WCDMA Network Planning

Deepak Yadav 9th April 2007

Company Confidential
1 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials

Contents
• WCDMA Planning Process Overview • WCDMA Link Budget • WCDMA Nominal Planning • Site Selection Criteria • Isolation Requirements

Company Confidential
2 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials

Simplified Network Planning Flowchart
Initial network dimensioning CW Measurement Create nominal plan Define search areas Identify site options Site selection Site acquisition Detailed site design Site construction
Company Confidential
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WCDMA Link Budget Company Confidential 4 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .

ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . cell range for specified max system load Compute cell loading from traffic profile and cell range Decrease max system load •Coverage and Capacity is coupling ⇒Loading (capacity) is to be done separately between UL and DL using load equation.Link budget As part of Dimensioning Evaluate cell range using max system load and link budget for user at the cell edge Coverage limited max. ⇒Link budget is to be determined path loss and then cell range for each bearer in different load condition ⇒It requires iteration to find the optimum of maximum load target and cell range ⇒Commercial impact on number sites required in the coverage area •Load calculation and Iteration process is not covered in this Add Carrier/ Decrease cell radius (increaseCapacit Greater target Less Coverag load) than than y e Limited Limited Compare cell loading with the maximum permissible system load ? Equal to Cell range known Company Confidential 5 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.

Link Budget Overview Soft handover gain.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . M antenna gain s arg Noise figure in Cable losses PA TH (L LOS ) S Body loss Building Penetration loss Max Allowed Path Loss Company Confidential (L) 6 © 2005 Nokia = Tx Signal + All Gains – Other Losses – Rx Sensitivity V1-Filename.

3km/h Eb/No UL 4 4 2 1. • Eb/No depends on: • Service • MS speed • Radio channel Service Voice 12.5 4.2 kbit/s. • Eb is the received energy per bit from the wanted user. Nokia simulations for Eb/No are based on ITU recommendations. 3km/h RT 64kbit/s. 3km/h RT 14kbit/s.5 6. excluding the power of the wanted signal.5 Company Confidential 7 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.Eb/N0 • In order to meet the defined quality requirements (BLER) a certain average bitenergy divided by total noise+interference spectral density (Eb/N0) is needed.2 1 Eb/No DL 6. 3km/h NRT 144kbit/s. from both interference and thermal noise.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . 3km/h NRT 384kbit/s. • Io is the total received power density.5 5.8 4.

ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .Required Eb/N0 Eb prx W = ⋅ [ dB ] N0 I R IUL = I own + I oth + PN I DL = I own (1 − α ) + I oth + PN Where: Prx = received power R = bit rate W = bandwidth Iown = total power received from the serving cell (excluding own signal) Ioth = total power received from other cells PN = noise power α = orthogonality factor Company Confidential 8 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.

ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .Required Ec/I0 • Required Ec/I0 is the required RF C/I needed in order to meet the baseband Eb/N0 criteria • Ec/I0 independs on a bit rate Energy per chip Ec Eb R prx [ dB ] = ⋅ = I0 N0 W I Total power spectral density Company Confidential 9 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.

Processing Gain G p [ dB ] = Required Signal Power 10 © 2005 Nokia BU u BBaerer = W = SF R because of the processing gain the spread signal can be below the thermal noise level Eb/No= + 4 dB Eb/No= + 2 dB Eb/No= + 1 dB -9 dB .ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .2 kbps +25 dB Processing Gain Noise level (ex.21 dB Voice 12. -105 dBm) NRT 384 kbps RT 64 kbps +10 dB +18 dB Company Confidential V1-Filename.16 dB .

25 25% Company Confidential 11 © 2005 Nokia 50% 75% 99% Load factor η V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . This parameter shows in DL how much the BTS "sensitivity" is decreased due to the network load (subscribers in the network) & in UL indicates the loss in link budget due to load IMrgin [dB] a 20 IMrgin a = 10 ⋅ Log 10 (1 − η ) − [ dB ] 10 6 3 1.Interference Margin Interference margin is calculated from the UL/DL loading (η ) values.

ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .no more gain (compared to case of two branches) Company Confidential 12 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.Soft Handover MDC Gain • In DL there is some combining gain (about 1dB) due to MS maximal ratio combining • soft and softer handovers included • from MS point there is no difference between soft and softer handover • average is calculated over all the connections taking into account the average difference of the received signal branches (and MS speed) • 40% of the connections in soft handover or in softer handover and 60% no soft handover • taking into account the effect multiple transmitters (meaning the receiver MS will get 3dB more power) • adding 3dB to the values in the graph • combination of dynamic simulator results and static planning tool • in case more than 2 connections .

Slow and Fast Fading • Fast Fading Different signal paths interfere and affect the received signal • Rice Fading – the dominant (usualy LOS) path exist • Rayleigt Fading – no dominant path exist Company Confidential 13 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .

The variation of the signal strength are normal distibuted on the logarithmical scale. probability density σ m received signal level [dBm]  ( x − m) 2  1  f ( x) = ⋅ exp −  2σ 2  2π ⋅ σ   σ [dB] has to be measured Company Confidential 14 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . Some location and time dependant variation in a signal strength appear when the mobile moves around (shadowing effect).Slow and Fast Fading • Slow Fading (Log-normal Fading) In the real enviroment the propagation condition of the electromagnetic wave are not stable.

1 11.(average Headroom 8. Tab.8 3. This parameter is needed because at the cell edge the mobile does not have enough power to follow the fast fading dips. Wacker.9 0.0 6.7 6.9 6. 5Hz 20Hz 40Hz 100Hz 240Hz average requierd Ec/Io [dB] Power Control without fast PC with fast PC .3 Source: Radio Network Planning & Optimisation for UMTS. A.2 13.5 9. Novosad.5 4.Power Control Headroom (Fast Fading Margin) Power control headroom is the parameter to describe the margin against fast fading. T.7 7.2 5.7 1. J.5 Company Confidential 15 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename. 4.0 6.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . antenna diversity assumed max Doppler fr. Laiho. This is especially important for the slow moving mobiles Power Control Headroom = (average required Ec/I0) withoutfastPC required Ec/I0) withfastPC Channel: Pedestrian A.9 5.

ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . in which the best BTS can always be chosen (based on minimal transmission power of MS) against a hard handover algorithm based on geometrical distance. • For indoors users the recommendation is to use smaller SHO gain value.Soft Handover Gain (Gain Against Slow Fading) • Soft handover gain is the gain against shadow fading. or indoors where the radio channel tends to be dominated by a much smaller number of serving cells. This is roughly the gain of a handover algorithm. where the likelihood of multiple servers is high. • In reality the SHO gain is a function of required coverage probability and the standard deviation of the signal for the environment. Company Confidential 16 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename. • The gain is also dependent on whether the user is outdoors.

Uplink Budget Added system Loading noise converted to Loading in rise cell noise the due to other users Bit rate converted to dB Tx antenna+ Service gain.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . gain in the Power from the boresight Attenuation Cable and Tx antenna direction losses through connector Source building walls Rx between the thermal noise antenna and the cabinet Bit rate Total TX power TX antenna gain Company Confidential 17 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename. UE power Isotropic obstruction. Rate 2dBi Bit e. Attenuation for a dipole Effectivebody due to Rx antenna Max.g.

Path loss = Tx signal + all gains .ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials TX antenna gain .losses .( SNR + Noise) Bit rate Total TX power Company Confidential 18 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.

00 0.91 -107.91 • The calculation is done for each service (bit rate) separately • The link budget must be balanced dBm dB dB dBi dBm dB dB 21.00 0.78 -12.73 147.00 8.98 -105.00 0.00 0.14 2.00 153.91 -105.78 17.00 64.18 UE Node B 24.14 -100.00 0.00 5.01 8.91 Company Confidential 19 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.98 3.98 -173.00 18.78 3.28 -117.00 21.00 85% NRT 64kbit/s.00 0 18 40.24 -15.00 50% DL data rate DL load 64.00 -132.00 2.00 0.00 153.00 2.UL & DL Link Budget Calculations Link budget Chip rate UL Data rate UL Load 2 3840.00 3.00 -170.98 -165.00 1.18 2.73 2.00 0.50 0.00 17.91 6. 3km /h RECEIVING END Thermal Noise Density Receiver Noise Figure Receiver Noise Density Noise Power [NoW] Reguired Eb/No Soft handover MDC gain Processing gain Interference margin (NR) Required Ec/Io [q] Required Signal Power [S] Cable loss Body loss Antenna gain RX Soft handover gain Power control headroom Istropic power TRANSMITTING END Power per connection Cable loss Body loss Antenna gain TX Peak EIRP Isotropic path loss DL peak to average ratio Isotropic path loss to the cell border dBm/Hz dB dBm/Hz dBm dB dB dB dB dB dBm dB dB dBi dB dB dBm Uplink Downlink Node B UE -173.00 0.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .

ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .WCDMA Nominal Planning Company Confidential 20 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.

Create Nominal Plan • Position a hexagonal grid of sites over the desired coverage area. • The radius of each hexagon can be determined from the link budget. Example nominal plan for Jersey Company Confidential 21 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . • The capacity of the network can then be analyzed to detect: • Hot spots that require cell splits. • Under used cells that could be removed from the plan.

Define Search Areas • The sites in a nominal plan are only imaginary. Company Confidential 22 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename. physical sites are required.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . • A survey of each nominal site is normally carried out to identify possible site options which meet the above criteria. good access and a co-operative owner. • Be aesthetically and politically acceptable to the local community. • To become a real network. • A suitable physical site must be found for each nominal site. • A suitable physical site must amongst other things: • Give adequate radio coverage. • Have connectivity into the transmission network. • Have power nearby.

• The guideline is given in the form of a search area. Could be: • Radius from the nominal site.Define Search Areas • Guidelines have to be given to the surveyor so the options give appropriate radio coverage. Or Company Confidential 23 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . • One or more polygons following height contours.

• Equipment capacity requirements 300º 300º Ant 6 Ant 5 Ant 2 Ant 4 180º Ant 3 180º 60º Ant 1 60º • Can’t be completed in isolation.Detailed Site Design • Prior to commencement of construction work. • Includes • Antenna and feeder requirements. Company Confidential 24 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename. Must take into account other sites.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . • Antenna azimuths and tilts. a detailed site design is required.

ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .Setting up NetAct for Nominal Planning Create a UMTS propagation model Import suitable antenna patterns Create UMTS cell layer Create UMTS site templates Company Confidential 25 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.

Create a UMTS Propagation Model
• In a real network rollout one of the first tasks of the radio engineers would be to calibrate a UMTS propagation model. • For the purposes of the following sections we will assume that this has been completed. • Set up a propagation model with the parameters described here.
Parameter Model Type Frequency Mobile Rx Height Effective Earth Radius K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 Eff. Ant. Height Diffraction Merge knife edges Setting Standard Macrocell 2200 1.5 8491 143 42 -2.55 0 -13.82 -6.55 0.8 Relative Bullington 0 Clutter Type Unclassified Urban Suburban Residential Village Isolated Dwellings Open Rural Woodland Forest Park Recreational Industry Water Airport Open in urban Agricultural land Pylons Sea Rivers Offset 0 10 5 3 2 1 7 2 5 0 1 5 1 1 0 0

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Import Antenna Pattern
• Import the antenna patterns supplied by the manufacturers.

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Create Coverage Schema & Cell Layer
• The only parameters that are necessary to set on the cell layer are the signal thresholds and the coverage schema. • These are derived from the link budgets used in the network dimensioning.

Company Confidential
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240º or 60º. 180º.Create Site Templates • Create default nominal sites • either an omni site. Company Confidential 29 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename. 300º.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . Will depend on area type eg Urban/Suburban/Rural Typically either 0º. • and/or a sector site. 120º. Level Site Cell Cell Cell Cell Cell UMTS cell layer #1 #2 Tab General General Cell Config Cell Config Cell Config Cell Config Antenna/TRX Field Hex Radius Model Antenna Downtilt Height Azimuth PA output Setting #1 UMTS 85 XP 4 20 #2 33 • 3 sector parameters listed here.

Company Confidential 30 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename. • Create a UMTS site template • For each environment.Creating a Nominal Plan • From the link budgets.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . position a hexagonal grid of sites with the appropriate cell radii over the target coverage area. identify the cell radius for each environment to be planned.

ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .Locating Urban Nominal Sites • Define mid hexagon radius as 1100m and select in the site template. • Position a grid of sufficient sites to cover the urban areas. Company Confidential 31 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.

