. Convention – a way in which something is done,
similar to traditions and norms. Conventions depend
on historical precedents, laws, rules, usage, and
customs.
3. Opinion – it is based on facts, but is difficult to
objectively verify because of the uncertainty of
producing satisfactory proofs of soundness. Results
from ambiguities, the more ambiguous a statement,
the more difficult it is to verify.
4. Preference – based on personal choice, they are
subjective and cannot be objectively proven or
logically attacked.
2. FORMULATING A MEANINGFUL
COUNTERCLAIM IN RESPONSE TO A CLAIM
MADE IN THE TEXT
COUNTERCLAIM – is the opposition you make about the
claim of a writer.
- are claims made to rebut a previous claim.
- they provide a contrasting perspective.
- it shows you are examining different
perspectives and not just passively accepting the
writer’s claim.
- shows that you have thoroughly considered the
topic, and are willing to engage different viewpoints
from your own, thus remaining objective.
- also helps you clarify what your personal
position is on the topic.
* Following questions that will help you
formulate a counterclaim
1. What are the major points on which
you and the author can disagree?
2. What is their strongest argument?
What did they say to defend their
position?
3. What are the weaknesses or
shortcomings in their argument?
4. Which lines from the text best
support the counterclaim you have
formulated
HEDGE – a word or phrase that minimizes negative
impact of a criticism.
When you are presenting your counterclaim,
you are providing criticism since you are
stating that the claim is not true. It is used
to give a courteous tone in your writing.
Could come in different forms such as:
Modals – may, could, would, etc.
Frequency adverbs – usually, generally,
commonly
Probability adverbs – probably, possibly,
presumably
Example:
Obesity is caused by the bad food choices
being offered by the food industry.
*Obesity is probably caused by the bad food
choices being offered by the food industry.
DETERMINING TEXTUAL EVIDENCE
EVIDENCE – is defined as the details given
by the author to support his/her claim.
Provided by the writer to substantiates the
text. It reveals and builds on the position
of the writer and makes the reading more
interesting. Evidence is crucial in swaying
the reader to your side.

A jury or judge, for example, relies


on evidence presented by a lawyer before
makes a decision regarding a case.
*Evidence can include the following:
1. FACTS AND STATISTICS (objectively
validated information on your
subject)

2. OPINION FROM EXPERTS (leading


authorities on a topic, such as
researches or academics)

3. PERSONAL ANECDOTES (generalizable,


relevant, and objectively
considered)
*Characteristics of a good evidence
1. UNIFIED

2. RELEVANT TO THE CENTRAL POINT

3. SPECIFIC AND CONCRETE

4. ACCURATE

5. REPRESENTATIVE OR TYPICAL
*Some questions to help you determine
evidence from the text
1. What questions can you ask about
the claims?
2. What are the most important details
in the paragraph?
3. How does the given detail reinforce
the claim?
4. Are some details out-dated,
inaccurate, exaggerated, or taken
out of context?
5. Are the sources reliable?
THANK YOU