# State Feedback Control

There are some interest to change the position of open loop poles i.e improve performance, stability etc. This can be done by introducing feedback gain K to the state equation y

x ! Ax  Bu

y ! Cx  Du
y

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§

x

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Feedback Gain  Introduce feedback gain K u !  Kx  r x ! Ax  Bu y ! Cx  Du    By substitution x ! Ax  B (r  Kx ) ! ( A  BK ) x  Br ! ACL x  Br y .

Feedback Gain  The output equation is given as y ! Cx  D (r  Kx ) y ! (C  DK ) x  Dr  Now the poles of the system can be determined from the characteristic equation PI  A  BK ! 0  Example: Stabilise the system and place the poles at -5 and -6 «1» «1 1» x!¬ ¼ x  ¬0 ¼ u ­ ½ ­1 2½ y .

pole placement example  Locate the poles/eigenvalues det( sI  A) ! PI  A ! P 1 1 1 P2 ! (P  1)(P  2)  1 ! 0 P 2  3P  2  1 ! 0 P 2  3P  1 ! 0  system unstable. Introduce state feedback gain K u !  Kx ! ?k1 k 2 Ax .

Pole placement example  ACL ! A  BK ACL ACL «1 1» «1» !¬ ¼  ¬0¼?k1 k 2 A ­1 2½ ­ ½ «1  k1 1  k 2 » !¬ 1 2 ¼ ­ ½ PI  ACL ! P  1  k1 1  1  k2 P 2 ! (P  1  k1 )(P  2)  (1  k 2 ) ! 0 P2  2P  P  2  k1P  2k1  ( 1  k 2 ) ! 0 P2  (k1  3)P  (1  2k1  k 2 ) ! 0 .

system must be controllable .pole placement example  By choosing and we can put eig( ACL) anywhere in the complex plane  let poles located at -5 and -6. Desired close loop equation ( s  5)( s  6) ! s  11s  30 2 k1  3 ! 11 k1 ! 14 1  2k1  k 2 ! 30 1  28  k 2 ! 30 k 2 ! 57  Hence the feedback gain is K !? 14 57A  Can all poles be shifted using feedback gain? No  What is the condition.

Uncontrollable example  Example «1 1 » «1» x!¬ ¼ x  ¬0¼u ­0 2½ ­ ½ y u !  Kx ACL ! A  BK ACL ACL «1 1 » «1» !¬ ¼  ¬0¼?k1 ­0 2 ½ ­ ½ «1  k1 1  k 2 » !¬ 0 2 ¼ ­ ½ k2 A .

Uncontrollable example PI  ACL P  (1  k1 )  (1  k 2 ) ( ! ?P  (1  k1 )A P  2) ! 0 ! 0 P 2 P2  2P  (1  k1 )(P  2) ! 0 P2  2P  P  2  k1P  2k1 ) ! 0 P2  3P  k1P  2  2k1 ! 0 P2  (3  k1 )P  2(1  k1 ) ! 0  Factoring to give the poles ( s  1  k1 )(s  2)  Feedback state cannot move the pole at s=2 .

... P 2 . P n close loop eigenvalues of matrix (A-BK) of matrix A to the desired . time-invariant) y x(t ) ! Ax (t )  Bu (t )  we can apply a linear feedback control law u (t ) !  Kx (t ) to form a feedback loop y x(t ) ! ( A  BK ) x(t )  the pole placement/eigenvalue assignment can be used to change the open loop eigenvalues P1 .Preview on Pole Placement via State Feedback  Given a system (linear...

. Pn iff the state vector of the open loop system is controllable i.. P2 ....... A n 1 B ? A ..e rank S = n where S ! B AB A 2 B .  a n 1 s  a n  Condition of state feedback ± Theorem There exists a state feedback matrix K which assigns to the matrix Ö Ö Ö A-BK of the closed-loop system any arbitrary eigenvalues P1 .Preview on Pole Placement via State Feedback  The characteristic equation of A p ( s) ! sI  A ! s n  a1 s n1  .  a n 1 s  a n  will be transformed into characteristic equation of (A-BK) Ö Ö Ö Ö p( s ) ! sI  A  BK ! s n  a1 s n 1  .......