• Position a grid of sufficient sites to cover the rural areas. Company Confidential 32 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.Locating Rural Nominal Sites • Select Hexagon Radius in the site template to be 4400m.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .

• Check that the coverage is in line with your expectations.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . • Check for excessively high sites.Evaluate Nominal Network Coverage • Run a coverage array for the nominal network. • Adjust site locations and add additional sites if improvements to coverage is necessary. Company Confidential 33 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.

Company Confidential 34 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename. • Create a terminal type for each service. • Spread traffic for each terminal type to simulate users. • Evaluate if each cell has sufficient capacity.Evaluate Nominal Network Capacity • Create a traffic raster for each service. Create Traffic Raster Capture Traffic Evaluate Each Cells Required Capacity Re-Engineer Network (if required) • Analyze how much traffic each cell will pick up (capture).ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .

• Allocate traffic to simulate users.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . • Voice = 200 Erlangs • 384 kb/s = 100 Erlangs (simulating 100 terminals) Clutter Type Urban Open in urban Suburban Residential Industry Village Airport Park Recreational Woodland Forest Agricultural land Isolated Dwellings Open Rural Pylons Rivers Sea Unclassified Water Weight 500 30 20 10 10 5 5 2 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 Company Confidential 35 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.Create Terminal Types • Create a circuit switched terminal type for each service.

ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . Company Confidential 36 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.Spread Voice Traffic • Spread the traffic on the voice terminal type over the island.

Create Coverage Array (Voice) • Set the minimum service level in the Array Settings window to match the minimum threshold for speech services. • i.e. Company Confidential 37 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename. -114dBm • Create coverage array as usual.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .

43671 S ite3C: 12.31571 S ite5C: 3.13637 S ite6A : 1.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .062 S ite3A : 11.06883 S ite4B : 1.8475 S ite3B : 2.099755 S ite1C: 1.989 S ite0C: 2. Cell: CS Traffic (E ) S ite0A : 1.13376 S ite2B : 1.1231 S ite4A : 2.Analyze Voice Traffic • Use the traffic analysis tool to estimate the voice traffic per cell.87409 S ite5A : 1.1042 S ite1B : 0.76368 S ite4C: 1.81907 S ite6B : 3.71587 S ite2A : 2.58884 S ite5B : 3.5485 Company Confidential 38 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.64128 S ite1A : 18.58312 S ite2C: 105.27874 S ite0B : 18.

ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . Company Confidential 39 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.Spread Data Traffic • Spread the traffic on the data terminal type over the island.

Company Confidential 40 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.Create Coverage Array (Data) • Set the minimum service level in the Array Settings window to match the minimum threshold for data services. • i.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . -96dBm • Create coverage array as usual.e.

Site Selection Criteria Company Confidential 41 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .

Site Selection Criteria • Proper site location determines usefulness of its cells • Sites are expensive • Sites are long-term investments • Site acquisition is a slow process • Hundreds/thousands of sites needed per network Base station sites are valuable long-term assets for the operator Company Confidential 42 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .

• Radio • Transmission • Access • Power • Planning • Ideally every site option reported by the surveyor would pass in each of the areas listed above.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . Company Confidential 43 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.How do I asses a site option? • Each site needs to be assessed on several grounds.

• A boomer will cause localised interference and prevent capacity being added to some other sites in the area.Low sites which provide very little coverage. there were two types of bad sites.High sites which propagate much further than is needed. • Boomers .ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . Small “Donkey” site Large “Boomer” site Company Confidential 44 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename. • Donkeys carry so little traffic that they often never pay for themselves. • Donkeys .Bad GSM Sites • In GSM.

• Other parameters can be used in an attempt to control booming sites but it is far better to avoid building them in the first place. • A “Boomer” will reduce the range and capacity of surrounding sites. • Antenna height. They are: • Site location. a “Donkey” or a “Boomer”.Bad UMTS Sites • Good radio engineering practice doesn’t change much for UMTS. • In UMTS • A “Donkey” will never pay for itself.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . • It just becomes more important. • Two major factors determine whether a site is considered good. Company Confidential 45 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.

