Water

POLLUTION
Presented by: by: Figueras, Figueras, Marybeth Lira, Lira, Marie Justine P. Lontoc, Lontoc, Heidrison A.



Water pollution is a major problem in the global context. It has been suggested that it is the leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases, and that it accounts for the deaths of more than 14,000 people daily. Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds. 

Water Pollution Two major classifications Point sources Nonpoint sources .

Point and Nonpoint Sources NONPOINT SOURCES Rural homes Urban streets Cropland Animal feedlot Suburban development POINT SOURCES Factory Wastewater treatment plant .

Point Sources   Single large source Can localize it to one spot  Industrial Plants .Sewage pipes .

Point Source .Example .

 Non-point Non- Sources Diffuse source or many smaller point sources  Automobiles  Fertilizer on fields .

etc. Radioactive substances OxygenOxygen-demanding wastes Plant Nutrients Sediments Thermal Discharges . Synthetic Organic Compounds Inorganic Compounds & Mineral Substances such as Acids.Water Pollution: Many Forms         Disease: In developing nations. 80% of diseases are waterwater-related.

Examples of Polluted Waters .

Stories about particular pollutant forms: Oil   Both Point and Nonpoint Sources Largest source of oil pollution is pipeline leaks and runoff 61% ocean oil pollution river & urban runoff  30% intentional discharges from tankers  5% accidental spills from tankers  .

Phosphates are often thought to culprit. nitrogen is the ´limiting factorµ in most aquatic systems. factorµ . causing offensive algae blooms and driving out sport fish.Stories about particular pollutant forms: Detergents The nitrates in fertilizers promote excessive growth of algae and larger aquatic plants.

during urban construction can lose up to 43 tons of topsoil/acre/year Natural rates of erosion: leads to aquatic succession .Stories about particular pollutant forms: Sediments    THE largest form of water pollution Erosion is source ² we·ve sped up rate of erosion.g. e.

S. is affected by this  Up to a point of adding heated water. you can get thermal enrichment  Adding more heat.Stories about particular pollutant forms: thermal pollution 26% of all water in U. you get thermal pollution  .

Solutions: Preventing and Reducing Surface Water Pollution Nonpoint Sources Reduce runoff Buffer zone vegetation Point Sources Clean Water Act Water Quality Act Reduce soil erosion .

Pollution of Lakes Eutrophication .

Groundwater Pollution: Causes  Low flow rates  Few bacteria  Low oxygen  Cold temperatures Hazardous waste injection well Pesticides Coal strip mine runoff De-icing road salt Pumping well Waste lagoon Gasoline station Water pumping well Landfill Buried gasoline and solvent tank Cesspool septic tank Sewer Leakage from faulty casing Discharge Confined aquifer Groundwater flow Accidental spills .

Groundwater Pollution Prevention  Monitor aquifers  Find less hazardous substitutes  Leak detection systems  Strictly regulating hazardous waste disposal  Store hazardous materials above ground .

Ocean Pollution .

tankers. loss of animal insulation and buoyancy.Oil Spills  Sources: offshore wells. smothering  Significant economic impacts  Mechanical cleanup methods: skimmers and blotters  Chemical cleanup methods: coagulants and dispersing agents . pipelines and storage tanks  Effects: death of organisms.

and oil shipping Regulate coastal development Recycle used oil Require double hulls for oil tankers Improve oil-spill cleanup capabilities Sprinkle nanoparticles over an oil or sewage spill to dissolve the oil or sewage without creating harmful byproducts (still under development) Require at least secondary treatment of coastal sewage Use wetlands. solar-aquatic. or other methods to treat sewage .Solutions Coastal Water Pollution Prevention Cleanup Reduce input of toxic pollutants Separate sewage and storm lines Ban dumping of wastes and sewage by maritime and cruise ships in coastal waters Ban ocean dumping of sludge and hazardous dredged material Protect sensitive areas from development. oil drilling.

Sewage Treatment Physical and biological treatment .

Technological Approach: Using Wetlands to Treat Sewage .

Solutions Water Pollution ‡Prevent groundwater contamination ‡Greatly reduce nonpoint runoff ‡Reuse treated wastewater for irrigation ‡Find substitutes for toxic pollutants ‡Work with nature to treat sewage ‡Practice four R's of resource use (refuse. reduce. recycle. reuse) ‡Reduce resource waste ‡Reduce air pollution ‡Reduce poverty ‡Reduce birth rates .

. or other products containing harmful chemicals down the drain or onto the ground. oil. solvents. Merely refill and reuse plastic bottles with tap water. ‡ Do not use water fresheners in toilets. ‡ Grow or buy organic foods. paints.What Can You Do? Water Pollution ‡ Fertilize garden and yard plants with manure or compost instead of commercial inorganic fertilizer. ‡ Do not flush unwanted medicines down the toilet. antifreeze. ‡ Compost your food wastes. ‡ Minimize your use of pesticides. ‡ Do not drink bottled water unless tests show that your tap water is contaminated. ‡ Do not apply fertilizer or pesticides near a body of water. ‡ Do not pour pesticides.

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