..... a n 1 » a n2 ¼ ¼ / ¼ ¼ 1 ½ n « a1 » ¬a ¼ a ! ¬ 2¼ ¬ /¼ ¬ ¼ ­a n ½ p( s ) ! sI  A ! s  a1 s  .. W !¬ ¬/ / / ¬ ­0 0 .Base-Gura method  Two more methods of calculating K are presented  Method 1: The Base-Gura Formula K!W S T ? T 1 where Ö A (a  a ) Ö « a1 » ¬a ¼ Ö ¬ 2¼ Ö a! ¬ /¼ ¬ ¼ Ö ­a n ½ n 1 «1 a1 .  a n 1 s  a n .....  a n 1 s  a n Ö Ö Ö Ö p( s) ! sI  A  BK ! s n  a1 s n 1  . ¬0 1 .

A n 1 B A  Example: Redo example above using Base-Gura «1» «1 1» x!¬ ¼ x  ¬0 ¼ u ­ ½ ­1 2½ y p ( s ) ! s 2  3s  1 ! 0 Ö p ( s ) ! s 2  11s  30 « 1 0» W !¬  3 1¼ ½ ­ T «1  3» W !¬ 0 1¼ ­ ½ «1 1» S!¬ 0 1¼ ½ ­ «1 0» S !¬ 1 1¼ ½ ­ T .Base-Gura example  Controllability matrix S! B ? AB A2 B .

Base-Gura example  « 1 0» «1 0» « 1 0» W S !¬ ¼ ¬1 1¼ ! ¬ 2 1¼ ½ ­  3 1½ ­ ½ ­ T T 1 « 1 0 » «1 0 » (W S ) ! ¬ ¼ ! ¬2 1¼ 1 ­2 1½ ­ ½ Ö « a1 » « a1 » «11  ( 3) » «14 » Ö ! aa! ¬ ¼¬ ¼ ! ¬ Ö 2 ½ ­a 2 ½ ­ 30  (1) ¼ ¬29¼ ½ ­ ½ ­a T T 1 K!W S ? T T 1 A «1 0» «14 » Ö (a  a ) ! ¬ 2 1¼ ¬29¼ ­ ½­ ½ in column vector « 14 » «14 » !¬ ¼ ! ¬57 ¼ ­28  29½ ­ ½ .

The last part came from the desired characteristic equation characteristic equation Ö Ö Ö Ö p ( s) ! s n  a1 s n 1  .  a n 1 A  a n I .. 1A A n 1 B A e T ! ?0 0 ......Ackermann¶s Formula  Method 2: The Ackermann¶s Formula Ö K T ! e T S 1 p ( A)  where S is controllability matrix and S! B ? AB ..  a n 1 s  a n Ö Ö Ö Ö p ( A) ! A n  a1 A n 1  ..

Example  Example: Redo example using Ackermann¶s Formula «1 1 » «1 » x (t ) ! ¬ ¼ x (t )  ¬ 0 ¼ u (t ) ­1 2½ ­ ½ y we like the poles to be at -5 and -6 Soln: S ! ?B T ABA «1 1» !¬ 0 1¼ ­ ½ S 1 «1  1» !¬ 0 1¼ ­ ½ e ! ?0 1A e S T 1 «1  1» ! ?0 1A¬ ¼ ! ?0 1A ­0 1 ½ .

Solution to ackerman Ö p ( s) ! s 2  11s  30 Ö p ( A) ! A 2  11A  30 I «1 1» «1 1» «1 0» !¬ ¼  11¬1 2¼  30 ¬0 1¼ ­1 2½ ­ ½ ­ ½ «1 1» «1 1 » «11 11 » «30 0 » !¬ ¼ ¬1 2¼  ¬11 22¼  ¬ 0 30¼ ­1 2½ ­ ½ ­ ½ ­ ½ «1  1 1  2» !¬ 1  2 1  4¼ ­ ½ «2 3» «11 11 » «30 0 » «43 14 » !¬ ¼  ¬11 22¼  ¬ 0 30¼ ! ¬14 57¼ ­ 3 5½ ­ ½ ­ ½ ­ ½ 2 .

m  For the multivariable pole placement case: Please refer to 1) Kailath. Linear Systems. Prentice Hall (Chapter 6 and 7) . Linear System Theory.  Matlab has command acker.Solution to Ackerman «43 14 » K ! ?0 1A¬ 14 57A ¼!? ­14 57 ½ T  This method is numerically unstable when implemented on computers. Prentice Hall (Chapter 13&14) 2) Rugh. T. (1996). W. J. (1980).

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