WCDMA RF planning is all about having good dominance in the desired coverage area.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . Uplink Load Equation Uplink Load Equation ηUL = (1+ pw_ rise i )⋅ ∑ ⋅ 1 W k=1 1+  Eb  ⋅ R ⋅ v  N k k o k  K Downlink Load Equation Downlink Load Equation (Eb / No)k ηDL = ∑ ⋅ [ (1− α k ) + i ] ⋅ vk k=1 ( W / R)k K Company Confidential 46 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename. the "little i" . • From the Radio Network Planning point of view. I. capacity of the network is directly linked to how interference is maintained/controlled.is the only thing that can really be influenced by the Planner during the site selection and planning stage.Importance of Controlling 'Little i' • WCDMA is an interference-limited network. that there is no frequency plan to "play" with in order to minimise the effects of bad sites.e.other-to-own cell interference. • Unlike in GSM.

8 Orthogonality Channel profile MS speed MS/BTS NF Antenna gain 0.2.4 0.5 165 160 Other to own cell 0.5 5. 3 km/h 3 km/h 8 dB / 4 dB 16 dBi 155 150 145 140 0 500 1000 1500 DL throughput in kbps • RESULT: Doubling of the "little i" will cause throughput to decrease to 70% of the original value • Planners have to select the sites diligently so that the other-to-own cell interference ratio is MINIMIZED by planning clear dominance areas during site selection / planning phase. Company Confidential 47 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.4.6 0.2 0.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . 0.6 ITU Vehicular A.6 0.8 0. interference ratio i 0.2 0.4 0.Importance of Controlling 'Little i' BTS TX power MS TX power Ec/Io BTS Eb/No MS Eb/No 43 dBm 170 128 kbps Maximum propagation loss (dB) i i i i i i i i = = = = = = = = 0.5 dB 1.8 21 dBm -16.6. 0.

ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . • Soft handover helps to reduce interference. (Soft HO Gain) • Too much overlap: • Increases interference to other cells --> reduce capacity • Increases Soft Handover overhead --> reduce capacity Company Confidential 48 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.i = Coverage Overlap • Some overlap is required to allow soft handover to occur • Need to control amount of interference since the network capacity is directly related to it.

Bad Site Location • Avoid hill-top locations for BS sites (same for GSM) • uncontrolled interference • interleaved coverage • no sharp dominance areas • awkward Soft/Hard HO behaviours • BUT: good location for microwave links ! (TNP jurisdiction) wanted cell boundary uncontrolled. strong foreign signal Company Confidential 49 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . strong interferences interleaved coverage areas: weak own signal.

ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .Good Site Location • Prefer sites off the hill-tops • use hills/high rise buildings to separate cells • contiguous coverage area • well defined dominance areas • needs only low antenna heights if sites are slightly elevated above valley bottom wanted cell boundary Company Confidential 50 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.

This site will give good macro coverage.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . Bad site.Characteristics of a good site It has good clearance. and it overlooks the surrounding rooftops. no obstacles around. blocked by neighbour building Company Confidential 51 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.

ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . too high a site is a bad site since it will introduce too much interferenc to other sites in the network (remember the little i) while for a rural area it's a good s Company Confidential 52 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.Characteristics of a good site Uplink Load Equation Uplink Load Equation ηUL = (1+ pw_ rise i )⋅ ∑ ⋅ 1 W k=1 1+  Eb  ⋅ R ⋅ v  N k k o k  K Downlink Load Equation Downlink Load Equation ηDL = ∑ K k=1 (Eb / No)k ⋅ [ (1− α k ) + i ] ⋅ vk ( / R)k W BAD: In a urban/dense urban area.

. These situations can easily be avoided!! Time consuming and costly to fix. between CDMA (IS-95) antennas and pointing directly at the high building V1-Filename.Examples of Bad Sites Company Confidential 53 © 2005 Nokia Typical mess! => GSM1800 antennas with space div.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials GSM1800 and GSM900 antennas are too close => Not enough isolation => Intermodulation and spurious emission.

Little i !!! rghhh… note how far you can see Well shit happens … who could have oughly 10km = TOO FAR. Little i. so interference is enormous. Site that they were going to build this istance is about 700meters in this high building one year after hase!! Site was good in phase 1 installation ?! when distance between sites was 4km! Planners should Company Confidential have anticipated this during initial site surveys! 54 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . There is a river known s well.Examples of Bad Sites Little i.

But TX/RX and Rx div antennas are not pointing could not be tested because th satellite system was not in use! he same direction! Installation problem. Avoid installing antennas in close proximity other objects since its radiation pattern will Company Confidential be altered. 55 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.Examples of Bad Sites Is this installation OK? The satellite dish is in near field of the GSM900 antennas -> some effects for sure.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . Definite interference to sate system.

.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .Examples of GOOD Sites ough space between the two Tx/Rx and Rx Div. AND pointing in the same dire e survey point of view: Provides clear dominance to the desired coverage area Company Confidential 56 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.

Eg Dense Urban. • The closer the site is to the traffic. • The site should be located as close to the traffic source as possible. Rural.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .Summary of Site Selection Guidelines • The objective is to select a site location which covers the desired area but keeps emissions to a minimum. • The antenna height selected will depend largely on the type of environment in which the site is to be located. • The key factor to be considered is how well can the emissions be controlled. This will minimise the noise affecting other users on both the serving cell as well as other nearby cells. Urban. the less output power will be required by the user equipment and node B. Suburban. Company Confidential 57 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.

even creative! Try to think of all the possible implementation solutions that the site could support: different pole heights. to be sure your chosen candidate is "fitting" well into the surrounding. split poles for different sectors.Summary of Site Selection Guidelines • You can "feel" the site only if you are there! • If one or more of these characteristics are not fulfilled by the examined site. e. SHO zones. • Always check neighbouring sites. for coverage. etc. Company Confidential 58 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . the Field Planner should REJECT the site and choose another site • Be flexible.g.etc.

• Despite causing problems in high capacity networks. • Most cellular networks contain these nightmare sites. • In the early days of analogue cellular sites were often located to give maximum coverage. many of these high sites are still in operation today. • Many GSM networks were built around existing analogue sites.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . • When rolling out UMTS around an existing network it is vital to avoid these sites.Using Existing Cellular Sites • Most UMTS networks will be built around an existing GSM network. Company Confidential 59 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename. No thought was given to capacity issues.

Company Confidential 60 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename. • Some require similar amounts of equipment to a GSM BTS.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . • Some solutions eliminate the need for RF plumbing. • Some increase the number of antennas on a site.UMTS Configurations • Most vendors support the same basic configurations. • The configuration can be affected by the wide variety of UMTS antennas. • Omni • 3 sector • 6 sector • Each vendor supports their own variations on these configurations.

• In many cases equipment performance will exceed the requirements in the specifications.Co-locating a Node B at a GSM site • Isolation requirements between UMTS and GSM systems can be derived from UMTS and GSM specifications.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . Company Confidential 61 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename. • Isolation is the attenuation from the output port of a transmitter to the input port of the receiver. • The isolation requirements will affect • Choice of antenna configuration • Filtering at both the GSM and UMTS sites. • Each vendor should be able to provide information which can be used to improve the isolation requirements.

unwanted emissions from modulation process and non-linearity of transmitter • Spurious Emissions .Interference Issues • Wideband Noise .Spurious emission. antennas.Harmonic.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . transceivers and receivers Company Confidential 62 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.cannot be filtered out by BTS • Other EMC problems .feeders. Parasitic. Inter-modulation products • Blocking .can be filtered out by BTS • Passive: non-linearities of passive components .Transmitter carriers from another system • Inter-modulation Products . specifications consider this in particular • Active: non-linearities of active components .

ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . Called intermodulation distortion (IMD). • Most harmful are 3rd order (|m| + |n| = 3) products. • In the case of one input frequency. mω 1 • Fundamental (m = 1) frequency is the desired one. • Intermodulation is the process of generating an output signal containing frequency components not present in the input signal. vin = cos ω 1t.Interference Issues • Nonlinear system transfer function can be expressed as a series expansion x System y = a0 + a1x + a2x2 + a3x3 + . • Can be generated both inside an offender or a victim system. • In the case of two input frequencies. Company Confidential 63 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename. vin = cos ω 1t + cos ω 2t . output will consist of harmonics. • If m > 1. • Can be generated both inside an offender or a victim system. output will consist of harmonics mω 1 + nω 2. where n and m are positive or negative integers. there are higher order harmonics in output => harmonic distortion...

ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .Interference from Other System • GSM spurious emissions and intermodulation results of GSM 1800 interfere WCDMA receiver sensitivity • WCDMA spurious emissions interfere GSM receiver sensitivity • GSM transmitter blocks WCDMA receiver • WCDMA transmitter blocks GSM receiver GSM 1800 UL 1710-1785 Company Confidential MHz 64 © 2005 Nokia GSM 1800 DL 1805-1880 MHz 40 MHz UMTS UL 1920-1980 MHz UMTS DL 2110-2170 MHz V1-Filename.

f1 3 f1 f2 X dBc fIM 3 • For active elements IM products levels are higher than IM products produced by passive components • Typical IM3 suppression values for power amplifiers are -30 … -50 dBc depending on frequency spacing and offset • Typical values for passive elements are -100 … -160 dBc GSM1800 UL Company Confidential 65 © 2005 Nokia GSM1800 DL WCDMA UL WCDMA DL 1710 .6 MHz (3rd order fIM = 2f2 .1785 MHz 1805 .8 MHz • 1805.2170 MHz V1-Filename.M Distortion from GSM1800 DL to WCDMA UL • GSM1800 IM3 intermodulation) products hits into the WCDMA FDD UL RX band if: • 1862.1980 MHz 2110 .ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .1880 MHz MHz 40 1920 .2 ≤ f1 ≤ 1839.6 ≤ f2 ≤ 1879.

960 MHz GSM900 935 .960 MHz Company Confidential 66 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.Harmonic distortion • Harmonic distortion can be a problem in the case of co-siting of GSM900 and WCDMA.960 MHz and second harmonics may fall into the WCDMA TDD band and into the lower end of the FDD band. WCDMA WCDMA FDD TDD 1920 .. . • GSM900 DL frequencies are 935 ..ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials 2nd harmonics can be filtered out at the output of GSM900 BTS.1980 1900 -1920 MHz f . 2nd harmonics fGSM = 950 .

Isolation Requirements GSM 900 GSM 1800 UMTS 1920 – 1980 MHz 2110 – 2170 MHz Receiving band 890 – 915 MHz 1710 – 1785 MHz (UL) Transmitting band 935 – 960 MHz 1805 – 1880 MHz (DL) For example .ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .To prevent UMTS BTS blocking: with transmit power = 43 dBm Max level of interfering signal for blocking = -15 dBm in UMTS Isolation required = 58 dBm 1805 MHz 1710 MHz 1785 MHz 1880 MHz 1920 MHz 2110 MHz 1980 MHz 2170 MHz GSM 1800 Rx GSM 1800 Tx UMTS Rx UMTS Rx Company Confidential 67 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.

ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . • By antenna selection and positioning. UMTS GSM • By filtering out the interfering signal. Filter UMTS GSM • By using diplexers and triplexers with shared feeder and multiband antennas. UMTS Diplexer Company Confidential 68 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.Achieving Isolation Requirements GSM • Isolation can be provided in a variety of different ways.

3 .2 m Company Confidential 69 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.Antenna Installations • Difficult to calculate isolation between two antennas and measurements are required. d d 90º d 120º d 180º d d d = 0. • Best configurations .Co-siting .antennas pointing in different directions or where there is vertical separation between antennas • The following configurations will should all give 30dB isolation.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .5 m d=1-3m d = 0.5 .0.

ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials . • PMR • Broadcast • Navigation UMTS antennas Minimum separation • Some of these systems use older equipment which might be more vulnerable to EMC issues.Site sharing with third party systems • Some UMTS sites might be colocated with other non GSM operators. • Need to define minimum antenna separations between systems • Better to avoid sites used for safety critical applications. Other systems Company Confidential 70 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.

d < 10 m • h ≥ d/3. d > 30 m Antenna d (meters) Top view Company Confidential 71 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .Antenna installation issues: Clearance angle h (m te ) e rs C a n ea g le ra c n le d (m te ) e rs Side view • Rules of thumb: • h ≥ d/2. 10 < d < 20 m • h ≥ d/4.

ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .Antenna installation • Safety margin of 15° between the reflecting surface and the 3 dB lobe d h to be > as 3.2 m Company Confidential 72 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.

Antenna installation: Other RF-systems DOCUMENTTYPE TypeUnitOrDepartmentHere TypeYourNameHere 1 (1) Not Acceptable TypeDateHere Be careful with back-lobe! Acceptable Company Confidential 73 © 2005 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / yyyy-mm-dd / Initials .

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